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Definition of Inventories List

The inventories list comprises line-item details of all the items of the stock of the company. It is a technique to have more control over inventory management and helps efficiently utilize the inventory. The list is updated from time to time, the frequency of which is dependent upon the type of the business.


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It provides accurate and readily available stock details, which helps management make decisions and smooth business operations. Suppose the business comprises inventory that moves swiftly. In that case, the inventory should be updated daily, but in case of the slow movement of inventory, the business can update it weekly or monthly.

Examples of Inventories List

Inventory ID



Unit Price in $

Quantity in stock

Inventory Value in $

Reorder level

IN0001 ABC CBA 4.00 50.00 200 30 11

IN0002 DEF FED 2.00 40.00 80 25 3

IN0003 GHI IHG 1.00 100.00 100 70 10

IN0004 JKL LKJ 3.00 120.00 360 70 13

IN0005 MNP PNM 6.00 70.00 420 40 6

IN0006 OQR RQO 8.00 80.00 640 40 6

Components of Inventories List

The components of the inventories list given in the above template are explained below. Though there is no strict format that is followed across the companies, the below components are more or less present in every inventories list:

Inventory ID: It is a unique code assigned to each item in the inventory, which serves as its identifier in the inventory management system.

Name: The field represents the name of the particular inventory item.

Description: Description specifies the details of the inventory item, such as its specifications, color, measurement, etc., which can help in its identification later on.

Unit price: It indicates the purchase price of a particular item per unit basis.

Quantity in stock: The field represents the remaining quantity in the stock. It serves as a basis for reorder level and helps decide when a particular inventory item needs reordered.

Inventory value: This indicates the total value of the inventory in the stock i.e. product of the quantity of an item and its unit price.

Reorder level: If an item reaches the reorder level, the order will be placed with the vendor again. The order is automatically placed at the reorder level if the inventory management system software is in place.

Reorder time in days: This suggests the time lag between the placing of reorder and its physical receipt.

Advantages of Inventories List

Inventories list helps in the controlled management of the inventory.

The list helps track the inventory items in case of return of defective merchandise, multiple suppliers, and impacted items in case of a recall.

It also helps clearly categorize inventory since it contains useful information such as item number, description, etc.

Inventories list helps in the effective utilization of items in stock. Also, it helps in avoiding overstocking positions and shortage conditions.

Nowadays, companies use computer software to manage inventory or prepare inventories list, which is quite expensive, while manual intervention requires a lot of effort and is prone to errors.

Inventories list can be a little complex to be prepared through software, while manually, it can be cumbersome due to a lot of data.


Since inventory is an integral part of every business, an inventory list for managing inventory is also important. An inventory list prepared through inventory management software helps smooth business operations. Though the inventory list is data-intensive and prone to errors in the case of manual intervention, its usefulness overshadows all of its negatives.

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Introduction to PostgreSQL STRING_AGG()

PostgreSQL supports various kinds of aggregate functions, The STRING_AGG() function is one of the aggregate functions which is used to concatenate the list of strings, and it will add a place to a delimiter symbol or a separator between all of the strings. The separator or a delimiter symbol will not be included at the end of the output string. The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function is supported by PostgreSQL 9.0 version, which performs the aggregate option related to the string. We can use various separators or delimiter symbols to concatenate the strings.

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The STRING_AGG() function takes input ORDER BY clause is an optional and other two arguments as follows:

expression: This is a character string that is any valid expression.

separator/delimiter: This defines the separator/delimiter used for string concatenation.

The ORDER BY clause is optional and defines the order of concatenated string results.

The ORDER BY has the syntax as follows:

How does PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function works?

The input expression needed should be a character string data type. We can also use other data types but only need to ensure that we have explicitly cast other data types to the character string data type.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() returns us the result in string type.

The STRING_AGG() is generally used with the GROUP BY clause like we use other PostgreSQL aggregate functions such as MIN(), MAX(), AVG(), SUM(), COUNT(), etc.

