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Many of us get to a stage in our careers as SEO professionals where we feel a little bit stagnant.

We’ve been optimizing sites for a while and feel pretty confident that we can do it well.. but there’s that nagging thought there’s more we could be doing.

That there is another layer of expertise that would make us more efficient, employable, and confident.

In this article, you’ll find 10 skills that can level up your SEO competency.

These aren’t necessarily essential skills for all SEO experts (you’ll find those here).

1. Intent Analysis

Intent analysis is the decoding of a user’s intention behind the keyword they enter into a search engine.

When someone types [pizza restaurant] into a search engine, what is the end result they are hoping for?

Do they want to know what pizza restaurants are nearby?

Are they in the market to open a pizza restaurant?

Are they looking for a job in a pizza restaurant?

Developing your understanding of the psychology behind what searchers want is a critical skill for those wishing to go further in their SEO competency.

This will help you both satisfy a user’s need when they land on a page and also increase your page’s likelihood of being ranked in their search.

It can’t just stop there, however.

You must also understand what the search engines perceive users to want from the content they are searching for.

This is followed by the Map Pack and then a mix of review and editorial sites and restaurants’ websites.

If I am trying to rank a website all about the history of pizza restaurants in my country, I might struggle.

Google has identified the user intent as being either navigation – wanting to go to a local restaurant – or comparative, as in wanting to compare options in the local area.

Resources To Learn More 2. Coding

There is no question that understanding HTML, CSS, and JavaScript can help you to ensure your websites are set up in a bot-friendly manner.

Although SEO experts do not need to be fully-fledged developers, having an understanding of code can help you to identify issues with rendering, indexation, and crawlability.

There are times when knowing the basics of how code is created, or being able to read code that already exists, can help your SEO.

It can aid your communication with the developers who may need to change it.

It can assist you in pinpointing incremental improvements to your site’s performance.

Learning to code is not a prerequisite for SEO, but it is arguable that knowing the fundamentals of these three commonly used languages is going to set you up well for your career.

Understanding the syntax of code, how it is formed, and being able to see how elements relate to each other can also help you get better at writing and debugging schema.

Learning Python and SQL can also help you to streamline your SEO processes by enabling you to automate labor-intensive activities such as mapping URL redirects and keyword research.

Resources To Learn More

Websites like CodeAcademy and w3schools offer courses.

You can also read up on Javascript fundamentals, Python, HTML, and machine learning for inspiration and tips.

3. Understanding Server Management

No SEO professional should really be the one responsible for ensuring that a server can handle a load of visitors to a site.

However, understanding the basics of how servers can impact the crawlability, load speed and reliability of a website can propel your technical SEO understanding forwards.

The use of CDNs instead of static servers can aid in speeding up content loading, but without understanding the limitations of fixed location servers it will be difficult for you to argue the need for a CDN.

A better understanding of how web hosting can affect a user’s experience of your site and also Google’s ability to access it is necessary for strong technical SEO foundations.

You need to understand how aspects like uptime and location can impact your site’s performance in the search engines.

This is only the beginning of how knowledge of servers can aid your SEO efforts.

Better knowledge of server codes beyond the standard 404 and 301 can help you to communicate to those in charge of your servers where there are critical issues.

Know what a 502 error is?

Encountered a 504 status code before?

If not, this might be a quick and easy area for you to brush up your knowledge.

A 5XX status usually means there is something wrong with the server that is preventing the processing of a request from the client.

From here, you can identify whether it is an issue with the client or the server and find a fix accordingly.

Resources To Learn More 4. Content Writing

You may not be a great wordsmith yourself.

However, in order for you to better brief in copywriting for your colleagues who are, you need to understand what goes into a good piece of writing.

It isn’t enough to know that copy needs to be compelling and have sufficient relevancy to search terms used to discover it.

Get familiar with the process your copywriters go through in researching, writing, and editing their work.

This will help you to better ideate your own requests for copy.

Editing

Editing is another good skill to develop when working with content.

In many organizations, it is the job of the SEO specialist to take content created by others and optimize it further for the search engines.

In practice, this sadly can often result in well-written copy being butchered.

Adding keywords into the first couple of paragraphs to make them more keyword-rich might help you a bit with your rankings, but it could destroy your conversion and brand loyalty.

Learn how to take well-written copy and enhance it, not ruin it.

You may also benefit from having a conversation or two with your SEO copywriters and asking them for details of their process.

Better understanding how they go about copywriting could improve your abilities.

It could also streamline your processes when working together.

Resources To Learn More

5. Reporting

Being able to expertly communicate your progress, results, and reasoning behind your SEO work is crucial to being successful in the industry.

As an SEO expert, you are always juggling the needs and expectations of stakeholders, whether you’re working in-house, agency-side or freelance.

You will find gaining buy-in and budgets considerably easier if you know how to demonstrate the impact of the work you do.

Reporting isn’t just a case of adding labels to a graph or even noting down the cause of increases and decreases.

Truly good SEO reports allow readers to understand the context of the results, draw conclusions and make business decisions from them.

SEO professionals need to get really good at helping stakeholders understand the priorities and limitations of the work they recommend (as well as mistakes to avoid when reporting).

They also need to help their interested parties recognize how the work will benefit them via data visualizations and their objectives in the long run.

All of this can be achieved through well-constructed, clear, and truthful reports.

Resources To Learn More

6. SEO Forecasting

Similar to the need to be good at explaining past results, experienced SEOs need to develop the ability to calculate likely outcomes.

SEO forecasting is a complicated science.

There are a lot of external factors that are hard to isolate and predict.

A change in competition, the market, or political situations could all cause well-thought-out estimations to go awry.

We should not be putting pressure on ourselves to accurately predict the exact volume of traffic, or visibility, our work might gain.

However, being able to put reasonable estimates and likely ranges into our recommendations can make the budget-holders a lot more reassured by the work we are proposing.

It isn’t enough to shrug our shoulders and cross our fingers when asked about outcomes.

We’re often requesting a lot of time, money and resources go into the activity were recommending.

SEO forecasting is a skill that will not only set you apart when looking for new roles or opportunities, it will also significantly improve the quality and reliability of your work.

Resources To Learn More

7. Log File Analysis

Log file analysis is the process of understanding the records of who or what has accessed your website.

They can tell you when people have visited a page as well as what device they were using to do so.

They can also tell you when bots access your website.

This is particularly helpful in understanding Googlebot and other search engine crawlers’ behavior on your site.

By analyzing log files you can better understand what pages search engine bots can or can’t access.

You can identify where there may be spider traps on your site or the frequency at which certain sections of your site are being crawled.

Log files can appear daunting if you have not spent much time around them.

Thankfully there are some great tools available that make analyzing them a lot simpler than just wading through the naked log files.

Understanding what to do with the information once you have it is the real skill. If you know that a certain area of your site is rarely crawled by Google that should inform your technical SEO next steps.

It should raise questions about your internal linking structure.

Getting familiar with log files is a great first step but to improve your skills make sure you are analyzing the files and drawing actionable conclusions from them.

Resources To Learn More 8. Website Migrations

Getting good at planning and executing website migrations is not easy. It really does take experience.

Many SEO professionals who have worked exclusively brand-side may find they simply have not had the opportunity to carry out that many website migrations.

If you face a particularly complicated one, such as multiple websites merging, it can be very daunting.

Chances are if you have spent any length of time in an SEO agency, you will have migrated a website or two.

It may have been a smooth process but more likely there were unforeseen complications that made the processing time and resource consuming.

There are not really just one or two skills involved in website migrations.

They are usually a complicated mix of stakeholder management, communication, planning, processes-driving, technical understanding, and knowing when to say no.

