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If you believe that our Test Image is similar to our first reference image you are right. If you do believe otherwise then let’s find out together with the power of mathematics and programming.

Every image is stored in our computer in the form of numbers and a vector of such numbers that can completely describe our image is known as an Image Vector.

Euclidean Distance:

Euclidean Distance represents the distance between any two points in an n-dimensional space. Since we are representing our images as image vectors they are nothing but a point in an n-dimensional space and we are going to use the euclidean distance to find the distance between them.

Histogram:

A histogram is a graphical display of numerical values. We are going to use the image vector for all three images and then find the euclidean distance between them. Based on the values returned the image with a lesser distance is more similar than the other.

To find the similarity between the two images we are going to use the following approach :

Read the image files as an array.

Since the image files are colored there are 3 channels for RGB values. We are going to flatten them such that each image is a single 1-D array.

Once we have our image files as an array we are going to generate a histogram for each image where for each index 0 – 255 we are going the count the occurrence of that pixel value in the image.

Once we have our histograms we are going to use the L2-Norm or Euclidean Distance to find the difference the two histograms.

Based on the distance between the histogram of our test image and the reference images we can find the image our test image is most similar to.

Coding for Image Similarity in Python Import the dependencies we are going to use from PIL import Image from collections import Counter import numpy as np

We are going to use NumPy for storing the image as a NumPy array, Image to read the image in terms of numerical values and Counter to count the number of times each pixel value (0-255) occurs in the images.

﻿

We can see that out image has been successfully read as a 3-D array. In the next step, we need to flatten this 3-D array into a 1-Dimensional array.

flat_array_1 = array1.flatten() print(np.shape(flat_array_1)) >>> (245760, )

We are going to do the same steps for the other two images. I will skip that here so that you can try your hands on it too.

Generating the Count-Histogram-Vector : RH1 = Counter(flat_array_1)

The following line of code returns a dictionary where the key corresponds to the pixel value and the value of the key is the number of times that pixel is present in the image.

One limitation of Euclidean distance is that it requires all the vectors to be normalized i.e both the vectors need to be of the same dimensions. To ensure that our histogram vector is normalized we are going to use a for loop from 0-255 and generate our histogram with the value of the key if the key is present in the image else we append a 0.

H1 = [] for i in range(256): if i in RH1.keys(): H1.append(RH1[i]) else: H1.append(0)

The above piece of code generates a vector of size (256, ) where each index corresponds to the pixel value and the value corresponds to the count of the pixel in that image.

We follow the same steps for the other two images and obtain their corresponding Count-Histogram-Vectors. At this point we have our final vectors for both the reference images and the test image and all we need to do is calculate the distances and predict.

Euclidean Distance Function : def L2Norm(H1,H2): distance =0 for i in range(len(H1)): distance += np.square(H1[i]-H2[i]) return np.sqrt(distance)

The above function takes in two histograms and returns the euclidean distance between them.

Evaluation :

Since we have everything we need to find the image similarities let us find out the distance between the test image and our first reference image.

dist_test_ref_1 = L2Norm(H1,test_H) print("The distance between Reference_Image_1 and Test Image is : {}".format(dist_test_ref_1)) >>> The distance between Reference_Image_1 and Test Image is : 9882.175468994668

Let us now find out the distance between the test image and our second reference image.

dist_test_ref_2 = L2Norm(H2,test_H) print("The distance between Reference_Image_2 and Test Image is : {}".format(dist_test_ref_2)) >>> The distance between Reference_Image_2 and Test Image is : 137929.0223122023

You're reading A Beginners’ Guide To Image Similarity Using Python

## Beginners Guide To Topic Modeling In Python

Introduction

Analytics Industry is all about obtaining the “Information” from the data. With the growing amount of data in recent years, that too mostly unstructured, it’s difficult to obtain the relevant and desired information. But, technology has developed some powerful methods which can be used to mine through the data and fetch the information that we are looking for.

One such technique in the field of text mining is Topic Modelling. As the name suggests, it is a process to automatically identify topics present in a text object and to derive hidden patterns exhibited by a text corpus. Thus, assisting better decision making.

What is Topic Modeling?

Topic modeling, an essential tool in statistics and natural language processing, encompasses a statistical model designed to reveal the abstract “topics” present in a set of documents. It serves as a powerful text-mining technique, enabling the discovery of concealed semantic structures within a body of text. By employing topic modeling, researchers can gain insights into the underlying themes and concepts embedded in the documents under investigation.

Topic Modelling is different from rule-based text mining approaches that use regular expressions or dictionary based keyword searching techniques. It is an unsupervised approach used for finding and observing the bunch of words (called “topics”) in large clusters of texts.

Topics can be defined as “a repeating pattern of co-occurring terms in a corpus”. A good topic model should result in – “health”, “doctor”, “patient”, “hospital” for a topic – Healthcare, and “farm”, “crops”, “wheat” for a topic – “Farming”.

Topic Models are very useful for the purpose for document clustering, organizing large blocks of textual data, information retrieval from unstructured text and feature selection. For Example – New York Times are using topic models to boost their user – article recommendation engines. Various professionals are using topic models for recruitment industries where they aim to extract latent features of job descriptions and map them to right candidates. They are being used to organize large datasets of emails, customer reviews, and user social media profiles.

So, if you aren’t sure about the complete process of topic modeling, this guide would introduce you to various concepts followed by its implementation in python.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation for Topic Modeling

There are many approaches for obtaining topics from a text such as – Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency. NonNegative Matrix Factorization techniques. Latent Dirichlet Allocation is the most popular topic modeling technique and in this article, we will discuss the same.

LDA assumes documents are produced from a mixture of topics. Those topics then generate words based on their probability distribution. Given a dataset of documents, LDA backtracks and tries to figure out what topics would create those documents in the first place.

LDA is a matrix factorization technique. In vector space, any corpus (collection of documents) can be represented as a document-term matrix. The following matrix shows a corpus of N documents D1, D2, D3 … Dn and vocabulary size of M words W1,W2 .. Wn. The value of i,j cell gives the frequency count of word Wj in Document Di.

Notice that these two matrices already provides topic word and document topic distributions, However, these distribution needs to be improved, which is the main aim of LDA. LDA makes use of sampling techniques in order to improve these matrices.

It Iterates through each word “w” for each document “d” and tries to adjust the current topic – word assignment with a new assignment. A new topic “k” is assigned to word “w” with a probability P which is a product of two probabilities p1 and p2.

For every topic, two probabilities p1 and p2 are calculated. P1 – p(topic t / document d) = the proportion of words in document d that are currently assigned to topic t. P2 – p(word w / topic t) = the proportion of assignments to topic t over all documents that come from this word w.

