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9 Easy Ways to Improve Cyber Security

Also Read: How to Use Windows AppLocker to Prevent Cyberattacks

Best Ways to Improve Cyber Security 1. Use a Password Manager

Therefore, using Password Manager is an easy way to stay secure as they create complicated long passwords with random characters that are hard to crack for each account. User will have to remember a master password and leave rest for the password manager to take care. Password Manager will create complicated password for each account thus making them secure.

 2. Enable Multi-Factor Authentication

Also Read: Is Windows Defender Good Enough for Your PC

3. Use Complex Passwords

4. Don’t Use Same Passwords

The biggest and most common mistake most of us make is using the same password and username for all accounts. Meaning, if hackers can access one account, then all the corresponding ones are automatically at risk. Thus, making it difficult to stop the damage. To keep accounts secure, one should use unique password for each account and especially the sensitive accounts should not have same and easy passwords.

5. Avoid Using Public Networks

6. Keep Your Software And Operating System Updated

7. Beware of Social Engineering

Sharing your passwords or login credentials with anyone is not a good idea. If anyone asks for your credentials through email, phone or texting a warning bell should ring. This is a potential scam and don’t fall for it. Therefore, to stay safe, remember the old school saying never trust anyone.

Also Read: 5 Security Threats You Need To Be Aware Of

8. Keep a Check on Administrative Privileges

An easy way to stay secure is by keeping an eagle eye on software installations, suspicious web history and permission requests. It helps you to stay on top of what’s going on your system and helps you notice the irregularities that may be caused due to malicious software on your machine. Therefore, by being cautious when installing a new software or update is good idea. Install software and updates from trusted sites and give administrative privileges only when required to minimize spread of malware infection.

9. Encrypt and Take Data Backup

Regular or incremental backup is very important as it helps your stay one step ahead of hackers. If your your system is attacked or you are locked out of it you can easily restore the data and work without being bothered about the attack. Creating encrypted backup makes your even more secure as you avoid the risk of attackers taking control of backed up data.

These nine tips will surely help you stay one step ahead of hackers. But they will only work if you use them before anything wrong happens. Because once an attack takes place it is becomes difficult for anyone to stop it. We all know this but forget most of time due to which we suffer a lot. Therefore, it’s better to take precautions beforehand rather than repenting later.

Next Read: Cross Site Scripting: Let It Not Snoop Over Your Browser

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9 Best Free Online Cyber Security Courses With Certifications

Cybercrime is a growing problem for individuals and businesses worldwide, and the demand for cybersecurity experts is growing day by day. In recent years, you will see a significant increase in tightening cybersecurity measures, creating even more jobs for cybersecurity professionals in the field.

Individuals and small businesses also want to protect themselves but lack the knowledge. That is why the demand for online cybersecurity certification has increased.

Below is a handpicked list of the Best Online Cyber Security Certificate Courses to gather knowledge about cybersecurity. The list contains both open source (free) and commercial (paid) cybersecurity courses.

Best Online Cybersecurity Courses with Certificate

Introduction to Cybersecurity is an online course that helps you learn the skills required to become a security professional. In this online cybersecurity program, you will learn to maintain and monitor the security of computer systems. This cybersecurity class will also teach you how to assess threats, respond to incidents, and implement security controls to minimize the risk.

Key topics:

Cybersecurity Foundations.

Defending and Securing Systems.

Incident, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Response.

Governance, Risk, and Compliance.


Real-world projects from industry experts.

Technical mentor support.

Career services.

The Security Engineer course helps you master the foundational skills necessary to become a successful security engineer. This cybersecurity course teaches you how to protect a company’s computer systems, networks, and infrastructure from security threats or attacks.

Key topics:

Security Engineering Fundamentals.

System Security.

Infrastructure Security.

Application Security.


Real-world projects from industry experts.

Technical mentor support.

Personalized feedback.

Unlimited submissions and feedback loops.

Practical tips for industry best practices.

Cyber Security : Go From Zero to Hero is a free cybersecurity training class. In this course, you will learn how to grow your career as a cybersecurity professional, which predicts the tremendous demand for cybersecurity experts by companies and governments worldwide.

This online cybersecurity course helps you develop the skills needed to become a cybersecurity professional. It is one of the best cyber security training programs designed to answer all the questions about cybersecurity. You will learn about various roles, jobs, and various certifications available in the cybersecurity industry.

In this free cyber security training course, you will learn the following:

Learn about the various jobs and roles you can apply for in the cybersecurity industry.

The skills that you need to become a true cybersecurity expert.

You will learn about cybersecurity certifications to apply for the different kinds of roles in Cybersecurity.

Key topics:

Facts about a career in cybersecurity.

Skills Needed.

Jobs role section preview.

Security Analyst role.

Security Architect.

Penetration Tester.

Computer Forensics Analyst.

Cyber Security Manager.


Unlimited access to every class.

Supportive online community.

Learn offline with Skillshare’s app.

Cybersecurity for Everyone is a free cybersecurity training course. You will learn how to use the latest tools to discourage and combat hackers who snoop attempting to infiltrate your Windows and Linux systems. This online cybersecurity course also helps you to build protection into your system: antivirus protection and firewalls.

In this college and university level course, you will learn how you scan your network for suspicious files, detect intruders, and identify vulnerabilities.

