Trending December 2023 # 15 Cool Notepad Tricks You Should Know # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

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One of the first things that one learns while learning to use a computer is an application called notepad. Almost everyone knows what notepad is, and despite being a simple looking and functioning application what kind of a power it actually possesses. One can literally destroy someone’s PC using a notepad, one can also solve big problems using notepad. Ok, notepad does not do all that I said on its own, but still. It is the platform where one can write the initial code that can then be compiled and stuff. So, learning a few small notepad tricks won’t really hurt our chances of showing off or maybe getting a different prospective about what notepad can really do.

1. Continually Pop Out CD Drive Using Notepad

2. Shutting Down Computer Using Notepad

3. Open Notepad Continually in Your Friend’s Computer

Just another Notepad trick to play with your friend’s system would be to set off a command which would open his/her notepad repetitively. Save it as a .vbs file and open it to see what happens.

4. Make A Personal Log-Book or A Diary

A special feature which allows us to make a log exists in notepad. Using it we can make logs of stuff as notepad will put the date and time for us whenever we open a specific type of Log file. For doing this, just type ‘.LOG’ in the notepad and save it under any name that you wish. Now whenever you’ll open this particular file, you’ll see that notepad automatically enters the date and time at which it is opened, and then you can make a log record and save the log.

5. Matrix Effect

Now we’ll discuss a Notepad trick that can turn our command prompt into something that looks like it just came out of the matrix movie, or maybe something that looks like something straight out of a hacker’s system. For doing this, all you need to do is paste the following code in notepad goto start

Assign different values to the color, and have fun.

6. Toggle Capslock Repeatedly Using Notepad

You can play with someone’s computer, or maybe your own computer by writing a script that can toggle Caps Lock repeatedly.

Just copy and Paste the code written down below into notepad.

Now save it as a .vbs file and use it to see the magic.

7. Typing Slow

This is a trick which will cause the text to be typed slowly, to try it out, just copy and paste the text below into notepad and save it as a .vbs file. WshShell.SendKeys “s! “

It does nothing but introduces a small delay between different strings it types.

8. Converting Text to Speech Using Notepad.

9. World Trade Center Attack

According to this trick, if you enter the flight number of the flight that struck the twin tower, i.e. Q33N in notepad and then change the font type to ‘wingdings’ and the font size to 72, then you’ll see a very strange thing.

It is a very cool trick, but unfortunately is a hoax as no such flight struck the twin towers.

10. Changing Header and Footer in Notepad

&p Print the page number

11. Deleting Startup Files Using Notepad


This will shut the computer down and delete files required to get your computer into a normal state.

12. Deleting System32 Files Using Notepad

Wish to take revenge from someone? Just use this code, save it as chúng tôi file, and see what it does to that person’s system. It will delete all the System32 files required for the system to work in order.

Just paste the following in notepad and save it as a .bat file.


13. Hit Enter Continuously

What if we wished to use the function of our enter button happen again and again, a better idea than to press it again and again would be to use the code below

Save it as a .vbs file and see its magic

14. Hit Backspace Continuously

Ok, we need the backspace button, but what is we wish to annoy someone and make it press itself again and again, mechanically it would require some work on our part, but if we just use this code, it would become a lot more easier. loop

Save as a .vbs file to make it work.

15. Typing Something Again and Again

save it as a .vbs file to make it work.

SEE ALSO: 15 Cool Excel Tips And Tricks

Important Note. If you get errors saying invalid characters, then try retyping the double inverted commas in the codes.

You're reading 15 Cool Notepad Tricks You Should Know

15 Javascript Interview Questions And Answers You Should Know

JavaScript is a popular programming language to build highly engaging websites and apps. It is used by close to 65% of developers, according to Stack Overflow 2023 survey. Most of our prescreened developers at Reintech also rely on the language to woo clients.

Therefore, businesses are always in search of top JavaScript talents to gain a competitive edge. JavaScript developers are also pleased, as they get attractive remuneration and a chance to grow their careers.

However, every JavaScript programmer needs to sit for an interview to get selected. Employers should also utilize the opportunity to assess the skills and capabilities of the developer.

15 JavaScript Interview Questions

Here are some of the best JavaScript interview questions (with answers) to ask when you hire JavaScript developers.

1. What do you mean by event delegation?

Also read: 10 Types of Developer Jobs: IT Jobs

2. What is the use of ECMAScript?

ECMAScript is a standard that puts forward the rules and conditions for any scripting language to be ECMAScript compliant. JavaScript is a scripting language that follows the guidelines of ECMAScript. The standard aims to create interoperability between scripting languages using the rules.

3. When should you use prototypal inheritance?

Prototypal inheritance is a suitable choice where we cannot use functional programming or modules. They allow composition that creates can-do, uses-a, or has-a relations instead of is-a relation developed with class inheritance. Additionally, different types of prototypal inheritance are used for different use cases.

