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Airline seat size rule request dismissed again by FAA
The FAA has refused to force airlines to offer more legroom, rejecting calls for legal minimums and dismissing concerns that cramped seating in cabins could present an evacuation risk. The Federal Aviation Administration had been forced to reconsider regulatory requirements for airplane seating, after a judge ruled in favor of a consumer group in a lawsuit last year.
Flyers Rights, a group which describes itself as the largest US airline passenger organization, petitioned the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to force the FAA to impose standards on airlines. It argued that a trend of shrinking seat sizes represented a potential hazard in the case of an emergency. The operators’ desire to squeeze more people into every plane has led to narrower seats, together with a reduction in seat pitch between your seat and the row ahead.
The FAA initially opted to keep out of the argument, though was forced back into discussion after 2023’s court ruling. Now, in a letter published late on Monday, it has maintained that there’s no direct safety concern raised by reducing seat sizes. According to the agency, the bottleneck remains elsewhere in the evacuation process.
“The FAA has no evidence that a typical passenger, even a larger one, will take more than a couple of seconds to get out of his or her seat, or that such time will approach the time necessary to get the emergency exits functional,” Dorenda D. Baker, executive director in charge of aviation safety at the FAA, wrote in a letter to Flyers Rights. “The FAA also has no evidence that current seat sizes are a factor in evacuation speed, nor that current seat sizes create a safety issue necessitating rulemaking, because the time to stand up from one’s seat is less than the time it will take for the exit door to be opened and, for most passengers, for the aisle to clear.”
Among the evidence pointed to in support of its decision, the FAA cited airline safety demonstrations which showed passengers able to exit cabins even with 16-inch wide seats and 28-inch pitch. It also took issue with complaints that passengers would be unable to adopt the “crash position” by bending over in their seats. That “acceptable brace position,” it countered, could just as well be “leaning forward with your head on the back of the seat in front of you.”
Part of the FAA’s decision is seemingly based on the idea that it doesn’t expect airlines to get any more aggressive with their cabin antics. Although some airplane seat-makers are pushing designs which could potentially reduce pitch to just 23-inches, the Federal Aviation Authority can’t, apparently, see that taking off.
“Moreover,” Baker’s letter continued, “the FAA does not expect seat pitch to drop so significantly from current levels that it meaningfully affects evacuation speed.” In its testing for flight safety evacuation drills, Boeing wrote in a statement to the agency, it reconfigured a plane with a more condensed layout – 8-abreast seating, with 16.5-inch seat width and 28-inch seat pitch – than “normally used” in the US by airlines. “In all cases,” the aircraft-maker wrote, “passengers were able to reach the exit well before the escape slide was erected and ready for use.”
Flyers Rights has indicated that it may well appeal the decision again. The FAA has said that it considers the issue to be of “lower priority” than other areas of its focus.
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Day 1: Public Safety and Security
Did you know that there are special programs from the FAA to account for law enforcement, search and rescue, and fire rescue drone? You can get involved, just don’t try flying your drone around an emergency situation, you’d be endangering lives and risking some serious fines.Day 2: Business – Photography, Real Estate, Insurance
What you really need to know is simple: You can fly your drone for fun, or you can fly your drone for pay. The moment you accept compensation for your flight, or for photos and videos captured from the sky, that is a commercial operation, requiring you to have your Part 107 Certification, and to follow a few different rules in the sky.Day 3: Business – Infrastructure and Agriculture
Using drones to inspect radio towers, rail lines, power lines and large buildings is a huge business, at least it might be when the drone industry satisfies the line-of-sight rule we have to follow for drone flight. That’s right, whether you fly for fun or for pay, you must be able to see your drone in the sky at all times.Day 4: Business – Commercial and Medical Package Delivery
We’re all excited for drone deliveries, having Amazon drop off our next package right at our doorstep sounds super cool! That said, think about your home, is there really a safe place for a drone to fly in, land, leave a package and take off again? There are a number of difficult tasks a drone delivery needs to overcome before it can deliver stuff to you, but we’re getting there, and that’s very exciting.Day 5: Education and STEM Day 6: Recreational Flyers
There are enough rules and safety guidelines for hobby pilots that we needed two days. Day one for recreational flyers covers the tasks you need to accomplish before you fly. We hope you know that you need to register most drones with the FAA before you fly, and you’ll need to affix that registration number to the outside of the craft. The hardest part some days is learning the airspace restrictions — You cannot fly anywhere you want, you must be aware of airspace designations, then acquire authorization to fly in controlled airspace. If you live within five miles or so of an airport, you are likely in controlled airspace.
Check out Drone Rush’s airspace map for more details.Day 7: Recreational Flyers
Day two for hobby pilots, and the final day of the safety week, wraps up the recreational flight rules. Some of the basics include the 400 foot altitude limit, do not fly over people, stay away from emergency situations, don;t fly over stadiums, and more. Most of all, safety is in your hands, following the line-of-sight rules ensures you can see your craft and navigate it to a safe place when and if there are obstacles in the sky. Remember, you do not have the right of way if a manned aircraft comes around, you must get out of the way.
We invite you over to Drone Rush for all this and lists of the best drones for your needs. Whether you are looking for mini drones, 4K camera drones, commercial drones or more, we’ve got you covered.
BU Alums Create a More Hygienic Toilet Seat
Kevin Tang (Questrom’22) (from left), Andy Chang (Questrom’21, CAS’21), and Max Pounanov (ENG’23) with their Cleana commercial toilet seat. Photo by Justin Nardella (Questrom’22)
InnovationThey Created a More Hygienic Toilet Seat. Here’s the Poop Alums launch Cleana, a new company that seeks to make dirty toilet seats a thing of the past
Benjamin Franklin once said that the only certainties in life are death and taxes, but we might add a third: dirty public bathrooms. But now, thanks to the ingenuity of three BU alums, that no longer needs to be the case. After years of hard work, they’ve created a new kind of mechanical toilet seat designed to help prevent common everyday messes caused during urination. Their company, Cleana, is set to begin shipping its first seats in the coming months.