Key topics:

Why Cybersecurity.



Network Scanning.

Network Connections.

Vulnerability Scanning.

Web Applications.

Monitoring Packets.

Introduction to Cyber Security is an online course that helps learners develop a deeper understanding of modern information security, system protection, technology, and various methods.

With the help of this online cybersecurity course, learners can develop a lifelong passion and appreciation for cybersecurity. Students, developers, managers, and even private citizens can take benefits from this online cybersecurity class.

Key topics:

What are the purpose of cybersecurity as a discipline?

How to summarize the basics of identification and authentication in Cybersecurity?

Important pros and cons of security using obscurity.

How to create a lifelong learning plan for potential careers in Cybersecurity.


This free cyber security training offers a shareable certificate.

100% online course.

Flexible schedule.

Self-paced learning option.

Practice quizzes.

Graded programming assignments.

This university-level course is one of the best cyber security online courses that help you manage cyber risk and helps you select and apply controls, overall cybersecurity lifecycle, from managing defense to responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Key topics:

Framework and Controls.

Cyber Threats.

Managing Cyber Incidents.

It will help you develop an awareness of risks and cyber threats, and attacks related to modern technologies. You will learn key technical and managerial skills for information security.

Key topics:

Cybersecurity and Mobility.

Cybersecurity and the Internet of Things.

Cybersecurity and the X-Factor.

The Business of Cybersecurity Capstone.


Flexible deadlines.

Offers shareable certificate.

100% online course.

Language: French, Italian, English, Spanish.

The Complete Cyber Security Course: Hackers Exposed is a cybersecurity training course. You will learn how to use the latest tools to discourage and combat hackers who snoop attempting to infiltrate your Windows and Linux systems. This online cybersecurity course also helps you to build protection into your system: antivirus protection and firewalls.

This online cybersecurity class talks about the fundamental building blocks of the required skill set for cybersecurity. You will learn about the threat and vulnerability landscape with the help of threat modeling and risk assessments.

In this free cybersecurity training class, you will explore the darknet and mindset of the cyber-criminal. You will also learn about the global tracking and hacking infrastructures that nation states run in these free online security courses with certificates.

Key topics:

Start a career in Cybersecurity to become a cybersecurity specialist.

Latest up-to-date information and methods.

Operating system security, privacy, and patching Windows 8, Windows 10, macOS, and Linux.

How to master encryption.


4 volumes.

1 downloadable resource.

Access on mobile and TV.

Certificate of completion.

In this free online security course with a certificate, you will understand the current and next-generation antivirus solutions, how they work, how you can select the best products, and how you can apply them. This cybersecurity class helps you to select and implement solid disk encryption technology. It is one of the best cyber security training programs that helps you to protect devices from disk decryption attacks.

Key topics:

Learn about practical skill-set in securing laptops, desktops, and mobile devices.

Application control, machine learning, and AI.

How to detect and monitor for threats like malware and hackers.

How to perform operating system hardening to decrease the attacker surfaces of your devices.


Full lifetime access.

Access on mobile and TV.

Access to 5,000+ top courses

Certificate of completion.

Supported platforms: Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, and Android.

The Complete Cyber Security Course: Network Security is a cybersecurity training program that is designed for personal and home cybersecurity, privacy, and anonymity. You will learn the practical skill-set for network security against threats like hackers, trackers, exploit kits, WiFi attacks, etc. You will also be able to discover security vulnerabilities from an entire network by using network hacking techniques and vulnerability scanning.

Key topics:

Start a career in Cybersecurity. Become a cybersecurity specialist.

Important security vulnerabilities across an entire network.

Learn how to configure firewalls on all platforms, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.

How you can configure and architect a small network for maximum physical and wireless security.

Learn to identify potential hackers and malware using tools like Tcpdump, Wireshark, and Syslog.


106 lectures.

2 downloadable resources.

Full lifetime access.

Access on mobile and TV.

This free online security course with a certificate helps you to explore chaining and nesting anonymizing services. It is one of the best cybersecurity online courses that cover bypassing censors, firewalls, and proxies. In this cybersecurity class, you will also learn how to bypass the trickiest censoring devices like DPI. This cybersecurity course program also teaches both the theory and practice of setting up everything required to maintain privacy and security.

Key topics:

The latest up-to-date information and methods.

How to use the SSH protocol for optimal security and privacy.

How to use off-site connections like WiFi hotspots and Internet cafes for privacy and anonymity.

How you can use cellular networks for privacy and anonymity.


Full lifetime access.

Access on mobile and TV.

Other Useful Programming Resources you may like to explore

FAQ: ❓ Which Cyber Security Course is Best? ⚡ Why take a Cybersecurity Course?

Here are some good reasons for taking Cybersecurity Courses Online:

Cybercrimes are a real treat for families and businesses and knowing how to protect yourself and your children is vital.

All types of businesses, smallest to the largest, are vulnerable to data breaches, DDoS attacks, and other malicious cybercrimes.

Cybersecurity is surely the fastest-growing and lucrative field to get involved with if you are interested in such technology.

🏅 What careers are available in the field of cybersecurity?

Here are the career options available in the field of Cybersecurity:

Security Engineer: In this job, you will design and build network security for a company or organization.

Incident Response Analyst: Provides first response to security issues and common breaches.