4. What is the use of strict mode in JavaScript?

Also read: iPhone 14 Pro Max Is Apple’s New iPhone To Be Launched In September (Know The Release Date, Specification, Rumour & More)

5. How can you delete a cookie with JavaScript?

You can delete a cookie in JavaScript by changing the expiration date to one in the past. The process will force the cookie to not return any result if someone tries reading it. In some browsers, it is necessary to define your cookie path to delete it.

6. What is the difference between one-way data flow and two-way data binding?

One-way data flow allows data to move in one direction and makes it easy to comprehend. It also signifies the model is a single source of truth. Additionally, only the model is granted access to manipulate the state of the app.

Two-way data binding indicates the model and data are dynamically bounded. So, any change in model data or UI field affects the other one.

7. What do you mean by higher-order function? Can you give some examples?

A higher-order function returns a chosen function as a return value. Else, it can also accept another function as an argument. Sometimes both are possible. Examples of built-in higher-order functions in JavaScript are reduced, filter, and map.

8. What are the two types of typed language?

Also read: The Five Best Free Cattle Record Keeping Apps & Software For Farmers/Ranchers/Cattle Owners

9. What are the benefits of microservice architectures?

Microservices allows an app to run based on several individual applications. It is easy to maintain such architectures as the components are not dependent on one another. Additionally, microservices make your app easier to arrange. We can also make changes to the code easily without affecting the whole app.

10. What is the use of the prompt box? 11. What are the different types of error name values in JavaScript?

Also read: No Plan? Sitting Ideal…No Problem! 50+ Cool Websites To Visit

12. How can you embed JavaScript code in HTML files?

We can use several ways to embed JavaScript code in HTML files. One way is to embed them as functions and statements within a

Liza Katiushchenko

Liza Katiushchenko, Digital Marketing and Social Media Manager at Reintech.

5 Cool Xiaomi Gadgets For Cars You Should Know About

It’s no secret that Xiaomi makes a lot of cool gadgets, and while you might have seen a lot of our videos on cool Xiaomi gadgets, the company also makes some stuff that’s meant for car users. Well, we got a lot of these gadgets from China, and I’ve used them quite a bit in the last couple of weeks, and honestly, I’ve started loving them. So here are 5 of my favorite car gadgets from Xiaomi.

1. Xiaomi Wireless Charger

This is a gadget I personally fell in love with almost as soon as I started using it. The Xiaomi Wireless Charger nails everything there is to consider about a wireless car charger. The design is great, the build is top-notch, it uses USB Type-C, it supports 20W fast wireless charging, and it has sensors built in to automatically open and close the clamps when your phone is near the charger, or when you’re trying to take the phone out of the charger.

I’m not coming at this from no experience either, I’ve used quite a few car chargers over the last few years, but this one is good at everything I need a car charger to do for me. In fact, I liked this so much I wrote an individual article just about this charger, and I’d suggest you go read that to get a more detailed look at the charger.

2. Cleanfly Vacuum Cleaner

If you’re anything like me, chances are you snack in your car, which is all good but it does end up making a mess inside the car. Add to that all the dirt and mud you track into your car with your shoes everyday, and it’s just sad. That’s where having a vacuum cleaner can come in really handy, and you guessed it, Xiaomi makes that as well.

The Cleanfly vacuum cleaner might have a weird name, but the vacuum cleaner itself is really good. For one, it’s designed exceptionally well. It’s clean, it’s minimal, and it’s matte grey — all things that I really like. It’s also very well balanced when in use. The vacuum cleaner has a centre of gravity that’s closer to the handle, which makes it easier to use the vacuum cleaner without tiring out your hands. In fact, this might be the most comfortable and versatile car vacuum cleaners I’ve used, and yes, I’m including the Dyson V11 Absolute Pro I reviewed a while back. To be fair though, this isn’t nearly as powerful as the Dyson, but it’s a fraction of the price as well.

Buy the Cleanfly Vacuum Cleaner from ShareSave (₹3,766)

3. Xiaomi 150PSI Tyre Inflator

This is a gadget that was a mystery to almost every one at the Beebom office when we first got this shipped. It looks great, so naturally every one kept looking at it and guessing what it could be. Personally, I thought it could’ve been a smart speaker because of the speaker-like grilles on the sides, or maybe a walkie-talkie (Xiaomi does make those, by the way). However, this is just a really cool looking tyre inflator.

As the name suggests, it can go up to 150PSI if you need that, but you probably won’t need that. The inflator can be charged and with one full charge, Xiaomi claims it can fill 5 car tyres. However, in my testing, I found it to be filling around 2 to 3 tyres in a single charge, which is still really good considering its size. Along with that, the tyre inflator comes with preset values for filling air in things like bicycles, bikes, and footballs, which is great because you don’t have to worry about remembering the pressure values for all those things.