The current topic – word assignment is updated with a new topic with the probability, product of p1 and p2 . In this step, the model assumes that all the existing word – topic assignments except the current word are correct. This is essentially the probability that topic t generated word w, so it makes sense to adjust the current word’s topic with new probability.

After a number of iterations, a steady state is achieved where the document topic and topic term distributions are fairly good. This is the convergence point of LDA.

Parameters of LDA

Alpha and Beta Hyperparameters – alpha represents document-topic density and Beta represents topic-word density. Higher the value of alpha, documents are composed of more topics and lower the value of alpha, documents contain fewer topics. On the other hand, higher the beta, topics are composed of a large number of words in the corpus, and with the lower value of beta, they are composed of few words.

Number of Topics – Number of topics to be extracted from the corpus. Researchers have developed approaches to obtain an optimal number of topics by using Kullback Leibler Divergence Score. I will not discuss this in detail, as it is too mathematical. For understanding, one can refer to this[1] original paper on the use of KL divergence.

Number of Topic Terms – Number of terms composed in a single topic. It is generally decided according to the requirement. If the problem statement talks about extracting themes or concepts, it is recommended to choose a higher number, if problem statement talks about extracting features or terms, a low number is recommended.

Number of Iterations / passes – Maximum number of iterations allowed to LDA algorithm for convergence.

You can learn topic modeling in depth  here.

Running in python Preparing Documents

Here are the sample documents combining together to form a corpus.

Cleaning and Preprocessing

Cleaning is an important step before any text mining task, in this step, we will remove the punctuations, stopwords and normalize the corpus.