Examples to Implement PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function

We will create a table named ‘student’ and ‘course’ by using the CREATE TABLE statement as follows:


create table student ( stud_id serial PRIMARY KEY, stud_name VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL, stud_grade CHAR(1) NOT NULL, stud_country VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL, course_id int NOT NULL );


create table course ( course_id serial PRIMARY KEY, course_name VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL );

Now, we will insert some data into the ‘course’ table by using the INSERT INTO statement as follows:

INSERT INTO course(course_name) VALUES ('Computer'), ('Mechanical'), ('Civil'), ('Electrical');

Illustrate the above INSERT statement’s result using the following SQL statement and snapshot.

select * from course;

INSERT INTO student(stud_name,stud_grade,stud_country,course_id) VALUES ('Smith','A','USA',1), ('Johnson','B','USA',2), ('Williams','C','USA',3), ('Jones','C','Canada',1), ('Brown','B','Canada',2), ('Davis','A','Canada',3), ('Aarnav','A','India',1), ('Aarush','B','India',2), ('Aayush','C','India',3), ('Abdul','C','UAE',1), ('Ahmed','A','UAE',3), ('Ying', 'A','China',1), ('Yue','B','China',2), ('Feng', 'C','China',3), ('Mian','C','South Korea',1), ('Fei','B','South Korea',2), ('Hong','A','South Korea',3);

Illustrate the above INSERT statement’s result using the following SQL statement and snapshot.

select * from student;

SELECT c.course_name AS "course name", s.stud_name AS "student name" FROM course c RIGHT JOIN student s ON c.course_id = s.course_id ORDER BY 1;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

We can concatenate the student names by using the STRING_AGG() function by modifying the above SQL statement as follows:

SELECT crs.course_name AS "course name", string_agg(stud.stud_name, ', ') AS "student list" FROM course crs JOIN student stud ON crs.course_id = stud.course_id GROUP BY 1 ORDER BY 1;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

SELECT  stud_grade, STRING_AGG(stud_name,', ') AS StudentsPerGrade FROM student GROUP BY stud_grade ORDER BY 1 ;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

In the above example, the resulting snapshot shows us the students concatenated by a comma separator with a similar grade obtained.

SELECT STRING_AGG(stud_name, ', ') AS "student_names", stud_country FROM student GROUP BY stud_country;

Illustrate the result of the above statement by using the following snapshot.

In the above example, we observe that the code groups and concatenates all students from the same country, utilizing a comma separator.


We can control the order of the result by using the ORDER BY clause.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function returns the result in string format.

We can use the STRING_AGG() function to concatenate all strings and add a delimiter symbol or separator between them.

The PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() supports various types of delimiter symbols or separators and does not include delimiter symbols or separators at the end of the string.


From the above article, we hope you understand how to use the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function and how the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function works. Also, we have added several examples of the PostgreSQL STRING_AGG() function to understand it in detail.

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Working, Uses And Features With Advantages & Disadvantages

Introduction to Skencil How Does Skencil Works?

The present stable release of Skencil software is 0.6.17 and is used for various type of illustration work because it is vector graphics editing software.

We have many tools for doing different types of illustration work, transforming shapes and text, and many other vector art-related terms we can do in this software.

With transformation, we can also do scaling, rotating of all these objects.

We can also do color management tasks, such as you can blend with colors, fill gradient in any artwork, and some other color management-oriented work we can do.

Uses of Skencil

There is much use of skencil in different graphics related field, and as we know, Skencil is a vector graphics editor, so we use it for various types of vector art and editing work.

We can make a different type of art work by using shape tools and typographic by making a different type of transformation in text.

We also use it to export and import different types of file formats to make our work easy in this software.

Features of Skencil

We have many good features of this software, and it is necessary to understand them for getting more knowledge about this software.

The very first features of this software include that it has tools through which we can draw geometrical shapes such as we can draw a rectangle which you can convert into rounded corners rectangle for a different type of illustration work, you can draw circles, ellipse, pie circle by using the same tool for a curve or circular requirement in illustration, you can draw different anchor point curves which is Bezier curves and manipulate it according to work requirement with handling points.