The only things I really have to complain about here are that it takes way too long to fill up a tyre, which can quickly get annoying, and the microUSB charging port it uses. I mean, seriously. Why microUSB? It makes no sense. Other than that though, this is a great tyre inflator that you should definitely consider buying.

Buy the Xiaomi 150PSI Tyre Inflator from Banggood (₹7,023)

4. Xiaomi Dual QC3.0 Car Charger

This particular product is something I started using because it solves a very particular problem for me. See, sometimes I’m driving with my friends and everyone needs to charge their phones, which means people end up arguing over who gets to plug their phone in to the car-charger.

What’s actually very impressive about this charger is the fact that it supports Quick Charge 3.0 on both the USB-A ports simultaneously, so you can fast-charge two smartphones at the same time using this charger. Pretty cool, right?

Buy the Xiaomi Dual QC3.0 Car Charger from Banggood (₹1,532)

5. Xiaomi Dashcam 1S

There’s also the Xiaomi Dashcam 1S, which honestly, is a fairly cool gadget, but there are some issues here that I just can’t get past. I’ll talk about that later.

The dashcam takes decent quality footage, and works perfectly even at night, which is great. All you need to do is put in a microSD card (which is not included in the box), connect the Dashcam 1S to a power source and that’s it, it automatically keeps recording videos.

The thing, however, is that the dashcam is all in Chinese, which means you will have to use Google Translate a lot in order to set it up properly. However, it can connect to the Mi Home app, and you can view all the recorded footage right there in your phone, and even download the footage to your phone if you want, so once you’re past the set-up stage, you don’t really need to worry about the fact that there’s no English support on this yet.

However, there are other problems here as well, big ones. First up, it also uses microUSB for power which is just stupid. But, the bigger issue is that of the wiring, because you need to somehow route the power cable all the way along the side of the car, tape it under the dashboard, and route it properly to the car-charger to power it up, or otherwise it will just dangle around and look really bad. That’s the reason I’m not willing to use this Dashcam.

If you’re not as lazy as I am, and you’re willing to put in the work to properly wire this thing, or if you don’t mind wires dangling around in your car, you can go ahead and buy this.

Buy the Mi Smart Dashcam 1S from ShareSave (₹4,122)

Note: Keep in mind that most of these products are priced way higher in India when compared to their Chinese pricing, and they also take a long time to get delivered here. When we ordered these gadgets for ourselves, it took around a month to get delivered.

Deck Up Your Car with These Cool Xiaomi Car Gadgets

Also, if you’re reading this article chances are you’ve seen our video on this same topic. If not, check it out here.

19 Facebook Tricks And Tips You Need To Know

Level up on social with these Facebook tricks that save you time, give you an edge on your competitors, and improve your overall performance.

Think you know your way around Facebook’s top business features and tools? Even if you’ve been on the site since the Stone Age (aka 2004), there are always some new Facebook tricks and tips to discover.

With 2.91 billion active monthly users (that’s 36.8% of the world’s population!), Facebook is still the largest social media platform. And since the average user spends 19.6 hours a month on Facebook, there are plenty of opportunities to get in front of your target audience.

But competition is tough and organic reach is down. These days, you’ll need more than engaging content to reach your target audience.

Here are our top Facebook tips and tricks to kickstart your engagement and reach.

Bonus: Download a free guide that teaches you how to turn Facebook traffic into sales in four simple steps using Hootsuite.

Stuck on how to take your Facebook Business page to the next level? These general Facebook tricks can help improve your reach and engagement.

1. Optimize your Facebook profile

After setting up a Facebook Business Page, spend some time optimizing your profile details.

Before liking your Page, people will often head to your About section to learn more about your business. So give them what they’re looking for! Fill out all the details to set audience expectations and encourage users to like your Page.

Share your business’s unique story, mission and values in the “Our Story” section. If your business has a physical location, fill in key information like the address, contact info, and opening hours.

Cosmetics brand Lush uses the About section to share their values and contact details:

2. Cross-promote your Facebook Profile

If you’re just starting out on Facebook, let your existing audience on other platforms know about your profile.

You can get more Page likes on Facebook by adding Follow or Share buttons to your website or blog.

Here’s how fashion brand Asos cross-promotes its social media channels on its website:

You can also cross-promote your Facebook Page by including links to your Page in your other social media bios. After all, more than 99% of Facebook users have accounts on other social media platforms.

3. Pin your most relevant content

You can pin a post to keep it top-of-mind for visitors. Try pinning an announcement, a promotion, or a high-performing post that your audience already loves.

How to do it:

2. Select Pin to top of Page.

Pro tip: Keep your pinned post fresh by rotating it every few weeks.

4. Use Facebook search operators

Searching Facebook for competitive intel can be tricky, especially since the platform got rid of Graph Search. But Facebook search operators let you filter Google search results for Facebook-specific information.

Here are a few ideas for how Facebook search operators can help you optimize your marketing campaigns:

Research your audience. Understanding your audience and the type of content they like will help you publish more engaging content.