But the skills you develop during website migrations will help you enormously with the rest of your SEO career.

Participate in one if you get the chance.

It can give you a great (albeit high-pressured) opportunity to see multiple moving SEO parts in play at once.

Resources to learn more: 9. Optimizing For Other Search Engines

We can often fall into the trap of thinking only about the traditional search engines when discussing SEO skills.

If we limit our training and experience to just these then we could be missing out on a much larger opportunity.

Traditional International Websites

Many search engines work on similar principles, but with their own specific nuances.

Traditional search engines more prevalent outside of your home region may be unfamiliar to you.

There are some great resources available to get you started in understanding the differences between them and the search engines you’re more familiar with optimizing for.

Nothing beats practice, however.

If you want to refine your knowledge and understanding of unfamiliar search engines then you need to try to rank a site in them and see what works and what doesn’t.

YouTube

For search engines like YouTube, the mechanics may be more familiar to you.

You will, however, still need to learn more about the algorithms in play to ensure you are carrying out the right activity to optimize your video content for the platform.

Other Non-traditional Search Engines

Take a look at some other search engines, like Pinterest and TripAdvisor.

These sites may not fit into your current remit as an SEO expert.

They are however still search engines that you can influence the success of your content in.

Resources to learn more: 10. International SEO

One of the most complicated projects an SEO might be involved in usually includes international elements.

It’s a complicated task because there are a lot of factors at play.

To optimize your website for international audiences you will need to employ technical SEO, digital PR, and on-page optimization skills.

There will be a range of questions you’ll need to ask yourself when you are considering expanding a website to international audiences.

These will include questions around the structure of the site – separate sites, sub-folders, or sub-directories?

Do you want to translate or localize the content? Do you want to target geography at the site or page level?

There are a lot of strategies and technical knowledge required to get international SEO right.

You may also need specific language skills or local knowledge resources.

Google has helpfully created an introduction to managing a multi-region website. It is a good place to start to identify the sorts of questions you should be asking.

You can also use it as a jumping-off point for further training or research.

This can help deepen your knowledge of the subject and sharpen your skills.

Resources to learn more: Conclusion

These are just a few of the skills you can develop to become a more pragmatic SEO professional.

Even if you don’t want to learn all of them, it helps to have an understanding of what they all are.

Even more so, how they can help round out your skill-set as an SEO expert.

More resources:

Featured Image: Alexander Supertramp/Shutterstock

You're reading 10 Advanced Seo Skills To Level Up Your Career

Top 10 Skills To Learn To Make Money Online

Jobs in Digital Marketing: A Look at the Field’s Future Outlook 

Every person has an internet presence, and if you have one, we are sure no one will be able to stop you from pursuing your career in this lucrative digital sector. Whether you’re a technical or creative individual, there’s likely to be something that interests you in this area of digital marketing.

Regarding jobs in digital marketing, the future outlook is incredibly positive. This field is expected to grow by nearly 10% in the next decade.

Top 10 Skills to Learn to Make Money Online

Here’s a look at some of the most popular skills to learn to make money online and what they entail:

Skill 1

: Social Media Marketing

The 1st skill you must learn is Social media marketing skill which will help you make money online in lesser time. Read more to learn more about this skill.

What is Social Media Marketing? Social Media Marketing Scope The Role of a Social Media Marketing Specialist?

It’s simple to do, provided you conduct research and study your company’s rivals.

If you want to work in a field that you love, congratulations! You may make a good living by engaging more with the discipline of digital marketing.

When it comes to social media marketing, there are several objectives that a business can have:

To raise brand awareness

To increase sales

To drive traffic to the website

To build customer loyalty

And more!

What Skills Are Required for Social Media Marketing? 

 A deep understanding of each social media platform and its distinct features

Excellent communication skills

Creativity

The ability to think beyond the norm

Organizational skills

Time management skills

Analytical skills

So, what does a day in the life of a social media manager look like? 

A social media manager’s day-to-day duties include:

Adding fresh content stuff to social media platforms

Monitoring the performance of ongoing social media campaigns

Researching recent trends in social media marketing

Generating reports on campaign results

Planning and executing new social media campaigns

Collaboration with other marketing teammates

Attending industry events and conferences 

As you can see, a social media manager’s day is pretty busy! If you’re up for the challenge, then a career in social media marketing might be for you.

Skill 2

: Search Engine Optimization What is Search Engine Optimization?

Search engine optimization (SEO) is optimizing a website for Google search to earn higher web traffic levels and improve the site’s visibility.

The main aim of SEO is to improve the ranking of a website on Google’s SERPs (search engine results pages). The better a website ranks, the more probable it is that visitors will visit it.

On-page SEO and off-page SEO are the two major types of SEO.

On-page SEO refers to all of the steps made directly within the website to boost its ranking in search results. This includes optimizing the website’s title, meta tags, and content for relevant keywords.

On the other hand, off-page SEO refers to all the measures that can be taken outside of the website to improve its position in the search rankings. This includes building links from other websites back to your own.

Search Engine Optimization is the core foundation of digital marketing. It’s a combination of marketing techniques. You must conduct research and consider several contributing factors to achieve the best possible ranking in search results.

According to Hubspot, Google receives around 63,000 search queries every second, or 5.7 billion searches daily. AND You may use SEO to ensure that when your target audience searches for your brand name, goods, services, or anything associated with your website, they find it on top of search engine results pages.

Businesses are increasingly focusing on search engine optimization in the hopes of obtaining more and more visitors to their websites, which can help them develop audience confidence and conversion rates in the long term.

What is the Scope of Search Engine Optimization in India? 

The scope of SEO is very wide. It covers all the activities required to organically bring a website on top of SERPs. The main aim of SEO is to improve the ranking of a website on Google’s SERPs (search engine results pages). However, there are many other search engines like Yahoo, Bing, etc., but still, Google holds the major portion of the search engine market.

According to a report by Statcounter, Google has a 92.42% market share in the global desktop search engine market. And this number will only increase in the future as more and more people are using Google for their searches. So we can say that SEO has a very bright future in India.

SEO is a continual effort, not a one-time event. It would be best if you kept working on it to maintain your rankings. And with the ever-changing algorithms of Google, it has become even more important to keep up with the latest trends and techniques.

Some of the Popular Trends in SEO are:

Mobile-first Indexing: Mobile-first indexing is a process in which Google indexes the mobile version of a website before the desktop version. This is because more and more people are using their mobile phones for searches.

Voice Search: Voice search is a search in which users speak their queries instead of typing them. This is a very convenient way of searching and is increasing in popularity.

Rich Results: Rich results are results that include more than just plain text. They can include images, videos, etc.

AMP (Accelerated Mobile Pages): AMP is a project by Google which aims to improve the loading speed of web pages on mobile devices.

Thus, we can say that the scope of SEO is very wide, and it has a very bright future in India. If you want to make a career in SEO, you should start learning about it and keeping up with the latest trends.

The Role of a Search Engine Optimization Specialist? 

A Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Specialist is responsible for improving the visibility and ranking of a website on search engines. They optimize the website’s content, structure, and code. Additionally, they may also build links from other websites to yours.

The role of an SEO specialist can be divided into the following parts:

On-page Optimization: This involves optimizing the website’s content and structure to make it more search engine friendly.

Off-page Optimization: This involves building links from other websites to yours. This aids in improving your site’s search engine rating.

The Website’s Loading Speed: An SEO specialist should also focus on the website’s loading speed. This is because both users and search engines favour a fast-loading website.

Mobile Friendliness: Another important factor that an SEO specialist should focus on is the website’s mobile friendliness. This is because more and more people are using their mobile phones for searches.