Security Generalist: Cybersecurity analyst working in smaller organizations.

Cryptographer: Mainly works for developing encryption systems for business privacy.

Network Security Engineer: Working in specific large organizations to manage their software and hardware networks.

Security Trainer: The person trains others in cybersecurity tools and techniques.

Security Auditor or Analyst: In this job, the auditor analyzes and improves the effectiveness of an organization’s security system.

👉 Can I get into Cybersecurity without a formal degree?

Obtaining a bachelor’s degree in computer science, Cybersecurity, or information technology surely improves your chances of finding a high-paying job in the field; cybersecurity professionals do not always hold a degree.

For the people who are passionate about cybersecurity, a combination of real-world experience and formal training will increase success in finding the right career in cybersecurity.

❗ Are Free Cybersecurity Courses Worth It?

Cybersecurity is a lucrative field with a favorable outlook when it comes to job security. Even in the current pandemic situation, it remains stable. Students and professionals all over the world can take free online security courses with certificates that will help them start a new career or gain valuable skills that their current employer will appreciate.

🚀 What are the types of Cyber Security Courses?

Cybersecurity courses worldwide are offered in three broad categories:

Fresher: This course is specially designed for undergraduates who want to make careers in cybersecurity. These courses are recommended for students who like complex calculations, formulae, and computing.

Professional: These cybersecurity certificate programs are developed for people already working in IT departments of banks, companies, and government agencies.

Informal: These kinds of cybersecurity certificate programs are availed for younger students, homemakers, senior citizens, and anyone interested in basic cybersecurity.

❓ Does cyber security require coding?

Entry-level cybersecurity jobs do not necessarily require coding ability. Understanding programming languages is essential to stay ahead of hackers who have an intimate knowledge of these systems and exploit them.

⚡ What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity refers to the protection of hardware, software, and data from attackers. It protects data against cyberattacks like accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information.

🏅 What is Cyber Security Software?

Cyber security software is a computer program that helps to enhance the overall information security of a computer, system, or network. It helps to protect computer systems against intrusion, unauthorized use of resources, hacker attacks, etc. Cyber security software promptly alerts the user as it detects any threats in a computer system or a network.

The benefits of cyber security are as follows:

It protects the business against ransomware, malware, social engineering, and phishing.

It protects end-users security and privacy.

It gives good protection for both data and networks.

Increases recovery time after a breach.

Cybersecurity prevents unauthorized users.

💥 How does Cyber Security work?

A cybersecurity system has multiple layers of protection spread across devices, computers, programs, networks, etc. It helps you to protect your password, secure your network, safeguard your digital and physical data from intruders.

❗ Why Cyber Security is Important for Business? 💻 Which are the Best Cyber Security Software?

Below are some of the best cyber security software:

SolarWinds Security Event Manager



AVG Antivirus


Cyber Protect



Five Ways The Apple Patent Will Improve Iphone And Ipad Security

A blog post from chúng tôi provides an overview of the Apple patent application. According to the post, the patent technology would enable a variety of security features including “the device taking a photo of the thief (smile now) or recording the thief’s voice,” adding, “Apple’s iOS security is getting so smart, that it’ll even know what kind of vehicle that the thief is using your device in – be it a plane, train or automobile and notify the proper authorities.”

The patent summary explains, “Systems and methods for identifying unauthorized users of an electronic device are provided in today’s patent. In particular, systems and methods for detecting an unauthorized user, gathering information related to the electronic device, the unauthorized user, or both, and transmitting an alert notification to a responsible party for the electronic device are provided.”

While the patent application does mention the capability to remotely determine if an iPhone or iPad is jailbroken, and it describes methods for remotely restricting the capabilities of the device, those two things do not logically lead to the conclusion that Apple intends to remotely disable jailbroken devices–especially considering the fact that jailbreaking has been declared legal from a DMCA perspective.

Conspiracy theories over the lengths Apple will go to in order to preserve its walled garden aside, the patent describes a number of innovative methods for determining if a device has been lost or stolen, and alerting a responsible party. It also provides the means for taking action to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information on the iPhone or iPad, and gathering details that might help track the device down.

With the methods and technologies described in this patent application, the iPhone and iPad could significantly improve smartphone and tablet security and make a stronger case for business adoption of the devices. Here are some of the ways IT admins would benefit from the technologies described in the Apple patent.

• Detect Unauthorized Use. A photo or voice recording of the current user, or the current user’s heartbeat pattern can be compared to the photo, voice, or heartbeat pattern of the authorized user to determine if the device has been lost or stolen.

• Suspicious Activity. Entering an incorrect passcode a predetermined number of times, hacking or jailbreaking the device, removing the SIM card, or moving some predetermined distance from a synced device could indicate suspicious activity and be used to detect that the device has been lost or stolen.

• Gather Forensic Data. If the device is suspected of being lost or stolen, the current user’s photo, voice recording, and heartbeat pattern can be automatically gathered and sent to a responsible party (such as the IT admin). Other data that could be collected include screenshots, keystroke logs, data sent to the device, current GPS coordinates, or geotagged photos of the surrounding area.

• Method of Travel. The accelerometer of the iPhone or iPad can be used to detect the vibration profile of the device and compare it against known vibration patterns to determine if the device is currently traveling. This method is capable of determining types of movement including walking or running, or traveling by train, plane, automobile, or bicycle.