﻿

Preparing Document-Term Matrix Running LDA Model

```

Results

Each line is a topic with individual topic terms and weights. Topic1 can be termed as Bad Health, and Topic3 can be termed as Family.

Tips to improve results of topic modeling

The results of topic models are completely dependent on the features (terms) present in the corpus. The corpus is represented as document term matrix, which in general is very sparse in nature. Reducing the dimensionality of the matrix can improve the results of topic modelling. Based on my practical experience, there are few approaches which do the trick.

1. Frequency Filter – Arrange every term according to its frequency. Terms with higher frequencies are more likely to appear in the results as compared ones with low frequency. The low frequency terms are essentially weak features of the corpus, hence it is a good practice to get rid of all those weak features. An exploratory analysis of terms and their frequency can help to decide what frequency value should be considered as the threshold.

Note: If you want to learn Topic Modeling in detail and also do a project using it, then we have a video based course on NLP, covering Topic Modeling and its implementation in Python.

Topic Modelling for Feature Selection

Sometimes LDA can also be used as feature selection technique. Take an example of text classification problem where the training data contain category wise documents. If LDA is running on sets of category wise documents. Followed by removing common topic terms across the results of different categories will give the best features for a category.

Q1. Why topic modeling is used?

A. Topic modeling is used to uncover hidden patterns and thematic structures within a collection of documents. It aids in understanding the main themes and concepts present in the text corpus without relying on pre-defined tags or training data. By extracting topics, researchers can gain insights, summarize large volumes of text, classify documents, and facilitate various tasks in text mining and natural language processing.

Q2. Which technique is used in topic modeling?

A. The technique commonly used in topic modeling is Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). LDA is a generative probabilistic model that assigns words to topics and topics to documents, allowing the discovery of latent topics within a text corpus. It is a widely adopted method for topic modeling in natural language processing.

Q3. Is topic modelling a clustering technique?

A. While topic modeling involves the identification of clusters or groups of similar words within a body of text, it is not strictly considered a clustering technique in the traditional sense. Topic modeling aims to discover the underlying thematic structures or topics within a text corpus, which goes beyond the notion of clustering based solely on word similarity. It uses statistical models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), to assign words to topics and topics to documents, providing a way to explore the latent semantic relationships in the data.

Endnotes

With this, we come to this end of tutorial on Topic Modeling. I hope this will help you to improve your knowledge to work on text data. To reap maximum benefits out of this tutorial, I’d suggest you practice the codes side by side and check the results.

References

Got expertise in Business Intelligence  / Machine Learning / Big Data / Data Science? Showcase your knowledge and help Analytics Vidhya community by posting your blog.

Related

## Excel Cheat Sheet: A Beginners Guide With Time

Excel is a powerful tool that helps you store data, perform calculations, and organize information. To make the best use of the tool, you need a quick reference to guide you through the various functions, commands, and shortcuts.

Let’s get started!

We start with a cheat sheet for navigating the Excel interface, which can seem a little intimidating at first glance, but don’t worry!

This section will give you the lowdown on the essential features, shortcuts, and tricks, including the ribbon, workbooks and worksheets, and rows, columns, and cells.

To show or hide the ribbon commands, press Ctrl-F1.

If you can’t remember the location of a command, you can always use the search bar on the ribbon to find it.

A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets. Worksheets are where you organize and process your data.

You can navigate through your worksheets using keyboard shortcuts:

Press Ctrl + Page Up to move to the next sheet.

Press Ctrl + Page Down to move to the previous sheet.

Worksheets are made up of rows, columns, and cells.

Rows are labeled with numbers, and columns are labeled with letters. Cells are the intersection of rows and columns and are referred to by their column and row labels, like A1 or B2.

To navigate within a worksheet, use the arrow keys to move up, down, left, or right.

You can also use the following shortcuts:

Ctrl + up arrow

Ctrl + down arrow

Ctrl + left arrow

Ctrl + right arrow

Now that you know how to navigate the Excel interface, let’s go over some of the basics of the program in the next section of our cheat sheet.

You can also use the arrow keys to navigate between cells.

Press ‘Enter’ to apply your changes.

To undo, press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘Z’, or use the ‘Undo’ button in the Quick Access Toolbar.

To redo, press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘Y’, or use the ‘Redo’ button in the Quick Access Toolbar.

To move a single cell or a range of cells, follow these steps:

Hover your cursor over the edge of the cells until it becomes a four-sided arrow.

Alternatively, you can use the ‘Shift’ + arrow keys to select cells.

To find a specific value or text in your worksheet:

Press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘F’ to open the ‘Find’ dialog box.

To replace a value or text:

Press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘H’ to open the ‘Replace’ dialog box.

Enter the value you want to find in the ‘Find what’ field.

Enter the value you want to replace within the ‘Replace with’ field.

With the basics done, let’s take a look at what you need to remember when formatting cells in the next section.

When entering dates or times, format the cells accordingly before inputting the data.

To format a cell:

Choose ‘Format Cells’.

Select the desired format.

You can choose the appropriate number format to simplify data presentation. Here’s how you can apply different number formats:

Select the cells you want to format.

Common number formats include:

General: Default format without specific styles.

Number: Displays numbers with decimals and commas.

Currency: Adds currency symbols to the numbers.

Percentage: Represents the value as a percentage.

Date: Formats the cell value as a date.

When you select the cells containing the text you want to format, you can use keyboard shortcuts for quick formatting:

Ctrl+B for bold.

Ctrl+I for italic.

Ctrl+U for underline.

Alternatively, use the toolbar options in the ‘Home’ tab, like ‘Font’ and ‘Alignment’.

Apply borders and shading to emphasize or differentiate cell data. Follow these steps:

Select the cells you want to format.

Conditional formatting allows you to apply formats based on specific conditions. Here’s how to implement it:

Select the cells you want to apply conditional formatting to.

Select from the list of available conditions or create a new rule.

Assign the appropriate format for the selected condition.

In the next section of our reference guide, we provide a cheat sheet for popular Excel formulas. Let’s go!

Before we give you the most commonly used Excel formulas and functions, here is a quick primer on how to use them.

Formulas in Excel are used to perform calculations and manipulate data with built-in functions.

To create a formula, start with an equal sign (=) followed by a combination of numbers, cell references, and mathematical operators.

Here is an example that adds the values in the range A1 to A5

=SUM(A1:A5)

With that in mind, let’s look at some basic Excel formulas and functions.

Sometimes you need to chop up strings in a cell. For example, extracting the parts of an address is a common task. These text functions are very useful:

LEFT: this function returns the first or multiple characters from a string.

RIGHT: gets the last or multiple characters from a string.

MID: gets characters in the middle of the string.

CONCAT: puts strings together.

This example shows the use of the LEFT function to extract the first four characters:

The find functions provide powerful features for working with text:

FIND: locates a specific string within another text string

SEARCH: similar to FIND but works with wildcard characters

In the next section, we take a look at some popular Excel math functions.

There is a long list of Excel functions that includes some highly complex computations. Here are the ones you will most commonly use:

SUM: Adds up a range of numbers.

AVERAGE: Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of a range of numbers.

MIN: Returns the smallest value in a dataset.

MAX: Returns the largest value in a dataset.

COUNT: Counts the number of cells containing numbers within a range.

PRODUCT: Multiplies a range of numbers together.

Here is an example of the SUM function:

NOW: Returns the current date and time.

TODAY: Returns the current date without the time.

HOUR: Extracts the hour from a given time.

MINUTE: Extracts the minutes from a given time.

SECOND: Extracts the seconds from a given time.

TIME: Constructs a time value from separate hour, minute, and second values.