Keyword Research: Keyword research is an important part of SEO. It entails determining the best keywords to target. This can help you to get more traffic from search engines.

Number and Quality of Inbound Links: The number and quality of inbound links is also important ranking factor. So, an SEO specialist should focus on building high-quality inbound links.

Level of User Engagement: An SEO specialist should also focus on the level of user engagement. This includes things like bounce rate, time on site, etc.

And More: Many other factors contribute to a website’s ranking on search engines. And an SEO specialist should keep up with the latest trends and developments in the field of SEO. 

Thus, we can see that the role of an SEO specialist is very important. If you want to make a career in SEO, you should start learning about it and keeping up with the latest trends.

What Skills are Required for Search Engine Optimization? 

The following skills are required for Search Engine Optimization:

Technical Skills: They are required to optimize a website’s code and structure. Additionally, they are also needed to build links from other websites.

Creative Skills: They are required to create compelling content that can attract visitors to your website.

Analytical Skills: They are required to track the results of your SEO campaigns and make necessary changes.

Communication Skills: They are required to explain the benefits of SEO to clients.

Organizational Skills: They are required to manage multiple projects simultaneously.

If you want to make a career in SEO, you should start learning about it and keeping up with the latest trends. Thus, we can see that the role of an SEO specialist is very important. To make a career in SEO, you should start learning about it.

So, what does a day in the life of a Search Engine Optimization specialist/manager look like? 

An SEO specialist’s day usually starts with checking the results of their previous campaigns. They then do keyword research and create content for their clients’ websites. They may build links from other websites in the afternoon or work on their code. And in the evening, they may track the results of their campaigns and report to their clients.

Thus, we can see that the role of an SEO specialist is very important. If you want to make a career in SEO, you should start learning about it and keeping up with the latest trends.

As you can see, a career in SEO can be very rewarding. If you have the required skills and knowledge, you should consider making a career in SEO.

Skill 3

: Content Marketing What is Content Marketing?

We all understand this truth: content is the king of all kings! If you don’t pay attention to the material you’re putting on your website, it might be detrimental to its ranking.

What is the Scope of Content Marketing in India? 

The scope of content marketing in India is very vast. As the internet is growing rapidly in the country, the demand for quality content is also increasing.

Content marketing can be used to promote any business, whether it is a small-scale business or a large-scale business. If you have a website or blog, you can use content marketing to drive traffic to your site and improve its ranking in search engines.

You can also use content marketing to build relationships with your customers and create a bond of trust between you and them. They will likely do business with you if you provide helpful and informative content.

The Role of a Content Marketing Specialist? 

The role of a content marketing specialist is to create, edit, and publish content that is helpful and interesting to the audience. They should also be able to monitor the results of their work and make changes if necessary.

Content marketing specialists should have excellent writing skills and be able to come up with creative and innovative ideas. They should also be familiar with the latest trends in the market and be able to use various tools to improve the quality of their work.

What Skills are Required for Content Marketing? 

Some of the skills that are required for content marketing include:

Excellent Writing Skills

Good Research Skills

Creative Thinking

Familiarity with the Latest Trends

Ability to use Various Tools to Improve Quality

So, what does a day in the life of a Content Marketing specialist/manager Look Like? 

The content marketing specialist’s day begins with planning the content for the day. They should also check the analytics of the previous day’s work and see what worked well and what didn’t. After that, they will start writing the content. Once the content is ready, they will publish it on their website or blog. They will also promote the content on social media.

They will check the analytics again and see how the content performed. They will also make changes to the content if necessary.

Skill 4

: Search Engine Marketing  What is Search Engine Marketing?

In intense competition, search engine marketing is one of the most successful methods to expand your organisation. It involves optimizing your website for search engines to drive more traffic to your site.

PPC is a type of SEM that allows you to pay for placement on the search results page of a search engine. This means that your ad will show up when someone searches for keywords related to your business.

What is the Scope of Search Engine Marketing? 

The scope of search engine marketing is constantly evolving as the algorithms that power search engines continue to change. However, some core concepts remain fairly constant.

PPC is a type of SEM that allows you to pay for placement on the search results page of a search engine.

SEM is an effective way to grow your business online. By combining SEO, PPC, and social media marketing, you can reach a wide audience and get more traffic to your site.

The Role of a Search Engine Marketing specialist?  What Skills are Required for Search Engine Marketing? 

Additionally, it is important to have strong analytical skills to track your campaign’s performance and make necessary adjustments.

So, what does a day in the life of a Search Engine Marketing specialist/manager look like? 

A typical day in the life of a search engine marketing specialist or manager may involve:

Meeting clients to discuss their SEM goals.

Researching keywords.

Setting up PPC campaigns.

Monitoring campaign performance.

Make adjustments as needed.

Skill 5

: Affiliate Marketing What is Affiliate Marketing?

Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a company compensates one or more affiliates for every visitor or client brought in as a result of the affiliate’s marketing initiatives.

Affiliate marketing is a popular way to earn money online, and it can be very effective if done correctly. However, there are also some potential risks that you should be aware of before getting started.

Affiliate marketing is one of the most popular methods for making passive online income and is constantly growing. You can utilize affiliate marketing to get people to buy items based on your knowledge if you’re a subject matter expert.

What is the Scope of Affiliate Marketing? 

The scope of affiliate marketing is very large, as there are many ways to promote products and drive traffic. For example, some affiliates may specialize in email marketing, while others prefer to focus on social media.

What are the Benefits of Affiliate Marketing?

There are many benefits of affiliate marketing, but the most popular ones include:

It’s a superb approach to earning passive income.

It’s a convenient method to work from home.

You can be your boss.

What are the Different Types of Affiliate Marketing? 

Affiliate marketing is classified into four types:

Cost per sale (CPS)

Cost per action (CPA)

Cost per lead (CPL)

What are the Risks of Affiliate Marketing? 

There are also some potential risks that you should be aware of before getting started with affiliate marketing. These include:

You must be able to direct visitors to your website.

It may take some time to accumulate a substantial income.

The chances of making profits can be low.

You can be competing with other affiliates who are promoting the same products.

The Role of an Affiliate Marketing Specialist? 

To be successful in affiliate marketing, you should know a few things. This can be done through SEO, social media, or other means.

If you can do this successfully, you can start earning a commission on every sale. As your income grows, you may even be able to quit your day job and work full-time as an affiliate marketer.

What Skills are Required for Affiliate Marketing? 

There are a few skills that are required for affiliate marketing, but the most important ones are:

You have the chance to drive more traffic to your website with Affiliate marketing.

The ability to write compelling content

The ability to choose products that will convert well

If you have these skills, you’ll be well on your way to success in affiliate marketing.

So, what does a day in the life of an Affiliate Marketing specialist/manager look like? 

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the day-to-day tasks of an affiliate marketing specialist can vary greatly depending on the size of the team and the products they’re promoting.

However, some common tasks that an affiliate marketing specialist might do include:

Writing blog posts or articles to promote their products

Sending email newsletters to their list of subscribers

You should first set up your social media account, followed by managing the same.

Analytics and Reporting

As you can see, a lot goes into being an affiliate marketing specialist. However, if you’re passionate about marketing and have the drive to succeed, it can be a very rewarding career.

Skill 6

: Email Marketing What is Email Marketing?

The most scalable, tried-and-tested marketing channel used by contemporary organizations is email marketing. Today, organizations that know the power of email marketing can differentiate themselves from the competition with modest yet effective actions.

Email marketing is sending promotional messages to a group of customers or potential customers through email. In detail, every email sent to a current or a potential customer can be considered email marketing. However, the term is usually used to refer to more specific types of email campaigns, such as newsletters, special offers, and announcements.