• Remote Security. In addition to sending the forensic data above, remote security measures would enable the functionality of the lost or stolen device to be limited, and/or Apple’s remote wipe feature could be used to remove sensitive information from the iPhone or iPad.

While the paranoid conspiracy that Apple is out to disable all jailbroken devices is far-fetched, the ability to remotely detect attempts to hack or jailbreak the iPhone or iPad can be a valuable tool for IT admins who need to monitor and maintain the devices remotely.

Follow TechAudit on Twitter.

Top 100+ Cyber Security Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is cybersecurity?

Here are Cyber Security interview questions and answers for fresher as well experienced candidates to get their dream job.

Cybersecurity refers to the protection of hardware, software, and data from attackers. The primary purpose of cyber security is to protect against cyberattacks like accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information.

2) What are the elements of cybersecurity?

Major elements of cybersecurity are:

Information security

Network security

Operational security

Application security

End-user education

Business continuity planning

Benefits of cyber security are as follows:

It protects the business against ransomware, malware, social engineering, and phishing.

It protects end-users.

It gives good protection for both data as well as networks.

Increase recovery time after a breach.

Cybersecurity prevents unauthorized users.

4) Define Cryptography.

5) Differentiate between IDS and IPS.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS) detects intrusions. The administrator has to be careful while preventing the intrusion. In the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS), the system finds the intrusion and prevent it.

6) What is CIA?

Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) is a popular model which is designed to develop a security policy. CIA model consists of three concepts:

Confidentiality: Ensure the sensitive data is accessed only by an authorized user.

Integrity: Integrity means the information is in the right format.

Availability: Ensure the data and resources are available for users who need them.

7) What is a Firewall?

It is a security system designed for the network. A firewall is set on the boundaries of any system or network which monitors and controls network traffic. Firewalls are mostly used to protect the system or network from malware, worms, and viruses. Firewalls can also prevent content filtering and remote access.

8) Explain Traceroute

It is a tool that shows the packet path. It lists all the points that the packet passes through. Traceroute is used mostly when the packet does not reach the destination. Traceroute is used to check where the connection breaks or stops or to identify the failure.

9) Differentiate between HIDS and NIDS.

Parameter HIDS NIDS

Usage HIDS is used to detect the intrusions. NIDS is used for the network.

What does it do? It monitors suspicious system activities and traffic of a specific device. It monitors the traffic of all device on the network.

10) Explain SSL

SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer. It is a technology creating encrypted connections between a web server and a web browser. It is used to protect the information in online transactions and digital payments to maintain data privacy.

11) What do you mean by data leakage?

Data leakage is an unauthorized transfer of data to the outside world. Data leakage occurs via email, optical media, laptops, and USB keys.

12) Explain the brute force attack. How to prevent it?

It is a trial-and-error method to find out the right password or PIN. Hackers repetitively try all the combinations of credentials. In many cases, brute force attacks are automated where the software automatically works to login with credentials. There are ways to prevent Brute Force attacks. They are:

Setting password length.

Increase password complexity.

Set limit on login failures.

13) What is port scanning?

It is the technique for identifying open ports and service available on a specific host. Hackers use port scanning technique to find information for malicious purposes.

14) Name the different layers of the OSI model.

Seven different layers of OSI models are as follows:

Physical Layer

Data Link Layer

Network Layer

Transport Layer

Session Layer

Presentation Layer

Application Layer

15) What is a VPN?

VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. It is a network connection method for creating an encrypted and safe connection. This method protects data from interference, snooping, censorship.

16) What are black hat hackers?

Black hat hackers are people who have a good knowledge of breaching network security. These hackers can generate malware for personal financial gain or other malicious reasons. They break into a secure network to modify, steal, or destroy data so that the network can not be used by authorized network users.

17) What are white hat hackers?

White hat hackers or security specialist are specialized in penetration testing. They protect the information system of an organization.

18) What are grey hat hackers?

Grey hat hackers are computer hacker who sometimes violate ethical standards, but they do not have malicious intent.

19) How to reset a password-protected BIOS configuration?

There are various ways to reset BIOS password. Some of them are as follows:

Remove CMOS battery.

By utilizing the software.

By utilizing a motherboard jumper.

By utilizing MS-DOS.

20) What is MITM attack?

A MITM or Man-in-the-Middle is a type of attack where an attacker intercepts communication between two persons. The main intention of MITM is to access confidential information.

21) Define ARP and its working process.

It is a protocol used for finding MAC address associated with IPv4 address. This protocol work as an interface between the OSI network and OSI link layer.

22) Explain botnet.

It’s a number of internet-connected devices like servers, mobile devices, IoT devices, and PCs that are infected and controlled by malware.

23) What is the main difference between SSL and TLS?

The main difference between these two is that SSL verifies the identity of the sender. SSL helps you to track the person you are communicating to. TLS offers a secure channel between two clients.

24) What is the abbreviation of CSRF?

CSRF stands for Cross-Site Request Forgery.

25) What is 2FA? How to implement it for a public website?

TFA stands for Two Factor Authentication. It is a security process to identify the person who is accessing an online account. The user is granted access only after presenting evidence to the authentication device.

26) Explain the difference between asymmetric and symmetric encryption.

Symmetric encryption requires the same key for encryption and decryption. On the other hand, asymmetric encryption needs different keys for encryption and decryption.