Find user-generated content (UGC). Search for your brand name to find people who mentioned your brand but didn’t tag you.

Research your competitors. Look at the content your competition shares, how much engagement they get, and what their audience looks like. Identify new competitors in your area.

Find content to share. Search topics or phrases to identify content your audience will engage with.

To use Facebook search operators, you’ll need to rely on Boolean searches through Google.

How do these work?

Boolean operators are terms that let you broaden or narrow down search results. For example, you could use ‘AND’ to search for two search terms at the same time.

How to do it:

Because you’ve specified the site, your Google results will only include Facebook pages that contain your search terms.

For example, if you own a house plant store, you could use this search command to find the top-performing Facebook Pages and Groups about house plants:

For example, if you run a home interior store in Seattle, you could use this Facebook search command to see what your direct competitors are doing.

A list of home interior stores in Seattle will then appear in the SERPs:

This is an exact search match, so Google won’t return results that deviate even slightly. Search results for “home interiors stores in Seattle” versus “home interior store in Seattle” could be different.

Facebook tricks for business

Facebook Business Pages come with tons of features and tools to help you grow your business. Here’s our top pick of Facebook tricks for business.

5. Optimize your call-to-action

Facebook CTA buttons are located at the center of the top of Facebook Pages. You can customize this CTA to send interested audience members to the next step that’s most valuable for your business.

Design brand Threadless uses a default Send message CTA to encourage people to ask questions:

If you want people to purchase something or book an appointment, choose a CTA button like “Shop now” or “Book now.”

Here’s how to change your CTA button on your desktop:

2. On the drop-down menu, select Edit.

3. Choose one of Facebook’s 14 call-to-action button options.

6. Claim your Page’s vanity URL

When you create a Facebook Business Page, it’ll receive a randomly assigned number and URL that will look something like this:

chúng tôi

Make your Facebook page more shareable and easier to find with a custom vanity URL.

This will look like:

chúng tôi

How to do it:

7. Customize your page tabs

Every Facebook Page has some default tabs, including:




But you can also add additional tabs so your audience can discover more of your business’s unique features. You can show off your reviews, highlight your services, or even create custom tabs.

How to do it:

2. Scroll down the drop-down menu to Edit tabs

3. Select the tabs you want to add to your Facebook Page

You can even work with a developer or use a Facebook Page app to create your own custom tabs.

8. Showcase your products in collections

One million users regularly buy from Facebook Shops every month. The feature lets you catalog your products into collections so customers can browse, save, share and buy your products.

Use Facebook Collections to curate and organize your brand’s products. That way, when customers land on your Facebook Shop, they can easily see your different product types.

For example, like many ecommerce stores, Lorna Jane Active separates its products by collections and product type. Collections are also more intuitive for customers to browse:

Organizing products by category also makes it easier for shoppers to find what they’re looking for:

9. Set up in-app Facebook checkout

Facebook checkout makes it easy for customers to make payment directly on Facebook (or Instagram) without having to leave the platform.

Social commerce, or selling products directly on social media, is expected to generate $3.37 trillion worldwide by 2028. It makes sense — when you can buy something without navigating to a new site, you’re way more likely to spend money.

Note: You’ll need to have Commerce Manager to set up Facebook checkout, and currently, it’s only available in the US. Facebook has detailed guidelines on setting up checkout and eligibility requirements.

10. Create a community for like-minded customers

1.8 billion people use Facebook groups every month. And Facebook’s algorithm currently favors meaningful interactions. Knowing this, it’s a good idea for businesses to tap into the platform’s community features.

Facebook Groups are one of the most effective ways to build community among like-minded people. A group is where fans can learn about promotions and events, share experiences, or interact with each other and your business.

Athletics wear brand lululemon has a group called Sweat Life where members can post about upcoming events and interact with one another:

11. Go Live

Plus, Facebook prioritizes Live video by placing it at the top of the feed. The platform even sends notifications to potentially interested audience members.

Here are some ideas for Facebook Lives:

Giving tutorials or demos

Broadcasting an event

Making a big announcement

Going behind the scenes.

The longer you’re live (we recommend at least ten minutes), the higher the likelihood that people will tune in.

Facebook tricks for publishing

Take the guesswork out of posting the right content at the right time with these Facebook publishing tips.

12. Schedule your posts

You can use Facebook’s built-in tools, like Creator Studio or Meta Business Suite, to schedule posts for Facebook and Instagram. If you post on other social networks as well, though, you might need a third-party social media management tool.

With Hootsuite, you can manage all of your social media activity in one place. Hootsuite supports Facebook and Instagram, as well as all other major social media networks: TikTok, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn and Pinterest.

You can create, edit, and preview posts within the platform before scheduling them. Hootsuite can even tell you when you should post based on your audience’s habits.

Want to test out Hootsuite’s scheduling tool and recommendation feature yourself? Give it a whirl with a free 30-day trial.