Email marketing is an incredibly powerful tool, but it’s often underestimated. Many small businesses don’t use email marketing because they believe it to be complicated or time-consuming. However, email marketing can be easy and effective with the right tools and know-how.

There are several benefits to using email marketing, including:

You have the benefit of reaching out to a larger audience with minimal effort

The ability to segment your audience and send highly targeted messages

The ability to track the success of your campaigns and make changes accordingly

You also get the benefit of automating your marketing campaigns

What is the Scope of Email Marketing? 

Email marketing is not just about sending emails. It’s about building relationships with your customers and potential customers. Email marketing can build trust and loyalty, increase brand awareness, and generate sales.

When done correctly, email marketing can be an incredibly effective way to connect with your audience and achieve your business goals. However, it’s vital to understand the basics even before you get started.

Here are a few things you should keep in mind when planning your email marketing strategy:

1. Define your Goals

Before sending emails, you must know what you want to achieve with your email marketing campaign. Are you looking to increase brand awareness? Drive traffic to your website? Boost sales?

Defining your goals will help you create a focused and effective campaign.

2. Segment your Audience

One of the great things about email marketing is that you can segment your audience and send highly targeted messages. For example, if you’re a clothing retailer, you could segment your audience by gender, age, or location.

This allows you to send relevant messages to your audience and make it more likely to be successful.

3. Create Compelling Content

Your email marketing campaign will only be successful if you create compelling content that resonates with your audience. Your content should be well-written and offer value to your readers.

Think about what you would want to read if you were on the receiving end of your email. Would it be something you would find interesting or useful? If not, your readers are unlikely to be interested.

4. Use an Email Marketing Platform

Several different email marketing platforms are available, each with features and pricing plans. Choosing a platform that offers the elements you need to create a successful campaign is important.

Some things to look for in an email marketing platform include:

A drag-and-drop email builder

The ability to segment your audience

Autoresponders

Analytics and Reporting

5. Test

Before launching your email marketing campaign, it’s important to test everything to ensure it’s working properly. Send test emails to a few people to ensure the content looks good and the links are working.

It’s also a good idea to set up a separate email account for your email marketing campaign. This will help you keep track of your campaign and see how it’s performing.

Following these tips can create a successful email marketing campaign to help you reach your goals.

The Role of an Email Marketing Specialist? 

You’ll be in charge of developing, monitoring, and optimizing email marketing campaigns, focusing on design and layouts, mobile-friendliness, protecting email databases for future campaigns, email follow-up, gathering data and analyzing campaign results, and more.

This email marketing tutorial video goes in-depth into every aspect and the required tools in a simple, no-fluff manner, regardless of your level in digital marketing – beginner to expert.

What Skills are Required for Email Marketing? 

Some essential skills for an Email Marketing Specialist are:

An analytical mind to understand customer behaviour and design email campaigns that target their needs.

Creativity is coming up with new and innovative ideas that will capture the attention of the reader.

Good writing skills to create compelling and persuasive copy that will encourage customers to take action.

Project management skills to plan and execute email marketing campaigns from start to finish.

Graphic design skills to create eye-catching emails that will engage the reader.

HTML skills to code emails and ensure they are displayed correctly on all devices.

An understanding of email marketing best practices to avoid spam filters and ensure deliverability.

Analytical skills to track the performance of email campaigns and optimize for better results.

So, what does a day in the life of an Email Marketing specialist/manager look like? 

The day-to-day tasks of an email marketing specialist can vary depending on the company they work for and the specific campaign they are working on. However, some general tasks are common in this role.

These include:

Creating email marketing campaigns, including design, layout, and copywriting;

Segmenting email lists to target specific groups of customers;

Setting up email automation sequences;

Testing email campaigns before they are sent out;

Monitoring the performance of email campaigns and making changes where necessary;

Preparing reports on the results of email campaigns.

Email marketing specialists typically work in an office environment. However, some companies may allow for remote work.

Skill 7

: Graphic Designing What is Graphic Designing?

Editorial design is focused on creating content for publications such as magazines, newspapers, and books. This type of design often has to adhere to specific editorial guidelines and must be able to effectively communicate the message of the article or book it is accompanying.

Branding design is focused on creating a visual identity for a company or product. This includes everything from logo design to developing an overall brand strategy. A strong brand identity can help to build recognition and trust with consumers.

If you’re interested in pursuing a career in graphic design, you should know a few things. 

First, it is important to have a strong portfolio that showcases your skills and abilities. Secondly, you need to be proficient in using industry-standard software programs such as Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. And lastly, it is helpful to have a good understanding of typography, colour theory, and layout principles.

What is the Scope of Graphic Designing? 

If you’re considering a career in graphic design, there has never been a better time to get started. With the right skills and a strong portfolio, you can find success in this exciting and ever-evolving industry.

The Role of a Graphic Designing Specialist? 

A graphic designer is a creative professional who uses art and technology to communicate messages. Graphic designers use various tools to create visual solutions for customer needs, including colour, typography, imagery, and software programs.

The Skills of a Graphic Designer 

Some essential skills that all graphic designers should have include:

Creativity: Graphic designers must be able to come up with new and innovative ideas that capture the attention of the viewer.

Artistic Ability: A good graphic designer must have the ability to translate their ideas into visually appealing designs.

Technical Skills: To create high-quality designs, graphic designers must be proficient in using industry-standard software programs.

Communication: Graphic designers must effectively communicate their ideas to clients and team members.

Problem Solving: Graphic designers must be able to identify and solve problems to create successful designs.

Time Management: Good time management skills are essential for meeting deadlines and keeping projects on track.

Graphic designers must have a strong portfolio that showcases their skills and abilities. Employers will often request to see a designer’s portfolio before considering them for a job.

To succeed in this competitive industry, staying up-to-date on the latest trends and developments is also important. Graphic designers must be able to adapt their skills and knowledge to the industry’s ever-changing needs.

So, what does a day in the life of a Graphic Designing specialist/manager look like? 

A typical day in the life of a graphic designer may include:

Meeting with your potential clients to discuss project requirements.

Plan to Create new prototypes and concepts.

Developing detailed design briefs.

Reviewing final procedures and providing feedback.

Preparing artwork for print or digital publication.

Managing workflows and timelines.

Attending industry events and keeping up-to-date with the latest trends.

Graphic designers typically work Monday to Friday, although some may need to work evenings and weekends to meet deadlines. Although many designers work full-time, some may choose to freelance or work part-time.

Skill 8

: Web Designing What is Web Designing? 

Web design is the process of creating websites. It encompasses several aspects, including web graphic design, interface design, authoring, user experience design, and search engine optimization.

While web design has traditionally been considered a technical field, it increasingly includes strategic planning, content management, and other important skills. Make sure to keep your user in mind even before you start building your website.  It should be easy to navigate, informative, and visually appealing.

What is the Scope of Web Designing? 

This is a fast-growing sector with many opportunities. With the increasing popularity of the internet, businesses are looking for ways to reach their customers online. They need websites that are well-designed and user-friendly.

What are the Skills Required for Web Designing? 

Web designers must have a strong understanding of HTML, CSS, and other web technologies. They should also be familiar with user experience design and SEO. In addition, designers should have a good eye for detail and be able to work within a team.

The Role of a Web Designing specialist? 

The responsibility of Web designers is to create and design websites. They work with clients to understand their needs and build a website that meets their requirements. In addition, designers also ensure that the website is user-friendly and easy to navigate.

What are Some of the Challenges Faced by Web Designing Specialists? 