27) What is the full form of XSS?

XSS stands for cross-site scripting.

28) Explain WAF

29) What is hacking?

Hacking is a process of finding weakness in computer or private networks to exploit its weaknesses and gain access.

For example, using password cracking technique to gain access to a system.

30) Who are hackers?

A Hacker is a person who finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems, smartphones, tablets, or networks to gain access. Hackers are well experienced computer programmers with knowledge of computer security.

31) What is network sniffing?

Network sniffing is a tool used for analyzing data packets sent over a network. This can be done by the specialized software program or hardware equipment. Sniffing can be used to:

Capture sensitive data such as password.

Eavesdrop on chat messages

Monitor data package over a network

32) What is the importance of DNS monitoring?

Yong domains are easily infected with malicious software. You need to use DNS monitoring tools to identify malware.

33) Define the process of salting. What is the use of salting?

Salting is that process to extend the length of passwords by using special characters. To use salting, it is very important to know the entire mechanism of salting. The use of salting is to safeguard passwords. It also prevents attackers testing known words across the system.

For example, Hash(“QxLUF1bgIAdeQX”) is added to each and every password to protect your password. It is called as salt.

34) What is SSH?

SSH stands for Secure Socket Shell or Secure Shell. It is a utility suite that provides system administrators secure way to access the data on a network.

35) Is SSL protocol enough for network security?

SSL verifies the sender’s identity, but it does not provide security once the data is transferred to the server. It is good to use server-side encryption and hashing to protect the server against a data breach.

36) What is black box testing and white box testing?

Black box testing: It is a software testing method in which the internal structure or program code is hidden.

White box testing: A software testing method in which internal structure or program is known by tester.

37) Explain vulnerabilities in network security.

Vulnerabilities refer to the weak point in software code which can be exploited by a threat actor. They are most commonly found in an application like SaaS (Software as a service) software.

38) Explain TCP Three-way handshake.

It is a process used in a network to make a connection between a local host and server. This method requires the client and server to negotiate synchronization and acknowledgment packets before starting communication.

39) Define the term residual risk. What are three ways to deal with risk?

It is a threat that balances risk exposure after finding and eliminating threats.

Three ways to deal with risk are:

Reduce it

Avoid it

Accept it.

40) Define Exfiltration.

41) What is exploit in network security?

An exploit is a method utilized by hackers to access data in an unauthorized way. It is incorporated into malware.

42) What do you mean by penetration testing?

It is the process of checking exploitable vulnerabilities on the target. In web security, it is used to augment the web application firewall.

43) List out some of the common cyber-attack.

Following are the common cyber-attacks which can be used by hackers to damage network:



Password attacks


Man in the middle


Rogue software

44) How to make the user authentication process more secure?

In order to authenticate users, they have to provide their identity. The ID and Key can be used to confirm the user’s identity. This is an ideal way how the system should authorize the user.

45) Explain the concept of cross-site scripting.

Cross-site scripting refers to a network security vulnerability in which malicious scripts are injected into websites. This attack occurs when attackers allow an untrusted source to inject code into a web application.

46) Name the protocol that broadcast the information across all the devices.

Internet Group Management Protocol or IGMP is a communication protocol that is used in game or video streaming. It facilitates routers and other communication devices to send packets.

47) How to protect email messages?

Use cipher algorithm to protect email, credit card information, and corporate data.

48) What are the risks associated with public Wi-Fi?

Public Wi-Fi has many security issues. Wi-Fi attacks include karma attack, sniffing, war-driving, brute force attack, etc.

Public Wi-Fi may identify data that is passed through a network device like emails, browsing history, passwords, and credit card data.

49) What is Data Encryption? Why it is important in network security?

Data encryption is a technique in which the sender converts the message into a code. It allows only authorized user to gain access.

50) Explain the main difference between Diffie-Hellman and RSA.

Diffie-Hellman is a protocol used while exchanging key between two parties while RSA is an algorithm that works on the basis two keys called private and public key.

51) What is a remote desktop protocol?

Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is developed by Microsoft, which provides GUI to connect two devices over a network.

The user uses RDP client software to serve this purpose while other device must run RDP server software. This protocol is specifically designed for remote management and to access virtual PCs, applications, and terminal server.

52) Define Forward Secrecy.

Forward Secrecy is a security measure that ensures the integrity of unique session key in event that long term key is compromised.

53) Explain the concept of IV in encryption.

IV stands for the initial vector is an arbitrary number that is used to ensures that identical text encrypted to different ciphertexts. Encryption program uses this number only once per session.

54) Explain the difference between stream cipher and block cipher.

Parameter Stream Cipher Block Cipher

How does it work? Stream cipher operates on small plaintext units Block cipher works on large data blocks.

Code requirement It requires less code. It requires more code.

Usage of key Key is used only once. Reuse of key is possible.

Application Secure Socket layer. File encryption and database.

Usage Stream cipher is used to implement hardware. Block cipher is used to implement software.

55) Give some examples of a symmetric encryption algorithm.

Following are some examples of symmetric encryption algorithm.



Rijndael (AES)


56) What is the abbreviation of ECB and CBC?

The full form of ECB is Electronic Codebook, and the full form of CBC is Cipher Block Chaining.