13. Use Facebook Page Insights to analyze performance

Publishing high-quality content is only half the story. You’ll also need to monitor your metrics to identify trends in engagement.

Keep a close eye on your Facebook Page Insights to see what works for your audience.

You can use the Page Insights dashboard to check out a snapshot of the last seven days of your Page’s performance, including:

Page likes. The total number of new and existing likes for your Page.

Facebook Page visits. The number of times users visited your Page.

Engagement. The total number of unique people who engaged with your Page and posts.

Post reach. Measures the number of unique views on your Page and posts

You can also view detailed breakdowns for each post, including info on reach, likes, and more.

If you’re trying to monitor metrics across multiple platforms, though, Hootsuite can help.

Use Hootsuite Impact to calculate the return on your social media investment. You can set performance metrics and monitor your improvement over time. You can even generate custom reports to prove the value of your marketing efforts on Facebook.

14. Use Audience Insights to learn about audience behavior

Check out Facebook’s Audience Insights for a deeper dive into your audience’s preferences and behavior. This tool gives you detailed information about your primary audiences.

You get demographic breakdowns that include information on:




Relationship status

Education levels

Job descriptions

You can also find information on your audience’s interests, hobbies, and other Facebook Pages they follow.

Use this data to help you decide which content topics would be most interesting to your audience.

Facebook Messenger tricks

Facebook Messenger is a one-stop shop for interacting with friends, family and even brands. Many of the best Facebook secrets happen in Messenger.

15. Earn the Very Responsive badge

If you reply quickly to most users who message you on Facebook, you can earn a “Very responsive to messages” badge that appears on your profile.

You’ll need a response rate of 90% and a response time of 15 minutes over the last seven days to earn the badge.

Clothing brand Zappos has the badge displayed on their profile:

Nothing will appear if you don’t reply to messages, so it’s not the end of the world.

But having the Very responsive badge is an important trust signal. It shows your audience that you care about their needs and are listening.

16. Use a chatbot to improve responses

If you need help improving those Messenger response times, consider using an AI-powered chatbot. Instead of having your customer support team deal with all queries, chatbots can answer simple FAQ-style queries for you. Then if customers need more support, chatbots can route these more complex or sensitive questions to your team.

Chatbots can also upsell or cross-sell products to your customers to improve their shopping experience.

Heyday by Hootsuite takes the strain off busy customer support workers by answering simple questions on their behalf. It lets you track all human and bot customer interactions in one unified inbox. In this hub, you can also filter conversations, resolve queries, and respond to customers.

Request a Heyday Demo

17. Install the Meta pixel

It works by placing and triggering cookies to track users as they interact with your business both on and off of Facebook and Instagram.

The next time I opened Instagram, this ad popped up:

This is known as retargeting, and it’s a great way to re-engage customers who have already demonstrated interest in your products. Installing the Meta Pixel can help you retarget shoppers close to making a purchase.

18. Promote your best organic social content

Ever created a piece of content you’re so proud of that you can’t wait to press Post? Maybe it’s launching a hot new product you’ve been counting down for months. Or it’s a new blog post you know will solve your audience’s problems.

Whatever it is, standing out on Facebook can be tough. And right now, organic reach is down to 5.2%. You can’t only rely on the Facebook algorithm to get your organic content in front of all the people you want to reach.

Using the Facebook Boost button can help you get your Facebook content in front of more of your target audience. With the in-built targeting options, you can reach people most likely to be interested in your content.

Instead of boosting a post using the Facebook interface, you can also boost a post from your Hootsuite dashboard.

One bonus of using Hootsuite to boost your Facebook posts is that you can set up automatic boosting. This boosts any Facebook posts that meet your chosen criteria, like reaching a certain level of engagement. You can set up a budget limit to stay in control of your ad spend.

Here’s how to set up automatic boosting and how to boost individual posts on Hootsuite:

19. Analyze your ad performance

Analyzing your ad performance is key to optimizing your paid campaigns. As well as allowing you to create campaigns, Facebook Ads Manager lets you see the results too.

Within the toolset, you can get a full overview of your ad account’s performance or apply breakdowns to see in-depth metrics.

Customize columns to check metrics like website conversions or social impressions.

View breakdowns to see the age of your audience, what devices they’re using, and their location.

Use the insights side pane to see a visual representation of your ad performance, like the overall ad spend.

That way, you don’t have to jump between multiple platforms and can see all your efforts in one place. You can also pull custom reports on your ad performance.

Save time and get the most out of your Facebook marketing strategy with Hootsuite. From a single dashboard, you can publish and schedule posts, find relevant conversions, engage the audience, measure results, and more. Try it free today.

Get Started

Grow your Facebook presence faster with Hootsuite. Schedule all your social posts and track their performance in one dashboard.