A lookup function searches for specific values within a range or table and returns corresponding data from another column or row. These are the most common for Excel users:

VLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first column of a table and returns a value in the same row from a specified column.

HLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first row of a table and returns a value from a specified row in the same column.

INDEX: Returns a value from a specified row and column within a given range or table.

MATCH: Searches for a specified item in a range or array and returns the relative position of the item within that range.

If you’ve got the latest version of MS Excel, there are some new features like XLOOKUP, which is faster than the older functions.

Here’s an example of using the VLOOKUP function:

Cell referencing is a way to point to a specific cell or range of cells in a formula. There are two types of cell references: absolute and relative.

Absolute refers to a specific cell or range and keeps the same reference even when the formula is copied. It uses a dollar sign (\$) to denote absolute referencing, like \$A\$1.

A relative reference changes when the formula is copied to another cell or range, adjusting the reference based on the new location.

Formulas can sometimes result in errors due to incorrect syntax, invalid references, or other issues with calculation. Some common error messages are:

#DIV/0!: Division by zero

#NAME?: Occurs when Excel doesn’t recognize text in the formula

#REF!: Invalid cell reference

#VALUE!: Occurs when the wrong data type is used in a formula

To fix errors, check the formula’s syntax, cell references, and data types to make sure they are correct and compatible.

With formulas done, the next section of our reference is for Excel data analysis tools.

Excel provides a wide range of tools to help you analyze and organize your data effectively. Let’s discuss the various tools and their importance.

Sorting and filtering in Microsoft Excel enables you to arrange your data in a more organized way. To access the feature:

Go to the Home tab.

Choose one of the options in the drop-down list.

Sort A to Z: Orders text data alphabetically or numerical data from the lowest value to the highest.

Sort Z to A: Orders text data in reverse alphabetical order or numerical data from the highest value to the lowest.

Custom Sort: Apply multiple sorting conditions to your data.

Filter: Display only rows that meet specific criteria.

Pivot tables are used to summarize and consolidate your data effectively. They enable you to perform quick data analysis by dragging and dropping different fields into rows or columns and applying calculations such as sum, average, and standard deviation.

To create a pivot table:

Choose ‘PivotTable’ from the drop-down menu and configure your pivot table settings.

Drag and drop fields into rows, columns, and values areas to analyze your data.

Visual representations of your data using charts

and graphs can help you gain better insights and make informed decisions. Excel comes with a handy variety of charts and graphs to choose from, including:

Column charts: Compare different data sets across distinct categories.

Bar charts: Display comparisons among discrete categories horizontally.

Line charts: Show trends and patterns over time.

Pie charts: Illustrate proportional data and percentages.

To create a chart in Excel:

Charts and graphs are powerful tools. If you want to see some in action, check out this video:

We’ve covered a lot of ground so far! Up next is a reference for popular Excel keyboard shortcuts.

There are four categories of keyboard shortcuts in Excel:

General Shortcuts

Formatting Shortcuts

Data Analysis Shortcuts

Here are some commonly used shortcuts for routine tasks and Excel commands:

Ctrl + N: Create a new workbook

Ctrl + O: Open an existing workbook

Ctrl + S: Save the current workbook

Ctrl + Z: Undo the last action

Ctrl + Y: Redo the last action

Ctrl + C: Copy the selected cells

Ctrl + X: Cut the selected cells

Ctrl + V: Paste the copied or cut cells

To navigate within a workbook, try the following shortcuts:

Ctrl + arrow keys: Move to the edge of the current data region

Ctrl + G: Open the Go To dialog box

Ctrl + Page Up: Move to the previous sheet in the workbook

Ctrl + Page Down: Move to the next sheet in the workbook

Home: Move to the beginning of a row

Ctrl + Home: Move to the first cell in the worksheet (A1)

Use these shortcuts for formatting in Excel:

Ctrl + 1: Open the Format Cells dialog box

Ctrl + B: Apply or remove bold formatting

Ctrl + I: Apply or remove italic formatting

Ctrl + U: Apply or remove underline formatting

Ctrl + 5: Apply or remove strikethrough formatting

Alt + H + H: Access the Fill Color options

Alt + H + B: Access the Border options

When working with data, these shortcuts can be helpful:

Alt + A + S + S: Sort selected data alphabetically

Alt + A + T: Add or remove a filter to the selected range

Ctrl + Shift + L: Enable or disable AutoFilter

Alt + =: Insert an AutoSum formula

F2: Edit an active cell

Ctrl + Shift + Enter: Enter a formula as an array formula

By mastering these keyboard shortcuts, you can navigate, format, and analyze your data more efficiently and effectively.

And there we have it. We’ve covered a lot of ground in this cheat sheet, diving into the essentials of navigating the Excel interface.

This guide is here to simplify your journey with Excel, offering you the key tools, shortcuts, and techniques at your fingertips, so make sure to save it for future reference!

## How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

If you’re wondering how to set up your Samsung Galaxy Watch 4 and make the most of all its features, you’ve come to the right place. Samsung’s smartwatches are brimming with exciting tools and features. Follow our extensive how to for using the Galaxy Watch 4. If you’re facing a particular glitch or issue, check out our guide to common Galaxy Watch 4 problems and solutions.

How to turn your Galaxy Watch 4 on and off

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

With extended battery life, there aren’t many reasons you’ll have to power your smartwatch on or off. If the need does arise, all it takes is the device itself.

How to turn on the Galaxy Watch 4

To turn on your Galaxy Watch 4, locate the home button, (the top button with a red lining).

Press and hold the home button until you see the Samsung startup screen.

If after a few moments, your watch won’t power on, it may be out of battery.

How to turn off the Galaxy Watch 4

Consider powering down your device if you anticipate an extended period of nonuse.

Swipe down from the top of your watch face to open the quick panel.

Tap the power icon, then tap Turn off.

How to turn on Power saving mode

If you find yourself in a pinch, you can always conserve battery by putting your smartwatch into Power saving mode. This will turn off a number of features including Wi-Fi and decrease the brightness of your screen by 10 percent.

Swipe up to your apps and tap the Settings icon.

Scroll down to and tap Battery.

Tap the Power saving toggle.

If times get really desperate, you can also disable everything on your device except a simple watch face for telling time. To do so, scroll down beyond the Power saving toggle and tap Watch only, then tap Turn on to confirm.

How to pair your new Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Pair your Galaxy Watch 4 to an Android smartphone to really get started setting up your new device. Using the Galaxy Wearable app, follow the steps below.

Open the Play Store on your compatible smartphone. Search for and select the Galaxy Wearable app and tap Install.

Once the installation is complete, open the Galaxy Wearable app and tap Start to search for your Galaxy Watch 4.

Confirm that the six-digit code on your watch matches the code on your smartphone. You should feel your watch vibrate.

Follow the prompts to review a variety of permissions and complete the setup process.

You will see prompts to activate your carrier’s service on your smartwatch. Follow the prompts to complete the activation process. You can always skip this step if you do not want service on your watch or if you have a Wi-Fi only model.

How to update your Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

With more software features often coming down the pipe, it’s no surprise Samsung makes updating your Galaxy Watch 4 hassle-free. Set updates to occur automatically or follow the steps below to check for and install updates on demand.

Swipe up to your apps then scroll to and tap the Settings gear icon.

Scroll down to and tap Software update to check for updates.

Wait for the watch to reboot. While installing the update you will see a progress bar or rotating animation.

Tap Watch settings, then tap Watch software update.

Wait for the watch to reboot. While installing the update you will see a progress bar or rotating animation.

How to reset the Galaxy Watch 4

Wipe your device clean in just a few taps. Resetting your Galaxy Watch 4 to factory settings will erase all personal data from the device for a completely fresh start.

Swipe up to your apps and tap the Settings icon.

Scroll down to and tap General.

Scroll down to and tap Reset.

From this screen, you can choose to back up your data to restore on this or another watch, or you can choose to reset the watch.

To completely erase all personal information from the device and reset your watch to factory settings, tap Reset.

How to restart the Galaxy Watch 4

To force reboot your Galaxy Watch 4, press and hold both the Home and Back buttons simultaneously for about seven seconds. Rebooting is a handy fix if your watch isn’t responding or if an app is acting up.