57) Explain a buffer overflow attack. 58) Define Spyware.

Spyware is a malware that aims to steal data about the organization or person. This malware can damage the organization’s computer system.

59) What is impersonation?

It is a mechanism of assigning the user account to an unknown user.

60) What do you mean by SRM?

SRM stands for Security Reference Monitor provides routines for computer drivers to grant access rights to object.

61) What is a computer virus?

A virus is a malicious software that is executed without the user’s consent. Viruses can consume computer resources, such as CPU time and memory. Sometimes, the virus makes changes in other computer programs and insert its own code to harm the computer system.

A computer virus may be used to:

Access private data like user id and passwords

Display annoying messages to the user

Corrupt data in your computer

Log the user’s keystrokes

62) What do you mean by Authenticode?

Authenticode is a technology that identifies the publisher of Authenticode sign software. It allows users to ensure that the software is genuine and not contain any malicious program.

63) Define CryptoAPI

CryptoAPI is a collection of encryption APIs which allows developers to create a project on a secure network.

64) Explain steps to secure web server.

Follow the following steps to secure your web server:

Update ownership of file.

Keep your webserver updated.

Disable extra modules in the webserver.

Delete default scripts.

65) What is Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer?

Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer or MBSA is a graphical and command-line interface that provides a method to find missing security updates and misconfigurations.

66) What is Ethical hacking?

Ethical hacking is a method to improve the security of a network. In this method, hackers fix vulnerabilities and weakness of computer or network. Ethical hackers use software tools to secure the system.

67) Explain social engineering and its attacks.

Social engineering is the term used to convince people to reveal confidential information.

There are mainly three types of social engineering attacks: 1) Human-based, 2) Mobile-based, and 3) Computer-based.

Human-based attack: They may pretend like a genuine user who requests higher authority to reveal private and confidential information of the organization.

Computer-based attack: In this attack, attackers send fake emails to harm the computer. They ask people to forward such email.

68) What is IP and MAC Addresses?

IP Address is the acronym for Internet Protocol address. An internet protocol address is used to uniquely identify a computer or device such as printers, storage disks on a computer network.

MAC Address is the acronym for Media Access Control address. MAC addresses are used to uniquely identify network interfaces for communication at the physical layer of the network.

69) What do you mean by a worm?

A Worm is a type of malware which replicates from one computer to another.

70) State the difference between virus and worm

Parameter Virus Worm

How they infect a computer? It inserts malicious code into a specific file or program. Generate it’s copy and spread using email client.

Dependency Virus need a host program to work They do not require any host to function correctly.

Linked with files It is linked with any file on a network.

Affecting speed It is slower than worm. It faster compared to a virus.

71) Name some tools used for packet sniffing.

Following are some tools used for packet sniffing.






72) Explain anti-virus sensor systems

Antivirus is software tool that is used to identify, prevent, or remove the viruses present in the computer. They perform system checks and increase the security of the computer regularly.

73) List out the types of sniffing attacks.

Various types of sniffing attacks are:

Protocol Sniffing

Web password sniffing

Application-level sniffing

TCP Session stealing

LAN Sniffing

ARP Sniffing

74) What is a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS)?

It is an attack in which multiple computers attack website, server, or any network resource.

75) Explain the concept of session hijacking.

TCP session hijacking is the misuse of a valid computer session. IP spoofing is the most common method of session hijacking. In this method, attackers use IP packets to insert a command between two nodes of the network.

76) List out various methods of session hijacking.

Various methods of session hijacking are:

Using packet Sniffers

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS Attack)

IP Spoofing

Blind Attack

77) What are Hacking Tools?

Hacking Tools are computer programs and scripts that help you find and exploit weaknesses in computer systems, web applications, servers, and networks. There are varieties of such tools available on the market. Some of them are open source, while others are a commercial solution.

78) Explain honeypot and its Types.

Honeypot is a decoy computer system which records all the transactions, interactions, and actions with users.

Honeypot is classified into two categories: 1) Production honeypot and 2) Research honeypot.

Production honeypot: It is designed to capture real information for the administrator to access vulnerabilities. They are generally placed inside production networks to increase their security.

Research Honeypot: It is used by educational institutions and organizations for the sole purpose of researching the motives and tactics of the back-hat community for targeting different networks.

79) Name common encryption tools.

Tools available for encryptions are as follows:




Triple DES

80) What is Backdoor?

It is a malware type in which security mechanism is bypassed to access a system.

81) Is it right to send login credentials through email?

It is not right to send login credentials through email because if you send someone userid and password in the mail, chances of email attacks are high.

82) Explain the 80/20 rule of networking?

This rule is based on the percentage of network traffic, in which 80% of all network traffic should remain local while the rest of the traffic should be routed towards a permanent VPN.

83) Define WEP cracking.

It is a method used for a security breach in wireless networks. There are two types of WEP cracking: 1) Active cracking and 2) Passive cracking.

84) What are various WEP cracking tools?

Well known WEP cracking tools are:





85) What is a security auditing?

Security auditing is an internal inspection of applications and operating systems for security flaws. An audit can also be done via line by line inspection of code.

86) Explain phishing.

It is a technique used to obtain a username, password, and credit card details from other users.

87) What is Nano-scale encryption?

Nano encryption is a research area which provides robust security to computers and prevents them from hacking.

88) Define Security Testing?