Everything You Need To Know About Using “Shared With You” In Ios 15

iOS 15 has brought a new way to share images, videos, links, etc. universally: Shared with You. It works across apps like Safari, Photos, and Notes and allows users to share the files and information from those apps with others. This article takes a look at how to share photos and links using “Shared With You” share menu in iOS 15.

How “Share With You” Works in Safari

We share links to interesting web pages and articles with friends all the time. You read something like a new healthy recipe or some local news, and you want to share a link to it with someone you know.

In previous iOS versions, the recipient would have to open the Messages app, dig deep into the conversation to find the link shared, and tap on it to open it in Safari. Now, with “Shared With You”, things are much simpler.

Let’s say someone sends me a link to an interesting article. Instead of messing around in the Messages app, It will be automatically added to Safari. It doesn’t asks for any permissions; however, you can control them from settings.

The link will appear on the home page under the “Shared with You” heading. Simply tap on the link to open it in a Safari tab. It’s that easy.

The feature works in all messaging apps and not just iMessage. iOS 15 scans and collects all links and displays them in Safari.

You will also notice the name of the person who shared the link below in Safari. Tap on it to open the conversation in the Messages app. Tap and hold to send a reply in a pop-up or remove the link and declutter the space.

How do you find the link again in a sea of links in the Messages app? Simple. Long-press the link and find the option to pin it. You can now find these pinned links in the Messages search menu, Shared With You, and the conversation’s Details view.

How Does “Share With You” Work in the Photos App

Whenever someone shares a photo with you, it will appear in the Photos app under a new “Shared With You” section located under the “For You” tab in the Photos app. It could be an image you received in the Messages app or some other chat app.

You will see a download icon next to the image in the Messages app. In previous iOS versions, you would need to tap on that to download and save the image to the Photos app.

Now, you don’t need to download it initially. Open the Photos app to view all shared images under the “Shared With You” section in the “For You” tab. As seen in the below screenshot, you will see the profile picture of the sender at the top. Tapping on the same will lead you back to the conversation in the Messages app where the image was first seen.

Not shown in the image is a link at the bottom that says “Save Shared Photo,” which allows you to save the photo so that is no longer only connected to the original message. Once you save the image, the option will no longer appear.

You may want to save the photo if you are the type to often delete old messages. If you delete the message before saving the photo, the photo will be gone.

If you are receiving files in the Messages app, you can easily save it for later use.

How to Share Photos From iCloud Directly

With iOS 15, you can now share photos via an iCloud link instead of sharing the actual photo. Open the Photos app and long-press on the photo that you want to share with someone. Tap on the “Share” button, then select “Copy iCloud link.”

The generated link can be shared via any messaging app you use. If you think the photo shouldn’t be shared anymore or was shared mistakenly, you can quickly stop sharing the photo. Open the Photos app and locate the photo you shared under the “For You” tab. Tap once to open it and select the three-dot menu icon to find the “Stop Sharing” button.

Disable “Shared with You” Completely Frequently Asked Questions 1. Why can’t I see “Shared With You” in Photos?

There are many people reporting on social media sites like Reddit and Twitter about this. It is not working for some users, but that is expected to be fixed in subsequent iOS updates, hopefully.

2. When do the shared links for iCloud Photos expire?

The link is available for 30 days, after which it will expire automatically. The recipient will be greeted with a “Failed to Retrieve” message after that. A new link would have to be generated then.

Wrapping Up

This is a neat feature that would make lives easier for many people. The rollout could have been smoother though. Shared With You works in a number of apps and collects valuable data and displays it in the apps. All links are available in the Safari browser, while all photos are visible in Photos app.

It will be interesting to see where Apple takes Shared With You in future updates.

Gaurav Bidasaria

A C.A. by profession and a tech enthusiast by passion, Gaurav loves tinkering with new tech and gadgets. He dropped out of CA in the final year to follow his passion. He has over seven years of experience as a writer covering consumer tech and writes how-to guides, comparisons, listicles, and explainers for B2B and B2C apps and services. He recently started working out but mostly, you will find him either gaming or streaming.

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Everything You Should Know About Data Structures In Python


Data structures in Python are a key concept to learn before we dive into the nuances of data science and model building

Learn about the different data structures Python offers, including lists, tuples and much more


A Data Structure sounds like a very straightforward topic – and yet a lot of data science and analytics newcomers have no idea what it is. When I quiz these folks about the different data structures in Python and how they work, I’m met with a blank stare. Not good!

Python is an easy programming language to learn but we need to get our basics clear first before we dive into the attractive machine learning coding bits. That’s because behind every data exploration task we perform, even analytics step we take, there is a basic element of storage and organization of the data.

And this is a no-brainer – it’s so much easier for us to extract information when we store our data efficiently. We save ourselves a ton of time thanks to our code running faster – who wouldn’t want that?

And that’s why I implore you to learn about data structures in Python.