Designers often have to meet tight deadlines, so they must be able to manage their time effectively. In addition, they may deal with difficult clients who have specific demands. Another challenge is keeping up with the latest web technologies and trends.

So, what does a day in the life of a Web Designing specialist/manager look like? 

Most designers work in an office environment, although some may work remotely. They typically work on various projects at once, so they must be able to juggle multiple tasks. During the day, they may meet with clients, brainstorm ideas, and work on designs. In the evening, they may continue working on projects or attend meetings.

Skill 9

: Video Editing What is Video Editing?  

Video editing is manipulating and rearranging video footage to create a new work. This can be done for various reasons, such as adding special effects or transitions, removing unwanted footage, or changing the events’ order. Video editing is a complex and time-consuming task requiring creative and technical skills.

What is the Scope of Video Editing? 

Video editing is a vast field with many different sub-disciplines. Editors may specialize in a particular type of video, such as feature films, documentaries, news broadcasts, or commercials. They may also specialize in a specific area of the editing process, such as picture editing, sound editing, or special effects.

What are the Skills Required for Video Editing? 

To be a successful video editor, you must have creative and technical skills. Creatively, you should be able to tell a story with your edits and create a visually appealing work. You will also need to be able to understand the technical aspects of video editing, such as file formats, codecs, and resolution. To learn more about the skills required for video editing, check out our blog post on the subject.

What are the Different Types of Video Editing?

There are many different types of video editing, each with its challenges and rewards. Some of the most common types of video editing include:

Feature Films: Feature films are the longest and most complex type of video to edit. They can take months or even years to complete and require a very high skill level.

Documentaries: Documentaries are similar to feature films in that they can be very long and complex. However, they often have less of a focus on narrative and more on factual information.

News Broadcasts: News broadcasts are shorter than feature films or documentaries but require a high skill level. News editors must be able to quickly and accurately assemble a story from often chaotic footage.

Commercials: Commercials are the shortest type of video, typically only lasting a few seconds. However, they can be very complex, requiring special effects and quick cuts.

What are the Different Stages of Video Editing?

Video editing is typically divided into four different stages:

Pre-production: This is the stage where you plan your project. You will decide what type of video you want to make, gather your footage, and choose your team.

Production: This is the stage where you shoot your video.

Post-production: This is the stage where you edit your video. You will assemble your footage, add special effects, and create a final product.

Distribution: This is where you send your video into the world. You will upload it to the internet, put it on television, or send it out on DVD.

The Role of a Video Editing Specialist? 

A video editing specialist is responsible for manipulating and rearranging video footage to create a new work. This can be done for various reasons, such as adding special effects or transitions, removing unwanted footage, or changing the events’ order. Video editing is a complex and time-consuming task requiring creative and technical skills.

So, what does a day in the life of a Video Editing specialist/manager look like? 

A typical day for a video editing specialist/manager may involve:

Organizing and reviewing footage

Assembling footage into a logical order

Adding special effects or transitions

Removing unwanted footage

Creating a final product

This is a general overview of what a video editing specialist/manager does daily. Of course, the specific tasks will vary depending on the project.

Skill 10

: Mobile App Development What is Mobile App Development? 

Mobile app development is creating software applications that run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone, tablet or watch. Mobile apps are designed to provide users with specific functionality that can make their lives easier or help them stay connected while on the go.

The mobile app development process typically begins with an idea or concept for an app that meets a specific need or solves a particular problem. Once the idea is fleshed out, a team of developers will work to create the app, testing it along the way to ensure that it meets all the requirements.

The result is a fully functioning mobile app ready to be released worldwide.

Mobile app development can be complex and time-consuming, but the result is often worth the effort. If you have an idea for an app that you think could help make people’s lives easier, don’t hesitate to explore the potential of mobile app development. A  dedicated team will help you achieve your business goal.

What is the Scope of Mobile App Development? 

The scope of mobile app development has expanded significantly in recent years as the demand for new and innovative apps has continued to grow. As a result, there are now more opportunities for talented developers to create unique and useful apps that can make a real difference in people’s lives.

What are the Skills Required for Mobile App Development? 

There are a few key skills that are required for mobile app development, including:

Strong Programming Skills: Mobile app developers need to be able to write code that is clean, efficient, and easy to understand.

Familiarity with Popular Coding Languages: Android apps are typically written in Java, while iOS apps are written in Objective-C or Swift. Mobile app developers must be familiar with these and other popular coding languages.

Experience with Mobile App Development Platforms: A variety of media can be used for mobile app development, such as Xamarin, React Native and Cordova. Experienced developers will understand how these platforms work and how to use them to create high-quality apps.

Design Skills: In addition to being able to write code, mobile app developers need to have good design skills. This includes being able to create user interfaces that are both attractive and easy to use.

Testing and Debugging Skills: Before an app can be released to the public, it needs to be thoroughly tested to ensure that there are no bugs or errors. Mobile app developers need to have good testing and debugging skills to identify and fix any problems with an app before it is released.

What are Some of the Challenges of Mobile App Development? 

There are a few challenges that can be associated with mobile app development, such as:

Time Constraints: Developing a high-quality mobile app can take significant time, and ensuring you have enough time to do it right is important.

Cost: Creating a well-designed and functional mobile app can also be costly, so you’ll need to ensure that you have the budget.

Keeping up with Trends: The mobile app development landscape is constantly changing, and it’s important to stay current on the latest trends and best practices. This way, you can ensure that your app is as up-to-date and innovative as possible.

What are the Benefits of Mobile App Development? 

Many benefits can be associated with mobile app development, such as:

Increased Reach: A well-designed and functional mobile app can help you reach a wider audience than you would be able to with a traditional website.

Improved Engagement: Mobile apps can provide a more engaging and interactive user experience than a traditional website.

Increased Sales: A mobile app can help boost your sales by making it easier for people to purchase your products or services.

Improved Brand Recognition: A successful mobile app can help to improve your brand recognition and awareness.

The Role of a Mobile App Development Specialist? 

A mobile app development specialist is responsible for creating, testing, and deploying mobile apps. They work closely with clients to understand their needs and requirements and then use their skills and knowledge to create an app that meets those needs. Mobile app development specialists must have strong technical skills and good design to develop high-quality apps.

So, what does a day in the life of a Mobile App Development specialist/manager look like? 

A typical day in the life of a mobile app development specialist/manager may involve:

Meeting with clients to discuss their needs and requirements

researching and planning the development process

Writing code and developing the app

Testing the app to ensure that it is functioning properly

Deploying the app to the Google Play or App Store

Providing support and maintenance for the app after it has been released.

Also Read: How to Make Money Online in 2023 [Easy & Reliable Ways]

Conclusion

Digital marketing in India is growing at an accelerated pace. Several factors are responsible for this, including the growth of e-commerce, social media, and mobile penetration. Indian businesses have started to understand the potential of digital marketing and are now investing heavily in it.

Learning the above-listed skills will help you understand how digital marketing works and give you an edge over others in this field.

Finally, to round things out and make them complete, there’s the cherry on top:

The Digital Marketing Certificate program at Digital Scholar allows students with no prior technical or creative skills to pursue a career in digital marketing. And, as a bonus, it will enable you to work for a lucrative salary while gaining experience and earning money. There are several free online courses accessible. You must register and demonstrate your competence in a subject relevant to the industry.

If you’re still unsure where to apply and which course would suit you, you may visit our website chúng tôi We can assist with any digital marketing tasks and software-related procedures to complete in a month and start your creative career.