The next important feature of this software is it can write ESP files in it to use this type of file to make our work easy with different features. We can also export and import different file format with an improved version of Skencil. Due to compatibility with the different file format, it makes our vector graphics editing more effective.


Skencil is based on Python, so it can extend in different ways, which starts from user scripts and goes up to plugins.

We have other plugin collections for skencil, such as Christof Ecker’s plugin for skencil, which offers graphs, Turtle Library, Transforms Scripts, and many more things to add new features to this software.

It offers plugins that help in the management of brightness and contrast of art work in this software as well as in the manipulation work of color.

You can increase the range of auto-shapes of this software by adding a plugin that gives you handling points to make changes in these shapes.

It also offers some tools and features through which we can convert text into a curve. You can also align text with your desired path in it.

We have Import Filters through which skencil can read different file formats such as adobe illustrator (.ai), Corel CMX, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and many more. All these file formats related to vector graphics.

Through Export Filters, skencil can write the various graphics format such as adobe illustrator, SVG (scalable vector graphics) and PDF (portable document format) files.

It offers single User account that means you need a different account of multiple user or group users.

Limited features with a free account.

You cannot test templates with a free account.

Currently, it is not supported to Microsoft Windows, but in the unstable release, which is 0.7, it may become with compatibility of Microsoft windows.

We can do text transformation in skencil, but for the proper working of it with the transformed text, you need an X-server capable of scaling and transforming fonts.

The current version of skencil only supports True color visuals, which have depths of 15, 16, 24 or 32 bits and Pesudo Color visuals of 8-bits.


We have analyzed Skencil software with all important aspects of it. Now you can easily go through the pros and cons of this software to identify what good features of it helps you in your vector illustration work are.

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Graphql Vs. Rest In 2023: Top 4 Advantages & Disadvantages

Since the release of GraphQL in 2023, there have been comparisons between GraphQL and REST due to their similar end results and GraphQL’s innovative approach. In some instances, GraphQL is even seen as a direct alternative or has been used in conjunction with REST.

Despite GraphQL’s innovative approach and acclaimed potential, in 2023, only 19% of companies used GraphQL, while 82% used REST.

While REST is far more widely used than GraphQL at the moment, industry leaders and big companies such as Facebook, Airbnb, and Github are adopting GraphQL.

GraphQL vs. REST

Figure 1: Representation of the GraphQL process 

GraphQL is an open-source query and manipulation language for APIs developed by Facebook in 2012. Contrary to REST architecture, GraphQL is not an API specification; it’s a runtime for fulfilling queries with existing data. Backbend GraphQL provides a type system that describes a schema for data; in return, this gives front-end API consumers the ability to request the exact data they need.

Figure 2: Representation of REST API 

1. Specificity 

GraphQL can provide customers with the exact data they need. One of the most common problems with traditional REST APIs is that they tend to cause overfecthing, obtaining more information than needed. A REST query will extract all the data from a specific resource, while GraphQL will only get what is dictated in a query (see Figure 3). 

Figure 3: Rest API query vs. GraphQL query

Source: Medium.

2. Performance

GraphQL can process customized queries which contribute to enhanced performance. Processing customized queries reduce the number of API calls. 

Contrary to REST, GraphQL has a single endpoint, it is much more predictable, and there is a lower chance of unnecessary API calls. Research shows that mitigating GraphQL from REST increases performance by 66%

3. Flexibility

GraphQL allows its user to integrate multiple systems, and it can fetch data from existing systems. This allows GraphQL to be utilized without needing to uninstall existing infrastructures, and it can work with existing API management tools.

4. Less effort to implement 1. Single endpoint bottleneck

While a single endpoint is one of the strengths of GraphqL, it can become a bottleneck in certain circumstances. HTTP’s built-in cache function in REST APIs produces faster results than GraphQL in almost every scenario. This is because REST APIs’ multiple endpoints allow them to use HTTP caching to avoid reloading resources. GraphQL’s single endpoint pushes the user to rely on an additional library. 