In this article, we will explore the basic in-built data structures in Python that will come in handy when you are dealing with data in the real world. So whether you’re a data scientist or an analyst, this article is equally relevant for you.

Make sure you go through our comprehensive FREE Python course if you’re new to this awesome programming language.

Table of Contents

What are Data Structures in Python?

Data Structure #1: Lists in Python

Creating Lists

Accessing List elements

Appending values in Lists

Removing elements from Lists

Sorting Lists

Concatenating Lists

List comprehensions

Stacks & Queues using Lists

Data Structure #2: Tuples in Python

Creating Tuples in Python

Immutability of Tuples

Tuple assignment

Changing Tuples values

Data Structure #3: Dictionary in Python

Generating Dictionary

Accessing keys and values

Data Structure #4: Sets in Python

Add and Remove elements from Sets

Sets Operations

What are Data Structures?

Data structures are a way of storing and organizing data efficiently. This will allow you to easily access and perform operations on the data.

There is no one-size-fits-all kind of model when it comes to data structures. You will want to store data in different ways to cater to the need of the hour. Maybe you want to store all types of data together, or you want something for faster searching of data, or maybe something that stores only distinct data items.

Luckily, Python has a host of in-built data structures that help us to easily organize our data. Therefore, it becomes imperative to get acquainted with these first so that when we are dealing with data, we know exactly which data structure will solve our purpose effectively.

Lists in Python are the most versatile data structure. They are used to store heterogeneous data items, from integers to strings or even another list! They are also mutable, which means that their elements can be changed even after the list is created.

Creating Lists

Lists are created by enclosing elements within [square] brackets and each item is separated by a comma:

Python Code:

Since each element in a list has its own distinct position, having duplicate values in a list is not a problem:

Accessing List elements

To access elements of a list, we use Indexing. Each element in a list has an index related to it depending on its position in the list. The first element of the list has the index 0, the next element has index 1, and so on. The last element of the list has an index of one less than the length of the list.

But indexes don’t always have to be positive, they can be negative too. What do you think negative indexes indicate?

While positive indexes return elements from the start of the list, negative indexes return values from the end of the list. This saves us from the trivial calculation which we would have to otherwise perform if we wanted to return the nth element from the end of the list. So instead of trying to return List_name[len(List_name)-1] element, we can simply write List_name[-1].

Using negative indexes, we can return the nth element from the end of the list easily. If we wanted to return the first element from the end, or the last index, the associated index is -1. Similarly, the index for the second last element will be -2, and so on. Remember, the 0th index will still refer to the very first element in the list.

But what if we wanted to return a range of elements between two positions in the lists? This is called Slicing. All we have to do is specify the start and end index within which we want to return all the elements – List_name[start : end].

One important thing to remember here is that the element at the end index is never included. Only elements from start index till index equaling end-1 will be returned.

Appending values in Lists

We can add new elements to an existing list using the append() or insert() methods:

append() – Adds an element to the end of the list

insert() – Adds an element to a specific position in the list which needs to be specified along with the value

Removing elements from Lists

Removing elements from a list is as easy as adding them and can be done using the remove() or pop() methods:

remove() – Removes the first occurrence from the list that matches the given value

pop() – This is used when we want to remove an element at a specified index from the list. However, if we don’t provide an index value, the last element will be removed from the list

Sorting Lists

Most of the time, you will be using a list to sort elements. So it is very important to know about the sort() method. It lets you sort list elements in-place in either ascending or descending order:

But where things get a bit tricky is when you want to sort a list containing string elements. How do you compare two strings? Well, string values are sorted using ASCII values of the characters in the string. Each character in the string has an integer value associated with it. We use these values to sort the strings.

On comparing two strings, we just compare the integer values of each character from the beginning. If we encounter the same characters in both the strings, we just compare the next character until we find two differing characters. It is, of course, done internally so you don’t have to worry about it!

Concatenating Lists

We can even concatenate two or more lists by simply using the + symbol. This will return a new list containing elements from both the lists:

List comprehensions

A very interesting application of Lists is List comprehension which provides a neat way of creating new lists. These new lists are created by applying an operation on each element of an existing list. It will be easy to see their impact if we first check out how it can be done using the good old for-loops:

Now, we will see how we can concisely perform this operation using list comprehensions:

See the difference? List comprehensions are a useful asset for any data scientist because you have to write concise and readable code on a daily basis!

A list is an in-built data structure in Python. But we can use it to create user-defined data structures. Two very popular user-defined data structures built using lists are Stacks and Queues.

Stacks are a list of elements in which the addition or deletion of elements is done from the end of the list. Think of it as a stack of books. Whenever you need to add or remove a book from the stack, you do it from the top. It uses the simple concept of Last-In-First-Out.

Queues, on the other hand, are a list of elements in which the addition of elements takes place at the end of the list, but the deletion of elements takes place from the front of the list. You can think of it as a queue in the real-world. The queue becomes shorter when people from the front exit the queue. The queue becomes longer when someone new adds to the queue from the end. It uses the concept of First-In-First-Out.