How To “Green Up” Your Devices

Greening Your PC

1. Turn off your speakers when you’re not using them. One day I noticed that everything I put on my subwoofer got warm. This indicates that even while I don’t listen to music, there is electrical resistance going on in the hardware (hence the heat). If you’ve got a 5W set of cheap speakers, you might not make much of a difference, but if you have a 200W surround sound system with five satellite speakers, you’d end up saving enough money to buy yourself a new set every year by turning them off when you’re not listening to anything. There are exceptions where your system might automatically switch off until it is needed, but you’ll have to read your instruction manual for that, and there’s no chance you will have this feature if you use analog sound output.

2. Let’s state the obvious: Switch your PC and monitors off when you’re not using them. Set up both so that they go to sleep after a certain amount of idle time.

3. Game less. Gaming causes your graphics card’s GPU to fire up and suck more juice from your power supply. This may require as much as 400 watts of extra power, especially if you’re bridging multiple cards together. Instead of gaming, do something more productive!

5. Pay attention to your hardware purchases, particularly those of the CPU and graphics card. Without sacrificing too much in terms of performance, watch for CPUs and GPUs that consume less electricity. In their spec sheets, there should be a category there for idle and maximum power consumption. Base your decision on both, then throw performance into the equation and compare what you must.

6. Need to browse the web for the latest scoop on some celebrity? Whip out the tablet or your smartphone. Those use up much less electricity to perform this task than the monstrous desktop PC in your study. Plus, you can walk around with your tablet or smartphone looking all stylish!

Greening Your Other Devices

The average smartphone uses around six to eight watts of continuous power per hour. Your average tablet doesn’t use much more than this. So, you can’t expect massive savings from greening these devices up. In a dollars-and-cents analysis, a smartphone will cost you under a dollar per year to keep charging. The one reason why you would want to minimize power consumption is to get as much life out of your battery as you can. These devices guzzle down battery power in one or two days (tablets may even last as little as ten hours). Given these distressing numbers, let’s see how you can get the most out of one charging cycle:

2. Turn your phone off before you go to bed at night. Keeping the phone on 24/7 is something we’ve been used to since the Nokia 3310 days. But phones have changed phenomenally and battery life suffers as a result of it. Who wants to answer the phone in the middle of the night anyway? If you’ve got a land line and you don’t have emergencies to attend to at night (such as getting called into the hospital to look after patients) then people can still reach you and you can have a sound sleep. Do this also for your tablet.

3. Turn Wi-Fi off when you go out. Your phone or tablet keeps a list of public Wi-Fi networks that are in your area and is constantly looking for them even if you aren’t telling it to. If you connect to one of them automatically and the signal is poor, your phone will struggle to broadcast its information to the access point. This will drain your battery badly.

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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5 Strategies To Enhance Your Power Bi Dax Skills

In this tutorial, you’ll learn the general strategies to improve your DAX or M capabilities. This is an opportunity to learn and understand each Power BI DAX function. You may watch the full video of this tutorial at the bottom of this blog.

In Power BI, there are specific elements of practice that you have to learn to be proficient with functions. If you utilize these strategies, you’ll be able to build compelling reports and data models.

The first strategy is to organize your tools or format your Power BI DAX.

Unformatted DAX is like a paragraph without capitalization and punctuation. A paragraph like that is very difficult to understand and read.

Here’s an example.

But if you format it properly, it becomes simple and easy to read like this paragraph below.

For a Power BI DAX example, here’s an actual measure that’s unformatted.

If you format it, the measure becomes easier to understand.

There are three things in the measure that you can notice.

First, it’s a dynamic segmentation pattern. Next, it’s an unusual construct. You usually use MIN and MAX to define customer rank group, not RANKX. So, it’s not going to provide the proper results because the parenthesis of the FILTER condition is incomplete and it’s only saying COUNTROWS without providing conditions.

There are a lot of ways to format your DAX. You can do it straight by hand or use formatting tools.

DAX Clean Up is a formatting tool from Enterprise DNA. It has features in providing access to related tools and functions. It also has links for development tools.

There’s another tool that’s been developed in beta called Power Query Formatter. You can use it to format your M code to make it readable and understandable.

If you utilize these tools in formatting, they will help you debug and understand your DAX. The goal of this strategy is recognition.

The next strategy is to acquire new tools and familiarize yourself with new DAX or M functions.

You don’t have to master the functions. You only need to know what the functions do and how to use them in complex solutions.

There are at least 200 DAX and 720 M functions. You can cycle through them in the Enterprise DNA Knowledge Base. It provides links to forum posts for examples and short videos. Study and practice each function to expand the range of functions you use.

Start practicing with virtual table and filter functions. If you can manipulate virtual tables, you’ll learn a lot and improve your capabilities.

Here’s what it looks like.

The left side shows the knowledge base. It has an audio and visual explanation about how the function works. The right side shows the M reference guide for Microsoft. It shows the syntax, general notes, and examples.

Th e third strategy is to borrow tools from others or utilize existing codes and patterns.

Commonly occurring problems can be solved by utilizing existing solutions or codes. These sources have a range of reusable scenarios for you to use.

On the Enterprise DNA site, there are 2 new sources that are available for members and non-members.

There is a lot of information on these sites and sources. They are linked to forum posts that provide context and examples for the patterns.

Don’t use codes you don’t understand.

Wrong results are embarrassing, but subtly wrong results are what get you fired.

You need to understand the code before you use it in your report.

The fourth strategy is where hard work comes in because you need to regularly build something new in your reports.

After doing plenty of reports and analyses using DAX or M functions, people tend to stagnate from the initial burst of learning. The solution to that is to regularly build something new to expand their Power BI skill set.

Enterprise DNA has challenges which are open for everybody to utilize. They give you new datasets every week to analyze and visualize.

To utilize all the training opportunities to improve your skillset, there’s a strategy called Deliberate Practice.

Repetition and hardwork shapes your capability and expertise.

Here are the the five general characteristics of Deliberate Practice:

There is an emphasis on the 5th characteristic because outcome and goal are two different things.

The outcome is to improve your Power BI DAX function skills, but the goals are based on a specific process.

However, there are three generally common responses about this approach:

All of us are still learning Power BI. You just have to take your time to improve your skill sets. Pick data challenges or problems that are challenging for you because it will provide a great learning opportunity.

Don’t worry about incorrect or incomplete solutions because other members will assist you on your efforts. That’s one of the best experiences in the Power BI community.

The last strategy is to upgrade the toolbox itself or use better DAX or M editors.

These are four editors you can use to improve your Power BI DAX or M capabilities. However, these editors have their pros and cons. So, choose the best editor you’re most comfortable with.

Utilize this tutorial and keep practicing so that you can achieve amazing solutions.

All the best,

Brian

20 Questions To Test Your Skills On Dimensionality Reduction (Pca)

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Introduction

Principal Component Analysis is one of the famous Dimensionality Reduction techniques which helps when we work with datasets having very large dimensions.

Therefore it becomes necessary for every aspiring Data Scientist and Machine Learning Engineer to have a good knowledge of Dimensionality Reduction.

In this article, we will discuss the most important questions on Dimensionality Reduction which is helpful to get you a clear understanding of the techniques, and also for Data Science Interviews, which cover its very fundamental level to complex concepts.

Let’s get started, 1. What is Dimensionality Reduction?

In Machine Learning, dimension refers to the number of features in a particular dataset.

In simple words, Dimensionality Reduction refers to reducing dimensions or features so that we can get a more interpretable model, and improves the performance of the model.

2. Explain the significance of Dimensionality Reduction.

There are basically three reasons for Dimensionality reduction:

Visualization

Interpretability

Time and Space Complexity

Let’s understand this with an example:

Imagine we have worked on an MNIST dataset that contains 28 × 28 images and when we convert images to features we get 784 features.

If we try to think of each feature as one dimension, then how can we think of 784 dimensions in our mind?