Security Testing is defined as a type of Software Testing that ensures software systems and applications are free from any vulnerabilities, threats, risks that may cause a big loss.

89) Explain Security Scanning.

Security scanning involves identifying network and system weaknesses and later provides solutions for reducing these risks. This scanning can be performed for both Manual as well as Automated scanning.

90) Name the available hacking tools.

Following is a list of useful hacking tools.





Angry IP scanner:

Burp Suite


91) What is the importance of penetration testing in an enterprise?

Here are two common application of Penetration testing.

Financial sectors like stock trading exchanges, investment banking, want their data to be secured, and penetration testing is essential to ensure security.

In case if the software system is already hacked and the organization would like to determine whether any threats are still present in the system to avoid future hacks.

Penetration testing cannot find all vulnerabilities in the system.

There are limitations of time, budget, scope, skills of penetration testers.

Data loss and corruption

Down Time is high which increase costs

93) Explain security threat

Security threat is defined as a risk which can steal confidential data and harm computer systems as well as organization.

94) What are physical threats?

A physical threat is a potential cause of an incident that may result in loss or physical damage to the computer systems.

95) Give examples of non-physical threats

Following are some examples of non-physical threat:

Loss of sensitive information

Loss or corruption of system data

Cyber security Breaches

Disrupt business operations that rely on computer systems

Illegal monitoring of activities on computer systems

96) What is Trojan virus?

Trojan is a malware employed by hackers and cyber-thieves to gain access to any computer. Here attackers use social engineering techniques to execute the trojan on the system.

97) Define SQL Injection

It is an attack that poisons malicious SQL statements to database. It helps you to take benefit of the design flaws in poorly designed web applications to exploit SQL statements to execute malicious SQL code. In many situations, an attacker can escalate SQL injection attack in order to perform other attack, i.e. denial-of-service attack.

98) List security vulnerabilities as per Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP).

Security vulnerabilities as per open web application security project are as follows:

SQL Injection

Cross-site request forgery

Insecure cryptographic storage

Broken authentication and session management

Insufficient transport layer protection

Unvalidated redirects and forwards

Failure to restrict URL access

99) Define an access token.

An access token is a credential which is used by the system to check whether the API should be granted to a particular object or not.

100) Explain ARP Poisoning

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Poisoning is a type of cyber-attack which is used to convert IP address to physical addresses on a network device. The host sends an ARP broadcast on the network, and the recipient computer responds back with its physical address.

ARP poisoning is sending fake addresses to the switch so that it can associate the fake addresses with the IP address of a genuine computer on a network and hijack the traffic.

101) Name common types of non-physical threats.

Following are various types of non-physical threats:





Denial of Service Attacks

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks


Key loggers

Unauthorized access to computer systems resources


102) Explain the sequence of a TCP connection.

The sequence of a TCP connection is SYN-SYN ACK-ACK.

103) Define hybrid attacks.

Hybrid attack is a blend of dictionary method and brute force attack. This attack is used to crack passwords by making a change of a dictionary word with symbols and numbers.

104) What is Nmap?

Nmap is a tool which is used for finding networks and in security auditing.

105) What is the use of EtterPeak tool?

EtterPeak is a network analysis tool that is used for sniffing packets of network traffic.

106) What are the types of cyber-attacks?

There are two types of cyberattacks: 1) Web-based attacks, 2) System based attacks.

107) List out web-based attacks

Some web-based attacks are: 1) SQL Injection attacks, 2) Phishing, 3) Brute Force, 4) DNS Spoofing, 4) Denial of Service, and 5) Dictionary attacks.

108) Give examples of System-based attacks

Examples of system-based attacks are:





109) List out the types of cyber attackers

There are four types of cyber attackers. They are: 1) cybercriminals, 2) hacktivists, 3) insider threats, 4) state-sponsored attackers.

110) Define accidental threats

They are threats that are accidently done by organization employees. In these threats, an employee unintentionally deletes any file or share confidential data with outsiders or a business partner going beyond the policy of the company.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

4 Easy Ways To Debloat Windows 11

4 Easy Ways to Debloat Windows 11 How to Debloat Windows 11

Like Windows 10, Windows 11 is loaded with bloatware apps and services. You might not even notice that some of these programs are running on your computer, but they’re taking up a lot of space and memory and sometimes even making it run slow.

If you want to debloat Windows 11, you’ll undoubtedly have more options than simply waiting for Microsoft’s next major OS revision. This can be done by using specialized third-party tools to uninstall applications without affecting the computer. You can also manually remove the apps you don’t need.

Shutdown your computer once in a while.

Quit the apps/software which are not being used at the moment.

When browsing, open tabs which are needed. Opening too many tabs on the browser could reduce the browsing speed.

Never install software from an unauthorized website; go to the software’s official website to download it.

Uninstall programs that are not in use.

Top Ways To Debloat Windows 11 PC/Laptop Installing Latest Updates On Windows 11

Before debloating Windows 11, you must ensure that your Windows 11 PC is updated. To check that, follow these steps:

Press Windows and I to open Settings.

Manually Uninstall Unnecessary Apps

You can permanently remove or uninstall useless apps manually to debloat Windows 11.

Note: Whenever you make changes on your computer, ensure that you have enabled Restore Point

Press the “Windows” key with the key “X” to open the WinX menu. A vertical pop-up window will appear in front of you.