2. Security 

REST’s vast popularity and authentication methods make it a better option for security reasons than GraphQL. While REST has built-in HTTP authentication methods, GraphQL does not provide a specific process to ensure security. The user must figure out their own security methods, whether authentication or authorization. However, users can overcome this issue with a well-planned security plan for using GraphQL.

3. Complexity  4. Cost

One of the significant drawbacks to using GraphQL is that it is more difficult to specify the API rate limit than REST. This creates the risk of the cost of queries being unexpectedly large, leading to computation, resource, and infrastructure overload.

To overcome such risks, the user must calculate a query’s cost before executing it. However, calculating GraphQL’s queries is challenging due to its nested structure. Thus, it is best to use a machine-learning approach to estimate.

If you want to explore specific software, feel free to check our data-driven list of testing tools and data-driven test automation tools vendor list. If you have other questions, we can help:

He received his bachelor’s degree in Political Science and Public Administration from Bilkent University and he received his master’s degree in International Politics from KU Leuven .





What Are The Disadvantages Of Canva?

Last Updated on July 4, 2023

Canva is a popular online tool that allows users to create a wide variety of graphic designs, from social media posts and banners to presentations and infographics. It’s known for its user-friendly interface and a wide range of templates, making it a go-to tool for individuals and businesses with little to no graphic design experience.

Canva is available in two different versions: Paid and Free. It is the free version that has tons of hitches.

Below are a few of them:

Limited Export Settings

Canva allows users to export their designs in various formats, including JPG, PNG, and PDF. However, the platform’s export settings can be somewhat limited.

For instance, users may not have the ability to control the resolution of their exported images or to export images with a transparent background without a premium subscription.

Additionally, Canva does not support exporting files in certain formats used by other design tools, such as PSD for Adobe Photoshop or AI for Adobe Illustrator.

While Canva is a standalone design tool, many graphic designers use multiple tools in their workflow. In this context, Canva’s compatibility with other design tools can be limited.

For example, designs created in Canva cannot be directly opened or edited in Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator.

Limited Mobile App Functionality

Canva offers mobile apps for both Android and iOS, allowing users to create designs on the go. However, the functionality of these apps can be limited compared to the web browser version of Canva.

Limited Access to Premium Features Limited Creativity

The platform operates on a drag-and-drop basis, which makes it easy to use but can also restrict the level of customization and originality in the designs. This can be a significant drawback for professional graphic designers who require more flexibility and control over their designs.

Limited Customization Option

Even though Canva has a considerable variety of elements and templates, it is still limited. Some users still require help to achieve their desired design results, especially those with unique requirements.

Limited Color Options

While Canva offers a wide range of color options for your designs, it primarily operates in the RGB color model, which is ideal for digital designs.

However, if you’re creating designs for print, you might need to work in the CMYK color model, which Canva doesn’t support.

Lacks to Provide Advanced Features

However, this may still be a valuable package for beginners who need to be more involved in complex tasks and are at their learning stage.

Limited Control Over Branding Kits

Branding kits are essential tools for maintaining brand consistency across various designs. While Canva allows users to create branding kits, the control over these kits can be limited.

For instance, users may not be able to create comprehensive branding kits that include detailed elements like patterns, icons, or specific color gradients. This limitation can make it challenging for businesses to maintain brand consistency across their designs.

Internet Access

The most common and noticeable drawback is that Canva requires an active internet connection. Since it is a web-based tool, all users must have internet access to use it properly. Those with unstable or no internet access need help to work on Canva smoothly.

Limited Font and Logo Options

Canva offers a variety of fonts and logo templates, making it a convenient tool for quick design tasks. However, when it comes to professional designs, the platform may fall short. The selection of fonts, while diverse, may not cater to all design needs, especially for brands with specific typography guidelines.