We are not able to visualize the scattering of points of 784 dimensions.

That is the first reason why Dimensionality Reduction is Important!

Let’s say you are a data scientist and you have to explain your model to clients who do not understand Machine Learning, how will you make them understand the working of 784 features or dimensions.

In simple language, how we interpret the model to the clients.

That is the second reason why Dimensionality Reduction is Important!

Let’s say you are working for an internet-based company where the output of something must be in milliseconds or less than that, so “Time complexity” and “Space Complexity” matter a lot. More features need more Time which these types of companies can’t afford.

That is the third reason why Dimensionality Reduction is Important!

3. What is PCA? What does a PCA do?

Principal Component analysis. It is a dimensionality reduction technique that summarizes a large set of correlated variables (basically high dimensional data) into a smaller number of representative variables, called the Principal Components, that explains most of the variability of the original set i.e, not losing that much of the information.

PCA stands for. It is a dimensionality reduction technique that summarizes a large set of correlated variables (basically high dimensional data) into a smaller number of representative variables, called the Principal Components, that explains most of the variability of the original set i.e, not losing that much of the information.

PCA is a deterministic algorithm in which we have not any parameters to initialize and it doesn’t have a problem of local minima, like most of the machine learning algorithms has.

Image Source: Google Images

4. List down the steps of a PCA algorithm.

The major steps which are to be followed while using the PCA algorithm are as follows:

Step-1: Get the dataset.

Step-2: Compute the mean vector (µ).

Step-3: Subtract the means from the given data.

Step-4: Compute the covariance matrix.

Step-5: Determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.

Step-6: Choosing Principal Components and forming a feature vector.

Step-7: Deriving the new data set by taking the projection on the weight vector.

5. Is it important to standardize the data before applying PCA?

Usually, the aim of standardization is to assign equal weights to all the variables. PCA finds new axes based on the covariance matrix of original variables. As the covariance matrix is sensitive to the standardization of variables therefore if we use features of different scales, we often get misleading directions.

Moreover, if all the variables are on the same scale, then there is no need to standardize the variables.

6. Is rotation necessary in PCA? If yes, Why? Discuss the consequences if we do not rotate the components?

Yes, the idea behind rotation i.e, orthogonal Components is so that we are able to capture the maximum variance of the training set.

If we don’t rotate the components, the effect of PCA will diminish and we’ll have to select more Principal Components to explain the maximum variance of the training dataset.

7. What are the assumptions taken into consideration while applying PCA?

The assumptions needed for PCA are as follows:

1. PCA is based on Pearson correlation coefficients. As a result, there needs to be a linear relationship between the variables for applying the PCA algorithm.

2. For getting reliable results by using the PCA algorithm, we require a large enough sample size i.e, we should have sampling adequacy.

3. Your data should be suitable for data reduction i.e., we need to have adequate correlations between the variables to be reduced to a smaller number of components.

4. No significant noisy data or outliers are present in the dataset.

8. What will happen when eigenvalues are roughly equal while applying PCA?

While applying the PCA algorithm, If we get all eigenvectors the same, then the algorithm won’t be able to select the Principal Components because in such cases, all the Principal Components are equal.

9. What are the properties of Principal Components in PCA?

The properties of principal components in PCA are as follows:

1. These Principal Components are linear combinations of original variables that result in an axis or a set of axes that explain/s most of the variability in the dataset.

2. All Principal Components are orthogonal to each other.

3. The first Principal Component accounts for most of the possible variability of the original data i.e, maximum possible variance.

4. The number of Principal Components for n-dimensional data should be at utmost equal to n(=dimension). For Example, There can be only two Principal Components for a two-dimensional data set.

10. What does a Principal Component in a PCA signify? How can we represent them mathematically?

The Principal Component represents a line or an axis along which the data varies the most and it also is the line that is closest to all of the n observations in the dataset.

In mathematical terms, we can say that the first Principal Component is the eigenvector of the covariance matrix corresponding to the maximum eigenvalue.

Accordingly,

Sum of squared distances = Eigenvalue for PC-1

Sqrt of Eigenvalue = Singular value for PC-1

11. What does the coefficient of Principal Component signify?

If we project all the points on the Principal Component, they tell us that the independent variable 2 is N times as important as of independent variable 1.

12. Can PCA be used for regression-based problem statements? If Yes, then explain the scenario where we can use it.

Yes, we can use Principal Components for regression problem statements.

, we can use Principal Components for regression problem statements.

PCA would perform well in cases when the first few Principal Components are sufficient to capture most of the variation in the independent variables as well as the relationship with the dependent variable.

The only problem with this approach is that the new reduced set of features would be modeled by ignoring the dependent variable Y when applying a PCA and while these features may do a good overall job of explaining the variation in X, the model will perform poorly if these variables don’t explain the variation in Y.

13. Can we use PCA for feature selection?

Feature selection refers to choosing a subset of the features from the complete set of features.

No, PCA is not used as a feature selection technique because we know that any Principal Component axis is a linear combination of all the original set of feature variables which defines a new set of axes that explain most of the variations in the data.

Therefore while it performs well in many practical settings, it does not result in the development of a model that relies upon a small set of the original features.

14. Comment whether PCA can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the non-linear dataset.

PCA does not take the nature of the data i.e, linear or non-linear into considerations during its algorithm run but PCA focuses on reducing the dimensionality of most datasets significantly. PCA can at least get rid of useless dimensions.

However, reducing dimensionality with PCA will lose too much information if there are no useless dimensions.

15. How can you evaluate the performance of a dimensionality reduction algorithm on your dataset?

A dimensionality reduction algorithm is said to work well if it eliminates a significant number of dimensions from the dataset without losing too much information. Moreover, the use of dimensionality reduction in preprocessing before training the model allows measuring the performance of the second algorithm.

We can therefore infer if an algorithm performed well if the dimensionality reduction does not lose too much information after applying the algorithm.

Comprehension Type Question: (16 – 18) Consider a set of 2D points {(-3,-3), (-1,-1),(1,1),(3,3)}. We want to reduce the dimensionality of these points by 1 using PCA algorithms. Assume sqrt(2)=1.414.

Now, Answer the Following Questions:

SOLUTION:

2 i.e, two-dimensional space, and our objective is to reduce the dimensionality of the data to 1 i.e, 1-dimensional data ⇒ K=1

Here the original data resides in Ri.e, two-dimensional space, and our objective is to reduce the dimensionality of the data to 1 i.e, 1-dimensional data ⇒

We try to solve these set of problem step by step so that you have a clear understanding of the steps involved in the PCA algorithm:

Step-1: Get the Dataset

Here data matrix X is given by [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ]

Step-2:  Compute the mean vector (µ)

Mean Vector: [ {-3+(-1)+1+3}/4, {-3+(-1)+1+3}/4 ] = [ 0, 0 ]

Step-3: Subtract the means from the given data

Since here the mean vector is 0, 0 so while subtracting all the points from the mean we get the same data points.

Step-4: Compute the covariance matrix

Therefore, the covariance matrix becomes XXT since the mean is at the origin.

Therefore, XXT becomes [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ] ( [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ] )T

= [ [ 20, 20 ], [ 20, 20 ] ]

Step-5: Determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix

det(C-λI)=0 gives the eigenvalues as 0 and 40.

Now, choose the maximum eigenvalue from the calculated and find the eigenvector corresponding to λ = 40 by using the equations CX = λX :

Accordingly, we get the eigenvector as (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ]

Therefore, the eigenvalues of matrix XXT are 0 and 40.

Step-6: Choosing Principal Components and forming a weight vector

Here, U = R2×1 and equal to the eigenvector of XXT corresponding to the largest eigenvalue.