How to charge the Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

According to Samsung, your Galaxy Watch 4 battery should last you about 40 hours. Unfortunately, once you do run down the battery, it will take nearly two hours for a full charge.

Connect your wireless charger to a USB charging port.

Place your watch on the charger, aligning the center of your watch body with the center of the charger.

You will see a percentage indicating how much battery the device currently has left. Once the watch is fully charged, or when it is charged enough for your purposes, simply disconnect it.

How to personalize your Galaxy Watch 4

Make a statement. With fully customizable watch faces and interchangeable bands, you can personalize your Galaxy Watch 4 to a look that fits any style (and any occasion). Pair a funky watch face with a colorful strap or keep it classic with Roman numerals and a metallic band. With so many faces and bands to choose from, the combinations are endless.

How to change Galaxy Watch 4 watch faces

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

The Galaxy Watch 4 offers a variety of customizable watch faces you can set up easily and on the go. Whether your focus is fitness or fun, choose a design that fits your needs and personalize it with colors and complications. Follow the directions below to change your watch face from a paired phone, or right on the device itself.

Many users will find it simpler to customize watch faces from a paired phone. The bigger screen makes for easier browsing of changeable options.

On your paired phone, open the Galaxy Wearable app, and tap Watch faces.

Browse through the available faces to find and tap the one you like, then tap Customize at the top of the screen. Depending on the face you select, you can edit a variety of watch face features including detail colors, complications, and more.

When you are finished customizing, tap Save.

Scroll through the design options available right on your device. Some faces, like Big Number, only allow for simple color changes. Others, like Animals or Digital Dashboard, offer more room for complications.

Touch and hold your current watch face.

Swipe left or right to browse styles.

Select a new watch face, then tap Customize to change options including backgrounds, colors, and complications.

How to change Galaxy Watch 4 bands

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Changing bands is one of the most visually impactful ways to personalize your device. Plus, Galaxy Watch 4 bands come in a variety of styles and materials so you can accessorize with a band that fits your lifestyle.

How to remove your Galaxy Watch 4 band

To remove your band, lay your watch face down on a clean, nonabrasive work surface. If your current band allows, disconnect any clasps and lay the band sides flat.

Using a fingernail, slide the band’s spring bar inward.

Lightly pull the band away from the watch body.

Repeat with the opposite spring bar and remaining band.

How to replace your Galaxy Watch 4 band

Start by removing your current band, then follow the directions below to attach a new style. Swap in a metal band for classy events or go with a silicon option for sweaty sessions at the gym.

Insert one end of the band’s spring bar into your Galaxy Watch lug.

Slide the spring bar inward and align the opposite corner of the band with the remaining lug.

Repeat with the opposite spring bar and band end.

The Wear OS app library is substantial, with more Google apps available than ever before on a Samsung smartwatch. Download the best Wear OS apps that will make your watch work harder for you.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app.

Near the bottom of your screen, locate and tap Store.

Search for the app you want, tap it, and then tap Install.

Wait for the app to automatically install on your watch.

Search for the app you want, tap it, and tap Install.

Wait for the installation to be complete, then find the new addition in your apps.

How to remove apps from your Galaxy Watch 4

Don’t let useless apps clog your library. Delete any apps you don’t use or that no longer serve you.

Swipe up to your apps and locate the app you would like to uninstall.

Touch and hold the app’s icon.

Tap Uninstall, then tap OK.

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Use the Galaxy Wearable app to send music to your watch. Music files cannot be exported directly from a PC so make sure any tracks you want to add are on your phone.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app.

Tap Watch settings, then tap Manage content.

Select the music files you would like to add, or tap All in the upper left corner.

You can also set up auto-syncing for new tracks by tapping the toggle under music.

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Keep memories close by adding personal photos to your Galaxy Watch 4. You can even set a favorite shot as your watch face.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app on your paired smartphone.

Tap Watch settings, then tap Manage content.

Select the photos you would like to add to your watch, then tap Done.

You can also set up auto-syncing for images by tapping the toggle under Gallery.

How to customize your Samsung Health settings

Start by customizing the settings in your Samsung Health app. Here you can choose what alerts you want to receive, how often you want measurements taken, and other health tracking settings.

Swipe up to your app screen and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll all the way down and tap Settings.

Scroll down to locate customizable settings.

Measurement: Tap into specific categories to customize health monitoring settings. Enable automatic heart rate and stress measurements or turn on blood oxygen monitoring during sleep. Under the heart rate menu, you can also set high and low heart rates and enable alerts for each.

Auto-detect workouts: Tap the toggle to enable or disable auto-detection for workouts. You can also tap left of the toggle to open a menu for further customization.

Inactive time alerts: Tap the toggle to enable or disable inactive time alerts. You can also tap left of the toggle to customize a weekly schedule for alerts, including start and end times.

Share data with devices and services: Review and customize connected services such as exercise machines and TVs.

How to track steps and other fitness info

Your watch will automatically track your steps and daily activity. You can also set targets to establish personal goals and stay on track.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Daily Activity.

Swipe up to view your daily and weekly data.

At the bottom, tap Set targets to choose daily goals for Steps, Active time, and Activity calories. Tap each measurable, choose a target number and tap Done.

How to track sleep

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Track your sleep stages overnight, and in the morning, your Galaxy Watch 4 will provide you with a sleep score.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Sleep.

Swipe up and view your sleep data.

If your Galaxy Watch 4 is paired to a Galaxy smartphone, you can also set it to provide snoring detection in conjunction with blood oxygen readings.

How to measure your heart rate

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Take your heart rate measurements from a relaxed, seated position.

Open the Samsung Health app and tap Heart rate.

Tap Measure to begin recording your heart rate. After a few seconds, your screen will display your current heart rate.

Tap Tag to select a status tag for your measured heart rate.

How to measure your stress levels

Keep track of your stress. The Galaxy Watch 4 can measure your stress levels for fitness and wellness purposes.

Open the Samsung Health app and tap Stress.

Tap Measure. Once the recording is complete, your current stress level results will be displayed.

From your results screen, swipe up to access breathing exercises to help reduce stress. Choose the number of breath cycles you would like to complete and tap Breath to begin. A pulsing design and basic prompts will guide you through the exercise.

How to measure body composition

Do not use this feature if you are pregnant or if you have an implanted pacemaker or other implanted medical device.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Body Composition.

Tap Measure, then select your gender, height, and weight.

Follow the prompts on your device and you will see the measurement progress on your screen. Once the recording is complete your results will be displayed.

How to measure blood oxygen

If you have any concerns about your blood oxygen seek medical attention. Like most smartwatch SpO2 sensors, the Galaxy Watch 4 provides blood oxygen measurements for fitness and wellness purposes only.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Blood Oxygen.

Tap Measure, then follow the prompts on your device. Once the recording is complete your results will be displayed.

Keep your credit, debit, and other cards right on your device with a digital wallet. Both Samsung Pay and Google Pay will even let you upload your Covid-19 vaccination card.

How to use Samsung Pay on Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Samsung Pay makes for easy shopping. However, it is worth noting that the service only supports NFC payments at this time.

On your smartwatch, press and hold the Back button for 1–2 seconds.

Once Samsung Pay opens, swipe left to view the basic instructions. Tap the arrow to begin setting up Samsung Pay.