Similarly, the logo templates, though numerous, may not offer the uniqueness that a brand requires. This limitation can be a significant drawback for graphic designers who need to create distinct and personalized branding elements.

Storage Limitations

Storage can be another issue with Canva. While the platform offers cloud storage for your designs, the capacity can be limited, especially in the free version. This limitation can be problematic for users who create a large volume of graphics and need to store them for future use.

Additionally, the process of organizing and retrieving designs in Canva’s storage system may not be as efficient or intuitive as in other dedicated file storage systems.

Limited Control Over Image Saturation

This could potentially affect the final look and feel of your designs, especially if you’re aiming for a specific aesthetic or mood.

Limited Social Media Integration

This limitation means users may still need to rely on additional tools for comprehensive social media management.

Limited Functionality on Mac

While Canva is accessible on various platforms, including Mac, some users have reported that the tool’s functionality can be somewhat limited on Mac computers compared to PCs.

This could potentially affect the user experience, especially for Mac users who are used to seamless integration and functionality with other design tools.

FAQs Is It Worth Subscribing to Canva Pro?

It depends on from one user to another; if your needs revolve around doing professional designing tasks, you may subscribe. Otherwise, the free version can be enough if you are a beginner or do not have extreme use purposes.

Can I use Canva to design flyers?

Yes, Canva offers templates for a variety of design types, including flyers. However, keep in mind the limitations in terms of creativity and customization.

Is Canva a good tool for professional graphic designers?

While Canva is user-friendly and convenient for quick designs, professional graphic designers may find it limiting in terms of creativity, customization, and control over design elements.

Can I use my own fonts in Canva?

Canva’s font selection is quite extensive, but if you have a specific font that isn’t available on the platform, you may not be able to use it.

Can I use Canva to design book covers?

Yes, Canva offers a range of templates for book covers. However, keep in mind the limitations in terms of color options and export settings, especially if you’re designing a cover for print.


Corporate Sustainability – Meaning, Examples, And Importance

blog / Business Management Corporate Sustainability – Meaning, Examples, and Importance

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This article was originally published by the Network for Business Sustainability. It was written by Tima Bansal and Devika Agarwal.

Most people still find the concept of corporate sustainability unclear. We explain what it means and why it’s important.

In the last two years, there has been a tidal wave of companies committing to “sustainability.” They might set net zero carbon goals, diversify their workforce, or move into new, cleaner lines of business. And, this is just the front edge of the wave. The interest in sustainability is likely to grow even more over the next decade, as businesses feel pressure from social movements and environmental challenges.

But corporate sustainability is still confusing to many people. People often ask me: “So, what do you mean by sustainability?” I’m a researcher who has studied this topic for over 20 years and I work closely with companies. Here, I describe what corporate (or business) sustainability means, why it matters, and how to make it part of your business.

What are the principles of sustainability?

Corporate sustainability comes from the concept of “sustainable development.” The World Commission on Environment and Development, a United Nations initiative, defined that concept in 1987. Sustainable development means actions that “meet the needs of present generations without compromising the needs of future generations.”

To contribute to sustainable development, businesses should create wealth to reduce poverty, but do so without harming the natural environment. In this way, businesses help our world today and ensure that future generations can also thrive.

In practice, this means that business must consider three key things in their operations:

Human rights and social justice. Sustainability requires businesses to recognize their impact on the people they employ and the communities around them. This recognition means committing to fair wages, just and ethical treatment, and a clean and safe environment.

Natural resource extraction and waste. Businesses often rely on natural resources such as land, water and energy. While many natural resources can renew or “regenerate,” this takes time. Businesses need to respect these cycles, by using natural resources at the speed at which they regenerate.

Short- and long-term thinking. Businesses face intense pressure for immediate profits, but sustainability requires investing in technologies and people for the future, even though financial benefits show up much later. Companies are used to longer-term thinking for capital investments, but a sustainability orientation applies this logic to investments in people and society.