Now, as a data scientist or an analyst, you might not be employing this concept every day, but knowing it will surely help you when you have to build your own algorithm!

Tuples are another very popular in-built data structure in Python. These are quite similar to Lists except for one difference – they are immutable. This means that once a tuple is generated, no value can be added, deleted, or edited.

We will explore this further, but let’s first see how you can create a Tuple in Python!

Tuples can be generated by writing values within (parentheses) and each element is separated by a comma. But even if you write a bunch of values without any parenthesis and assign them to a variable, you will still end up with a tuple! Have a look for yourself:

Ok, now that we know how to create tuples, let’s talk about immutability.

Immutability of Tuples

Anything that cannot be modified after creation is immutable in Python. Python language can be broken down into mutable and immutable objects.

Lists, dictionaries, sets (we will be exploring these in the further sections) are mutable objects, meaning they can be modified after creation. On the other hand integers, floating values, boolean values, strings, and even tuples are immutable objects. But what makes them immutable?

Everything in Python is an object. So we can use the in-built id() method which gives us the ability to check the memory location of an object. This is known as the identity of the object. Let’s create a list and determine the location of the list and its elements:

As you can see, both the list and its element have different locations in memory. Since we know lists are mutable, we can alter the value of its elements. Let’s do that and see how it affects the location values:

The location of the list did not change but that of the element did. This means that a new object was created for the element and saved in the list. This is what is meant by mutable. A mutable object is able to change its state, or contents, after creation but an immutable object is not able to do that.

But we can call tuples pseudo-immutable because even though they are immutable, they can contain mutable objects whose values can be modified!

As you can see from the example above, we were able to change the values of an immutable object, list, contained within a tuple.

Tuple assignment

Tuple packing and unpacking are some useful operations that you can perform to assign values to a tuple of elements from another tuple in a single line.

We already saw tuple packing when we made our planet tuple. Tuple unpacking is just the opposite-assigning values to variables from a tuple:

It is very useful for swapping values in a single line. Honestly, this was one of the first things that got me excited about Python, being able to do so much with such little coding!

Changing Tuple values

Although I said that tuple values cannot be changed, you can actually make changes to it by converting it to a list using list(). And when you are done making the changes, you can again convert it back to a tuple using tuple().

This change, however, is expensive as it involves making a copy of the tuple. But tuples come in handy when you don’t want others to change the content of the data structure.

Data Structure #3: Dictionary in Python

Dictionary is another Python data structure to store heterogeneous objects that are immutable but unordered. This means that when you try to access the elements, they might not be in exactly the order as the one you inserted them in.

But what sets dictionaries apart from lists is the way elements are stored in it. Elements in a dictionary are accessed via their key values instead of their index, as we did in a list. So dictionaries contain key-value pairs instead of just single elements.

Generating Dictionary

Dictionaries are generated by writing keys and values within a { curly } bracket separated by a semi-colon. And each key-value pair is separated by a comma:

Using the key of the item, we can easily extract the associated value of the item:

These keys are unique. But even if you have a dictionary with multiple items with the same key, the item value will be the one associated with the last key:

Dictionaries are very useful to access items quickly because, unlike lists and tuples, a dictionary does not have to iterate over all the items finding a value. Dictionary uses the item key to quickly find the item value. This concept is called hashing.

Accessing keys and values

You can access the keys from a dictionary using the keys() method and the values using the values() method. These we can view using a for-loop or turn them into a list using list():

We can even access these values simultaneously using the items() method which returns the respective key and value pair for each element of the dictionary.

Sometimes you don’t want multiple occurrences of the same element in your list or tuple. It is here that you can use a set data structure. Set is an unordered, but mutable, collection of elements that contains only unique values.

You will see that the values are not in the same order as they were entered in the set. This is because sets are unordered.

Add and Remove elements from a Set

To add values to a set, use the add() method. It lets you add any value except mutable objects:

To remove values from a set, you have two options to choose from:

The first is the remove() method which gives an error if the element is not present in the Set

The second is the discard() method which removes elements but gives no error when the element is not present in the Set

If the value does not exist, remove() will give an error but discard() won’t.

Set operations

Using Python Sets, you can perform operations like union, intersection and difference between two sets, just like you would in mathematics.

Union of two sets gives values from both the sets. But the values are unique. So if both the sets contain the same value, only one copy will be returned:

Intersection of two sets returns only those values that are common to both the sets:

Difference of a set from another gives only those values that are not present in the first set:

End Notes

Isn’t Python a beautiful language? It provides you with so many options to handle your data more efficiently. And learning about data structures in Python is a key aspect of your own learning journey.

This article should serve as a good introduction to the in-built data structures in Python. And if it got you interested in Python, and you are itching to know more about it in detail and how to use it in your everyday data science or analytics work, I recommend going through the following articles and courses:


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