Follow the on-screen prompts to finish your setup process. Tap Add card to add a card to Samsung Pay. At this point, you will be prompted to set a lock screen if you haven’t already. Simply follow the on-screen prompts to enter a four-digit PIN, then enter it a second time to confirm.

Once you’re all set, access Samsung Pay quickly to pay for items. Hold down the Back button on your watch and your cards will appear.

Thanks to the Google and Samsung Wear OS collaboration, Galaxy Watch 4 users can also download Google Pay. If this is your preferred digital payment option, follow the steps below to set it up.

Scroll down to and tap Essential watch apps, then scroll to and tap Google Pay.

Tap Install.

Once the app is installed, tap Open and follow the prompts to set up your payment options. You will need both your watch and phone handy to complete the process.

How to make a call from your Galaxy Watch

To place a call from a Bluetooth-only device you will need to be connected to your paired smartphone. With an LTE model, you can place calls without your phone nearby.

Navigate to and tap the green Phone icon.

Tap the keypad icon to dial a number or the Contacts icon to select a specific contact.

Tap the green phone icon to make the call.

Wi-Fi model:  Your paired phone will make the call, with your Galaxy Watch acting as a speakerphone.

LTE model: Choose how to place the call by taping either the phone icon or watch icon to use the paired phone or watch.

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

To answer an incoming phone call, simply swipe the green phone icon to the right. To decline an incoming phone call swipe the red phone icon.

If you receive a call while already on the phone, you can swipe the green phone icon, then tap Hold current call or End current call.

If you  put the first call on hold, tap the three vertical dots, then tap Swap to return to the original call when ready.

For such a complex and powerful tool, the Galaxy Watch 4 is actually quite simple to set up. The more you personalize your device to your own purposes, the harder the device will work for you. We also have high hopes that more tools and features from Google will continue to make their way to these watches.

## A Comprehensive Guide To Understanding Image Steganography Techniques And Types

Introduction

In today’s digital world, privacy and data protection have become increasingly important. With sensitive information being transmitted online every day, ensuring that it stays out of the wrong hands is crucial.

Understanding Steganography And Image Steganography

Steganography is the practice of hiding information within other non-secret media, and image steganography specifically involves concealing data within images using various techniques.

Definition And History Of Steganography

‘Steganography’ word is derived from the Greek words “steganos” (covered) and “graphein” (writing), is the art and practice of hiding information within other data or media files so that it remains undetected. In contrast to cryptography, which encrypts messages to make them unreadable without a decryption key, steganography aims at concealing the very existence of secret communication by embedding it within ordinary-looking carrier files.

Purpose And Applications Of Image Steganography Types And Techniques Of Image Steganography

There are various types and techniques of image steganography, including spatial domain steganography, transform domain steganography, compressed domain steganography, least significant bit (LSB) technique, pixel value differencing (PVD) technique, spread spectrum technique, and randomized embedding technique.

Spatial Domain Steganography

Alters pixel values in images to embed hidden data, commonly using Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution. It operates directly on the raw bits of a digital image without applying mathematical transforms. Visual cryptography can also be employed for hiding messages within images.

Transform Domain Steganography

Manipulates frequency information in images, providing a more robust system for embedding secret data that resists steganalysis techniques. Examples include Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), and Wavelet-based steganography, with DCT often used in JPEG compression and Wavelet-based steganography providing better performance in adapting to different signal types.

Compressed Domain Steganography

Hides information within the compressed data of an image file to reduce file size and detection difficulty. It involves embedding the covert message in the least significant bits or reserved areas of compressed data. The challenge lies in preserving image quality and avoiding degradation due to multiple compressions.

Least Significant Bit (LSB) Technique

Changes the least significant bits of an image’s color channel to hide information without significantly altering the image’s appearance. It is easy to implement and undetectable to the human eye but has limited capacity for hiding information. Variations include randomizing pixels containing hidden data or using multiple color channels.

Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) Technique

Identifies and modifies pixels with small value differences to encode information in both grayscale and color images. It requires precise changes to pixel values, and using it on highly compressed or low-quality images may result in artifacts or distortion revealing the presence of hidden data.

Spread Spectrum Technique Randomized Embedding Technique

Uses randomization to hide secret data in images, making detection difficult with algorithms like the F5 algorithm that use frequency domain analysis and randomness. It shuffles the position of each bit within an image, creating a modified version of the original image that contains hidden information. It is useful in various applications, including forensic investigations.

Evaluations, Trends, And Future Research

This section will discuss the current state of image steganography research, emerging trends and developments in the field, potential future applications, as well as provide examples of image steganography and their techniques.

Current State Of Image Steganography Research

Image steganography research focuses on developing new techniques for concealing and extracting information from digital images, improving capacity and robustness against detection. Areas of interest include deep learning algorithms for steganalysis and examining security risks posed by image steganography on social media and other online platforms. Challenges remain, such as embedding larger amounts of data without degrading image quality.

Emerging Trends And Developments

Advanced algorithms − Researchers are developing complex mathematical models to hide data in ways difficult for unauthorized individuals to detect.

AI-powered steganography − AI tools have proven effective at hiding information without detection, holding promise for future cybersecurity applications.

Steganalysis − Researchers are developing sophisticated software programs to identify hidden data within images, enhancing detection capabilities.

Potential Future Applications

Data protection in industries − Image steganography techniques may be used to protect sensitive data in finance, healthcare, government agencies, and legal offices.

Social media security − Users can share confidential information with trusted contacts on social media platforms without drawing unwanted attention using steganographic techniques.

Intellectual property protection − Image recognition software could benefit from steganographic algorithms by embedding metadata in digital images to prevent theft and verify ownership rights.

Examples Of Image Steganography And Their Techniques

Image steganography techniques can be used to conceal information in a variety of ways. Here are some examples of image steganography and the techniques used

Embedded Text − This technique involves hiding text within an image by changing individual pixels’ color values. The least significant bit (LSB) method is commonly used to embed text, as it allows small amounts of data to be hidden without altering the overall appearance of the image.

Image Steganography Tools − There are various tools available online that employ steganography techniques for hiding images or other data within other files’ metadata.

Video Steganography − The process of embedding a message within a digital video file is known as video steganography. Videos frequently have messages embedded using methods like Frame Differencing and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

Spatial Domain Techniques − In spatial domain techniques, the confidential message is embedded into an image pixel’s color value by manipulating its least significant bit (LSB) or pixel value differencing (PVD).

Compressed Domain Techniques − In compressed domain techniques, data is hidden within the compression process itself by inserting additional data into the quantization tables of JPEG compression.

Conclusion

In conclusion, image steganography is a vital tool for ensuring data privacy and security in today’s digital world. This comprehensive guide has provided insights into the different types and techniques of this practice, ranging from spatial to compressed domain steganography.

The LSB technique, PVD technique, spread spectrum technique, and randomized embedding technique were also explored in-depth. Staganography will continue to be essential in protecting sensitive information from hackers as technology develops at an unparalleled rate.

With the knowledge you’ve gained from this guide, you’re now equipped with the necessary tools to understand how covert channels can be used for secret communication through digital media using image processing algorithms such as DCT and frequency domain analysis. By understanding these concepts and applying them effectively in your work or personal life, you can ensure that your data stays protected while online!