For example: Some fossil fuel companies have reimagined themselves as energy companies, even though major investments in renewable energies are less profitable in the short run than their oil, gas or coal operations. They recognize that climate change requires them to build new capabilities and sources of energy.

How does corporate sustainability differ from corporate social responsibility?

Many terms exist to describe companies’ social and environmental initiatives. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the most common; others include environmental, social, and governance (ESG), shared value, the triple bottom line, and managing environmental impacts.

I see ‘sustainability’ as the most complete and powerful of these related concepts. That’s because sustainability asks managers to take a “systems view.” A systems outlook recognizes that companies are part of a larger social and environmental system, that systems change, and that today’s actions must consider the future.

CSR emphasizes a company’s ethical responsibilities. However, what is ethical for one person or company may not be seen ethical by another. For example, some people see a minimum wage as being responsible, whereas others see a higher “living wage” as the ethical choice. Corporate sustainability emphasizes science-based principles for corporate action. A corporate sustainability lens would set a wage in which people could meet their basic needs, which will vary from place to place.  

Additionally, CSR generally does not speak to fairness across generations; it focuses more on the present.

But don’t get too lost in the definitions. Ultimately, all of these terms ask businesses to think about the broader world in which they operate, and not just on short-term self-interest.

Why is corporate sustainability important?

Business is a powerful actor in society, with some businesses being larger than some governments. For example, Amazon’s revenues in 2023 were $US281bn: larger than Pakistan’s GDP.[1] Businesses now have so much power that executives can choose to create a better life for all or just a few.

Society is also pushing companies to invest in sustainability. Many governments, citizens, and other stakeholders want to see companies showing concern for their communities. Failing to do so can mean losing the social license to operate, which is society’s trust in a company.

Additionally, companies can benefit in the long term from being green and good. Evidence shows that financial benefits come in many forms. For example:

Reducing waste, e.g. through energy efficiency investments, often produces savings.

Investors increasingly look for companies that have higher “ESG” (environmental, social and governance) ratings, as a way of managing risks.

Creative and committed individuals seek out employers committed to sustainability and are even willing to take a lower salary if such a commitment is sincere.

But, let’s be honest. Sustainability is not just about making money. It is also a vision of what executives running powerful businesses want to see in the world they create. They imagine a world in which everyone can flourish, living on a planet that is resilient and rich with biodiversity. They don’t want to inhabit a world in which only a few live well, whereas others live with disease and waste.

How do you build a corporate sustainability strategy?

Companies can move step by step toward sustainability, gradually increasing and expanding their actions. Often companies begin by putting their own houses in order, looking internally at decision-making, operations, culture, and other areas. They may move on to partnering with suppliers, vendors and other companies can help organizations learn and share best practices. Eventually, companies need to engage with society, from community stakeholders to NGOs.

Ultimately, no single company can create sustainable development: it must be a collective effort. That’s because many sustainability issues, such as climate change and poverty, are so huge that they require action by many citizens and organizations. And for any single company to create zero emissions, it needs suppliers to innovate cleaner products and regulators and customers willing to support their efforts. Sustainability requires new forms of collaboration and new thinking about the economy.

Corporate sustainability may not be simple, but it is necessary. Those companies that embrace the full complexity of sustainability ideas sooner than later will contribute to a better world and experience higher long-term profits. Why wouldn’t we all want to work towards that vision?

About the Series

The Network for Business Sustainability “Basics” series provides essential knowledge about core business sustainability topics for business leaders thinking ahead. “The Basics” provides essential knowledge about core business sustainability topics. The Network for Business Sustainability builds these articles for business leaders thinking ahead.

About the Authors

Devika Agarwal is an MBA/MS student at the University of Michigan Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise. Devika hails from strategic sourcing in the retail industry and now works to influence sustainability and innovation in the Global Supply Chain.

[1] Based on corporate revenues ranked against national GDP. Amazon’s total would rank it 41st in the list of world economies based on GDP, just above Pakistan.

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