It will take you to the window where all your apps are listed on your machine.

Tap on the three vertical ‘dots’ in front of the name of the app.

Now select “Uninstall.

Also Read: Best Uninstaller Software For Windows 10 (Remove Apps Without Any Traces) (2024)

By Using DSIM

Once again, press the “Windows” key with the key “X” to open the WinX menu.

Copy this command and paste it into your terminal.

Hit “Enter” and the script will show you all the apps installed on your Windows 11 device.

Scroll through the list and select the app you want to remove.

Now copy this command and paste the whole package name from the above list you want to remove from the device. Like this:

DISM/Online/Remove-ProvisionedAppxPackage/PackageName: Mircosoft.ZuneMusic_11.2203.30.0_neutral_~_8wekybd8bbwe

Copy and paste this whole code into the terminal and hit “Enter” to remove the useless app.

Also Read: How To Fix Software Not Uninstalling On Windows 10

By Using Windows Terminal

Once again, press the “Windows” key with the key “X” to open the WinX menu.

Copy this code and run it in a terminal.

Debloat Windows 11 window will appear in front of you.

Writer’s Tip: Advanced System Optimizer: The One-Stop Cleaning and Optimization Tool for Windows.

Advanced System Optimizer helps clean up Windows 10/11 devices and provides tools to delete files securely, perform data recovery, disk optimization & RAM cleaning for peak performance. It delivers an affordable, easy-to-use solution for all your Windows optimization needs.

Why use Advanced System Optimizer?

1. Disk Cleaner & Optimizer

Clean your computer’s hard drive and speed up a slow PC in no time. Removing junk and obsolete files from your storage boosts PC speed with faster response and load time.

2. System Security & Privacy

Protect your privacy by deleting browsing history and cookies, encrypting your important files from prying eyes, and deleting data permanently with this Best PC Cleaner.

3. Windows Optimizers

Keep your PC working like new with Advanced System Optimizer. It comes with in-built utilities to maintain & optimize your computer with ease, making it the best PC Cleaner.

4. Backup and Recovery

Backup important files such as videos, audio files, photographs, and documents alongside recovery of lost data, regardless of whether it was deleted or formatted.


OS Requirement – Windows 11/10/8.1/8/7/Vista and XP (both 32- bit and 64- bit)

Download Advanced System Optimizer

To Wrap it Up

And that’s it – you’re done. These are some ways by which you can debloat Windows 11 operating system. As you can see, getting rid of bloatware is relatively straightforward, and you will be on your way to a smooth-running computer in no time!

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About the author

Sourabh Baghel

9 Ways To Know Your Customers Better

It’s an understatement to say that you rely on your customers. After all, they represent the source of your revenue. Your business only really exists because of them. However, as vital as they are to your operation, your customers can sometimes feel like strangers. In order to maintain growth, you have to know your customers better.

Without this essential information, a knowledge gap can develop. Don’t let that happen. It leaves you vulnerable to your competition and can alienate you from the market. Instead, take all the steps necessary to understand your customers as deeply as you can. 

Learning more about the people buying your products and services can lead to unexpected insights. The more information you have, the better you can respond to changing market forces and an evolving business environment. Meanwhile, without the proper intelligence about your clientele, you’re basically throwing darts in the dark. The future of your business becomes a game of chance, rather than a logical endeavor.

With that in mind, here are nine steps you can take to learn more about your customers:

Check Reviews

Finding out about your customers can become a resource-intensive endeavor. However, there are relatively cheap ways of getting some information. In fact, your customers likely already do some of the work for you. All you have to do is read your reviews.

Invest in Customer Service 

Errors and disappointments are bound to happen. But just because the customer is unsatisfied with one particular order doesn’t mean you have to lose them forever. By making sure that your customer service operation is robust and responsive, you can turn otherwise unpleasant encounters into long term growth opportunities.

Also read: Top 9 WordPress Lead Generation Plugins in 2023 Listen to Your Sales Staff

Sometimes you have to read between the lines to really understand someone. Not every customer is going to be upfront about their needs. As such, you need to trust the people closest to the situation in order to figure out what’s happening below the surface. In the case of your customers, this responsibility falls to your sales staff. Listen to what they have to say. They can give you subtle insights that might not be available through other means.

Social Media 

Social media represents an excellent marketing platform. However, it can be much more than that. Beyond just providing an outlet for your branding content, social media allows you to connect directly with customers and potential customers. You can converse with people, gather intel, and build relationships. Leverage your social media opportunities to learn more about your customers.

Conduct Surveys 

Also read: Best 10 Semrush Alternative for 2023 (Free & Paid)

Meet in Person 

Host a Party

You work hard to create a sense of community among your employees – conferences, team-building exercises, and, of course, company functions. Those same principles can apply to your customers.

Also read: The Five Best Free Cattle Record Keeping Apps & Software For Farmers/Ranchers/Cattle Owners Consider “Why?”

Knowing your customers is all about planning for the future. The more information you have, the easier it is to innovate and to make improvements. Getting to that point means going beyond the single sale. Instead, with every customer, you need to ask yourself “why?” 

Why did they choose you over the competition? How do your products and services fit into their business? How is there industry changing? The answers to these questions will guide your development. Staying curious and current will set you up for long-term growth.


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