## How To Build A Pc For Beginners – Step By Step Guide

I cannot stress enough the importance of reading your manual. These will be the most functionally unique parts of your first computer build and are highly unlikely to match any build guides you may be consulting.

For the PC I built for this article, I used a Mini ITX NZXT H210i- I wouldn’t recommend a Mini ITX case for a newcomer, but you should still be able to follow along decently well!

A common beginner builder’s mistake is to toss away things you think you don’t need early in the build, only to scramble desperately to find them in a pile of empty boxes mid-build.

Don’t let this be you! Please don’t throw anything away or lose track of where it is until your PC is entirely built!

A Phillips head screwdriver, smaller is better- this is used for installing your motherboard and other components

A stable place to hold all of your screws, preferably magnetic

Any anti-static equipment

A pair of tweezers is also handy for inserting and removing small screws.

Plastic Cable Ties for cable management.

If you’re using a regular retail (DVD) copy of Windows, you don’t need to do any extra setup.

If you want to install using USB, use this tool on another PC to create a Windows installation USB drive. Alternatively, you can use Rufus to create the installation media if you already have a Windows 10 ISO.

First and foremost, you’re going to need a clean, flat surface for you to work on. Most tables will do fine in this regard- make sure that it isn’t wet/dirty if you’re building outdoors.

Secondly, you’ll need to evaluate your environment. If you don’t have any anti-static equipment, you’re going to need to work in a place where static buildup is unlikely to occur. This means no carpeted floors and something to touch to ground yourself- even if it’s just a metal part of the inside of your chassis.

If you have anti-static equipment (like an anti-static wrist strap or the anti-static bags that will come with your motherboard and GPU), now is the time to make sure it’s all set up.

This means hooking your anti-static wristband or mat to a grounding point (as pictured below).

With the anti-static bags that came with your motherboard and GPU, place these components on top of them. This is where you’ll want to rest them throughout the rest of the build process.

Now that you have a clean workspace prepared with everything you need, it’s time to get started!

First, remove both side panels from your case. If you’re dealing with a tempered glass panel, be extra cautious and find a safe, soft place to set it down while you’re working on the inside of the build. A properly-cased pillow can do the job here; make sure nothing applies pressure directly to the window.

Inside the case, there will already be some cabling for your case fans and front panel connections. Route these through cable management holes for the time being, preferably closer to the top of your case, so it’s easier to plug them in later on in the build.

This is an important part: keep your clearances in mind! Be especially sure here and later in the build that no cords are in danger of coming into contact with either CPU or case fans because the result could be…fiery. (As in, you might actually start a fire, and your hardware is definitely screwed.)

To Install an Intel CPU:

To install an Intel CPU, you’ll need to first push down on the retention mechanism and move it slightly to the side to get it free. Then, pull back on this lever to reveal the bare CPU socket– you don’t need to remove the black plastic thing here.

It’ll pop out on its own after installing the CPU- and gently place your CPU inside, aligning the triangle on the corner of the CPU with the triangle in the socket.

Confirm before proceeding that your CPU is properly aligned. As long as it is, you can push the socket cover back down and lock it in with the mechanism you undid earlier- this will make some noise, but as long as your CPU was properly installed earlier, you have nothing to worry about.

Video Guide:

To Install an AMD CPU:

AMD CPUs differ from Intel CPUs in that their sockets are pinless- instead, all of the pins are on the CPU itself. This has its own pros and cons, but for building, it essentially means that all you have to do is raise the retention arm, gently lower the CPU into the socket (aligning it with the triangles while doing so, like with an Intel CPU installation), and… you’re done!

Well, after returning the retention arm to its previous position, and as long as you didn’t meet any resistance on the way down. If you’re unsure, watch the video embedded below.

If using a stock cooler, you don’t need your own thermal paste! It’s pre-applied on the heatsink. All you need to do is install it.

These instructions are meant only as a guideline, especially if you’re working with a third-party cooler! Always consult the official manual!

When it comes time to install your CPU cooler, make a note of the four screw holes around your CPU socket- there are mounting points for your CPU cooler.

Now, apply a thermal paste blob about the size of two grains of rice on the center of your CPU.

Being careful to align the bottom of the cooler with the CPU and the screw holes, gently lower the cooler into place onto your CPU. Next, screw it down on opposite diagonal corners, and be sure to plug the CPU cooler fan into the CPU-FAN header on your motherboard, which should be close by.

With an AMD stock cooler, you’ll need to use the latching mechanism on both sides to lock the cooler into place.

Video Guide:

Stock Coolers (Intel and AMD)

Fortunately, RAM is one of the easiest components to install!

First, identify your RAM slots and the corresponding tabs at the edge of each slot. If you’re using a motherboard with more than 2 RAM slots, consult your manual to determine which order to mount your RAM sticks in- if it’s just two slots, the order doesn’t matter.

Push back these tabs, then align the RAM sticks with their slots and slowly push them down into the slot. The tabs will push up and lock into place when you do this.

Remember to push down the tabs before installing RAM- besides that, it’s a pretty clear-cut scenario!

Once you’ve confirmed the location of your standoffs and/or installed them, it’s time to put them in your motherboard over the standoffs. Then, use the screws supplied with your motherboard to screw it in!

Chances are you already have a few cases fans pre-installed, but in case they aren’t installed, or you bought extra fans, you’ll want to mount them right about now.

Fortunately, this is pretty easy: just use the included screws at marked fan slots inside your chassis, hold them on one side and screw them in on the other. Tilt your case on its side or screw in opposite diagonal corners first if you’re having trouble.

Push your PSU into the case (outlet side facing out) until screw holes on it align with the screw holes in your chassis.

Once aligned, simply screw it in! Do make sure the Fan intake side of the PSU faces the grills of the case, so that it can suck in fresh air and expel hot air without any help from case fans.

The cables that came with your case- namely for front panel I/O, USB, and audio- need to be plugged in sooner or later. This is the time to do it, but exact instructions vary greatly depending on the case and motherboard- you’ll need to consult both of their manuals for this process.

In order to find where SATA drives are mounted in your case, consult your case manual. Once you’ve mounted the drive, you’ll need to plug in both the SATA cable and power cable/strip. The SATA cable will go into a corresponding SATA port on the motherboard- shaped like an L- and the power cable should run back to the PSU.

Watch Video:

M.2 drives require dedicated M.2 slots on your motherboard. These slots will usually be on the front, but one may also be on the back, especially if you’re building inside a mini ITX case.

The M.2 slot on your motherboard should come with a pre-installed screw on the opposite of the connector- unscrew this before proceeding, as you’ll need it to finish the mount.

Now, all you need to do is insert the M.2 drive into the slot and lay it flat against the slot. The circular gap at the end of the SSD should align with the screw hole at this point- steady it to make sure it does, and then re-screw it in.

Watch Video:

Before doing anything else with your GPU, note the plastic tabs inside of the I/O slots and remove all of them. Not just the one you’re going to use, all of them– one of our writers had the misfortune of leaving his inside an old graphics card and needing to use a set of pliers to free up the slots.

Before attempting to mount your GPU, you’ll need to unscrew the PCI Express slots in your chassis to make room for it. Keep the screws, though!

Fortunately, actually installing the GPU is pretty dead-simple. All you need to do is align it with the PCI Express slot on your motherboard, and push it down firmly to install it.

Next, you’ll want to take the screws you removed earlier and screw them back in, securing your GPU in place inside your case. If its manual says it, you’ll need you to plug in an 8-Pin power cable or more, and you’re ready to use your graphics card!

This is the time to double-check everything if all of your cables are routed properly and securely plugged in. Double-check the following connections especially:

Is the motherboard power cable plugged in securely?

Is the CPU power cable plugged in securely?

Are any SATA drives powered and plugged in?