Now, the eigenvalue decomposition of C=XXT

And W (weight matrix) is the transpose of the U matrix and given as a row vector.

Therefore, the weight matrix is given by  [1 1]/1.414

Step-7: Deriving the new data set by taking the projection on the weight vector

Now, reduced dimensionality data is obtained as xi = UT Xi = WXi

x1 = WX1= (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ] [ -3, -3 ]T = – 3√ 2

x2 = WX2= (1/√ 2)  [ 1, 1 ] [ -1, -1 ]T = – √ 2

x3 = WX3= (1/√ 2)  [ 1, 1 ] [ 1, 1]T = – √ 2

x4 = WX4= (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ] [ 3, 3 ]T = – 3√ 2

Therefore, the reduced dimensionality will be equal to {-3*1.414, -1.414,1.414, 3*1.414}.

This completes our example!

19. What are the Advantages of Dimensionality Reduction?

1. Less misleading data means model accuracy improves.

2. Fewer dimensions mean less computing. Less data means that algorithms train faster.

3. Less data means less storage space required.

4. Removes redundant features and noise.

5. Dimensionality Reduction helps us to visualize the data that is present in higher dimensions in 2D or 3D.

2. It can be computationally intensive.

3. Transformed features are often hard to interpret.

4. It makes the independent variables less interpretable.

End Notes

Thanks for reading!

Please feel free to contact me on Linkedin, Email.

About the author Chirag Goyal

Currently, I am pursuing my Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur(IITJ). I am very enthusiastic about Machine learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial Intelligence.

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion.

Related

Top 10 Sql Books For Beginners And Advanced In 2023

Must Read SQL books Key Highlights

The books cover the fundamental concepts of SQL and how to manage a relational database. It includes hands-on exercises and examples to help readers understand SQL syntax and database concepts.

Essential resource for anyone working with large databases and looking to optimize query performance.

Provides a thought-provoking read that challenges readers to think deeply about the logic and design of their SQL queries and databases.

List of Top 10 SQL Books

Below is the given list to get you started.

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Sr. No. Books Author Published

Rating

1. SQL Cookbook Anthony Molinaro 2006 Amazon: 4.6

2. SQL Queries for Mere Mortals: A Hands-On Guide to Data Manipulation in SQL  John Viescas 2024 Amazon:4.5

3. Learning SQL: Master SQL Fundamentals  Alan Beaulieu 2009 Amazon: 4.2

4. SQL Quickstart Guide: The Simplified Beginner’s Guide to SQL Walter Shields 2024 Amazon:4.1

5. Head First SQL: Your Brain on SQL — A Learner’s Guide Lynn Beighley 2007 Amazon: 4.4

6. SQL Practice Problems: 57 Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced Challenges for You to Solve Using a “Learn-by-doing” Approach Sylvia Moestl Vasilik

2024

Amazon 4.4

7. SQL Antipatterns: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Database Programming Bill Karwin 2010

8. SQL Database Programming Chris Fehily 2024 Amazon 4.7

9. SQL Pocket Guide 3e: A Guide to SQL Usage (Pocket Guides) Jonathan Gennick 2010 Amazon:4.6

10. Oracle PL/SQL Programming Steven Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl 2014 Amazon: 4.5

Let us discuss the reviews and takeaways of the SQL books:-

1. SQL Cookbook (O’Reilly)

Author: Anthony Molinaro

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Book Review

A must-read if you want to be equipped with robust tools to fasten your SQL knowledge.

Key Takeaways

Overlays content such as working with multiple books, metadata queries, investigating future rows, etc.

Features elements such as SQL server’s PIVOT, oracle’s MODEL clause, and inter-row calculations in a that is easily understood and easy to follow.

Get to know about different SQL databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL server, etc.

2. SQL Queries for Mere Mortals: A Hands-On Guide to Data Manipulation in SQL

Author: John Viescas

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Book Review

Key Takeaways

The examples mentioned in the book are beneficial for people new to databases and the book highlights the use of DML a lot.

Gives a general guide for relational databases, SQL basics, and techniques applicable for efficiently managing tables.

Learn data partitioning into Windows, and practice on sample databases relevant today in various SQL operational databases.

3. Learning SQL: Master SQL Fundamentals

Author: Alan Beaulieu

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Book Review

This a time-saving, information-packed read for the senior programmers on the lookout for enhancing their knowledge. It stays in touch with the roots of SQL by depicting how the present is linked with the past. Get in on the exercises available after each chapter to excel more in the intricacies of SQL.

Key Takeaways

Guides you through content on nonrelational database systems, creating and populating a database, and modifying tabled through relative ease.

The content is classified into subtopics and diagrams for proper understanding and the writing style is easy to grasp.

4. SQL: QuickStart Guide – The Simplified Beginner’s Guide To SQL

Author: Walter Shields

Book Review

Key Takeaways

Has a lot of key points mentioned about getting started with queries, using joins with an alias, writing queries with a variety of functions, etc.

5. Head First SQL

Author: Lynn Beighley

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Book Review

Get ready to be bombarded with the mad hatter of SQL which is sure to leave you puzzled with curiosity and with a deep firing urge to get to the next chapter with record-fast speed. Level up your SQL skills if you are a novice with a peculiar way of writing to keep you hooked on your seat.

Key Takeaways

Packed with illustrations and pictures to keep the information in while simultaneously trying to entertain you.

Brief descriptions of smart table designs, multi-table data designs, and a clear view of constraints, views, and transactions.

Suitable for people looking to get the best of SQL and make the most out of learning the basics.

6. SQL Practice Problems

Author: Sylvia Moestl Vasilik

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Book review

Key takeaways

Not a lot of spoon-feeding is done in terms of giving answers to the questions so that the learner stays agile.

Questions comprising daily business acumen and daily workplace challenges right at your doorstep activate your logical skills.

7. SQL Antipatterns: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Database Programming

Author: Bill Karwin

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Book review

Key takeaways

Highlights the antipatterns in formatting comma-separated lists, depending on one’s parent in hierarchies, leaving the constraints in database architecture, etc.

The book dived into the objective of a problem followed by its antipattern, how to recognize them, its legitimate uses, and its solutions.

8. SQL Database Programming

Authors: Chris Fehily

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Book review

Brought to the beginner level enthusiasts which has content pieces on ANSI compatible, DBMS neutral, standard SQL in a comprehensive tale about SQL for the people of far and wide.

Key takeaways

Covers the relational model, SQL basic, and transactions in a detailed format.

Create, troubleshoot, and manipulate data in the form of tables, queries and save time.

9. SQL Pocket Guide: A Guide to SQL UsageAuthor

Authors: Jonathan Gennick

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Book Review

An excellent portable tool for taking reference when in a jiffy along with a thoroughly organized structure. The book does a mind-blowing job of gathering the statements and the explanations of the problems in one place for math functions, grouping, updating data, etc. All in all, a good reference for SQL database applications and execution.

Key Takeaways

Has Oracle’s latest support for WITH syntax, PostgreSQL’s support of recursive WITH, brand new Oracle functions, etc.

Includes datetime conversions, datetime functions, and various data types in different SQL databases along with concise code to get you started easily.

10. Oracle PL/SQL Programming

Author: Steven Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl

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Book Review

Key Takeaways

A comprehensive guide for PL/SQL programmers to enhance their skill set in Oracle extension of SQL to solve real-world problems.

Now available in the new 12.1 version, which contains the ACCESSIBLE_BY clause, UDF pragma, and new compilation directives

Learn external procedures, calling Java from PL/SQL, object-oriented aspects of PL/SQL, etc. in depth.

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