If the GPU has an 8-pin power connector, is that plugged into both the CPU and PSU?

Are all case fans plugged in?

If you’ve answered all these questions, put your side panels back on, plug in your PSU, turn on your PSU, and hit the power button!

If it powers on, you’re ready to proceed.

Now that you’ve built your PC, it’s time to get it up and running!

Installing your OS is as simple as plugging in your USB/inserting your DVD, powering on, and following the on-screen instructions.

(Skip any GPU drivers for the moment- you can get those from AMD or Nvidia directly.)

If prompted to restart, do not do so until you have installed ALL relevant drivers to your motherboard.

Now that you’ve installed your basic drivers, head to  chúng tôi .

Using the application located here, you can quickly and conveniently stall dozens of popular applications at once, such as Steam, Discord, Dropbox, Chrome, Firefox, Malwarebytes, and more. Chances are, at least a few of the apps you want are included in this bundle! (Steam still usually needs an update afterward, though.)

Now that you’ve installed your drivers and favorite apps, you need to do just one more thing before you get up and running: install your graphics drivers!

If you’re using an AMD graphics card, you’ll want to get the drivers straight from AMD. Note your make and model, and use the page linked below to get the right download for your system.

If you’re using an Nvidia graphics card, get the drivers from them! Check your GPU model (i.e., GTX 760 or RTX 3080) and download the corresponding driver from the page linked below.

I want to say a great job! If you followed all the steps listed in this guide, you should have a brand-new pc built all by yourself. Tell all your friends how awesome you are, and be sure to have fun with your new pc.

Too small of a workspace

Small workspaces become problematic during a typical PC build. The floor is typically a poor choice when building a PC. Carpet is prone to generating static electricity, which can damage your components. It is essential to find a table or solid surface with lots of room.

You need a separate internet-ready device. This can be a cell phone, laptop, tablet, etc. You can access the guide, search google and find answers to common problems you may be having with your build.

Ignoring Cable Management

This is a mistake that I have seen even experienced builders make. Take an opportunity to visit this website and view some good examples of cable management. Cable management keeps your system looking neat and tidy, minimizes dust collection, and creates proper airflow inside your case.

Everyone’s done it; they look at a project, think how hard it can be, and something doesn’t go right, or you have to start completely over. The motherboard manual is the most important manual out of all of your components.

Critical information like connecting your front panel USB, sound, and power buttons are essential, and if you don’t follow your manual, you might not be able to even turn on your computer when you are finished.

Forgetting to Install I/O Shield

A first-time mistake made by many builders. If you fail to remove it and install the one that comes with your motherboard and connect all peripherals, you cannot install it afterward. You will have to unplug everything, disconnect the GPU, and remove the board to install it.

Not Installing Mobo Stand-offs

These brass stand-offs protect your motherboard by keeping them from making contact with the case. This contact could cause your mobo to short out. If this happens, you may need a new motherboard or other components.

Improper Handling of Components

The components of your computer are pretty delicate. It is important to take precautions when installing and handling them. Without using Anti-Static wrist straps properly clipped to your case, you could short out your new RAM, CPU, and GPU. Also, if you don’t handle your CPU from the edges, you risk damaging the pins on an AMD CPU.

Proper Amount of Thermal Paste

Installing too much thermal paste can squeeze out upon installation of the cooler/heatsink. The thermal paste could get onto the motherboard and create a mess. Place one drop the size of a grain of rice right in the middle on top of the CPU. Take a look here at the suggested application of thermal paste.

Failing to Install RAM in Dual Channel

If you have purchased a dual-channel RAM kit. Your mobo’s manual will explain in detail how to install your RAM. Dual channels are often staggered. Meaning, if you have four RAM slots, you would skip one slot and install in the next one. In the image below, you can observe if you had two 1GB chipsets. You would install one in Channel A, Slot 0. The other 1GB chipset in Channel B, Slot 0.

Failing to Plug-in All Cables

This is a common mistake as well. If every component from your mobo, GPU, SATA drives, Cooling Fans, I/O ports, etc., must be plugged in. Failure to do so will cause some or all of your computer components to fail to boot up. Before you plug it in and boot up, double-check all components, power supply, and cables.

Installing Fans the Wrong Way

When cooling your computer, you must remember you want to pull fresh air in and warm (dirty) air out. From personal experience, you get optimum results if you install front fans pulling in the fresh air and all rear fans pulling air out.

Plugging in Monitor and not GPU

This situation typically only is a problem when purchasing a board with onboard video. However, you need to recall that if you bought a GPU, it goes in the lower expansion slots of the case typically. If you plug in your monitor to the mobo’s onboard video, you may not see anything displayed. Double-check your connections before booting up.

Working on PC While It’s Turned On

This is something that doesn’t need much explanation. However, keep in mind that this can be dangerous, and you could seriously damage your components by static electricity or shorting out something accidentally. Safely shut down the PC, unplug it, hold the power button for about five seconds, open the computer, and continue your work.

Using a Bad Outlet or Outlet on a Switch

This one is more popular than you can imagine. I received many tech calls, and after troubleshooting over the phone, I learned to start with this one. Try another wall outlet, and if you are using a surge protector, verify the switch is turned on. You would be surprised how many times this resolved a tech call.

PC building can seem really technical and overwhelming. You want to focus on buying the right parts, and it’s not hard as you think. You can try PCPARTPICKER and view some of the builds. They offer guides that show each piece it takes to build that particular PC. Once you see the parts that go in your build, you can begin to customize it based on those results. You will find that patience, not experience, is your greatest ally.

Some easier PC setups can be completed in less than an hour. By easier, I’m talking about an air-cooled CPU setup with a single GPU, 1-2 SATA or NVMe drives, RAM, and power supply. However, when you deal with several storage drives, multiple GPU’s, water cooling, etc., you are adding several more hours of work. Keep in mind this does not include installing the OS & software that can easily take another hour or more.

In all honesty, PC manufactures have the upper hand. They purchase components at bulk prices and use those savings to offer an OS, maybe even an office program for documents, and maybe a trial of Anti-virus software. When you build the PC, you have to pay retail or wait for deals on parts and purchase the OS and other software, which adds up rather quickly. If you are looking at higher price point PCs such as Alienware, they are pretty overpriced. You can build a similar PC for quite less.

Many things can go wrong during a PC build. One of the most popular mistakes is buying incompatible components. This is why I suggest using PC Part Picker to make sure all of your components are compatible. Cheap PSUs can be a real problem. A very generic PSU could result in a house fire, so always buy a high-quality PSU from a trusted brand. Last but not least, READ THE MANUALS. If you don’t install the components according to your manual’s instructions, you might have to restart the build process or even risk damaging a component.

The first component you should purchase should be the CPU. After you select AMD or Intel, the CPU choice will determine the form-factor of your motherboard, then your motherboard’s form factor will determine the size of the case needed, etc.

Out of all of your research on your computer, make sure to spend as much time possible on this component. The PSU acts like a lifeline to your entire PC. It provides the necessary power to each component and keeps it running efficiently. If you purchase a cheap PSU, it could cause poor system performance, short-out or destroy components, even cause a fire. It is extremely important to choose a trusted and reputable brand name when shopping for a Power Supply.

A driver is an essential program that allows your OS to communicate and function properly with all of the devices within your computer. These devices include the GPU, sound cards, network cards, HDD, USB ports, and so much more. Keeping your drivers up to date is important because your computer will not function properly without them.

According to tomshardware, 8GB is the bare minimum for most people. You can run only 4GB for just web-browsing, email, and casual windows games like solitaire. If you want to start playing some of the more popular games today, such as F1 or Division 2, it is recommended you go for at least 16GB.

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