“We wanted to make things that were practical, simple, affordable, and accessible enough to the point where they actually became a standard,” says Kevin Tang (Questrom’22), cofounder and CEO of Cleana. “We want to make sure that this is something everyone can have.”
Tang has been working on the project since 2023. The team also includes Max Pounanov (ENG’23), the company’s COO, and Andy Chang (Questrom’21, CAS’21), its CFO. The three met through start-up events hosted by BU’s BUild Lab IDG Capital Student Innovation Center and MIT’s Entrepreneurship Center. (Their chief technology officer just graduated from MIT). What drew them together was a desire to solve problems that affect lots of people, which led them to the bathroom.
Cleana isn’t the first company to make and market automatic toilet seats, but unlike competitors, Cleana’s seats are engineered simply and are relatively inexpensive ($95 versus the $1,000+ that competitors charge). There are no complicated controls or settings. You simply attach the seat to a toilet bowl like any other and you’re ready to go: the seat raises or lowers (after a customizable time delay) without batteries or electrical input, using an ingeniously designed pneumatic system. The seats are also treated with a microbial coating, providing additional sanitation.
“Our mission statement is: we just want to make dirty toilet seats a relic of the past,” Chang says.
Cleana took home first place in the Tech Track of Innovate@BU’s New Venture Competition back in 2023, netting $18,000 in non-dilutive funding. The founders partnered with organizations like Gillette Stadium, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, and Detroit Metro Airport to develop testing sites. The company has also attracted the attention of investors like Robert Vail, the head of innovation at Boston Beer Co. and a member of the School of Hospitality Administration Dean’s Advisory Board, and John Barrett, executive director of the Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association.
Andy Chang (Questrom’21, CAS’21) working on a Cleana toilet seat prototype. Photo by Justin Nardella (Questrom’22)
Cleana offers two models: a commercial seat and a residential seat. The commercial seat, made for public bathrooms, automatically raises after every use, eliminating unwanted splashes during urination. A user can lower the seat by hand or foot, and once a person has done their business and stands up, a timer kicks in and the seat goes up after 30 seconds. Tang says that as part of their research, they conducted a self-report survey of several hundred people and found that 75 percent of men responded that they never raised the toilet seat before urinating in a public bathroom. In testing the commercial seat at Lucky Strike Fenway, the popular local entertainment venue, Tang says the auto-lift feature kept the seat about 88 percent cleaner.
The design for the residential seat came after hearing stories about people falling into toilets and getting injured and dropping their phones and other valuables in the bowl and pets drinking from the bowl when the toilet seat and lid were left up after use. Cleana’s residential seat automatically lowers both seat and lid after each use.
“The real challenge is, can you deliver [a product] in a way that it doesn’t become contrived and complicated,” Tang says.
The company plans to begin shipping the first of its commercial seats this fall. Among the customers already signed up: local grocery chain Roche Bros. Preorders for the residential seat are available here.
“It’s one of those things that touches everyone’s life—from behind, if you will,” Tang says with a laugh.
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FTC Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule amendments made clear
This week the FTC announced their first significant update to the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule since 1998, having been in talks to do so since 2010. This set of changes was outlined by FTC Chairman Jon Leibowitz who made it clear that the amount of time spent on these amendments should effectively underline their importance. A follow-up letter after the initial announcement was made created a list of easy-to-understand language surrounding the most significant changes and updates to the COPPA Rule.
The final amendments:
• modify the list of “personal information” that cannot be collected without parental notice and consent, clarifying that this category includes geolocation information, photographs, and videos;
• offer companies a streamlined, voluntary and transparent approval process for new ways of getting parental consent;
• close a loophole that allowed kid-directed apps and websites to permit third parties to collect personal information from children through plug-ins without parental notice and consent;
• extend coverage in some of those cases so that the third parties doing the additional collection also have to comply with COPPA;
• extend the COPPA Rule to cover persistent identifiers that can recognize users over time and across different websites or online services, such as IP addresses and mobile device IDs;
• strengthen data security protections by requiring that covered website operators and online service providers take reasonable steps to release children’s personal information only to companies that are capable of keeping it secure and confidential;
• require that covered website operators adopt reasonable procedures for data retention and deletion; and
• strengthen the FTC’s oversight of self-regulatory safe harbor programs.
The main rule also makes clear that any personal information collected from persons ages 13 and under must be kept entirely secure. If a website wishes to collect, use, or disclose any personal information from a person 13 years or younger they must get parental consent. The rule also notes that websites may not require a person under 13 to submit more personal information than is reasonably necessary to participate in said website, and that a “safe harbor” provision will be kept in the rule for industry groups “or others” to seek out FTC approval of any and all self-regulatory guidelines – just incase!
This update also included several modified definitions for terms such as Operator, Website, Online Service, Personal Information, and Collection. Personal Information will now be including geological information, photos, videos, and audio files that contain a child’s image or voice.
At the moment, the only way a website can receive official consent from a parent for their child is through a double email system called “email plus”, aka the “sliding-scale mechanism of parental consent”. This system works only for operators collecting information for internal use, the FTC also noting that they’re at this moment encouraging the development of new consent methods to make things easier on burgeoning websites of all kinds.
Learn how Photoshop calculates the file size of your image, why the image size changes as you change the number of pixels, and how easy it is to figure out the file size on your own!
Written by Steve Patterson.
In the previous lesson in this series on image size, we learned how to resize images for email and for sharing online using the Image Size command in Photoshop. In that lesson, we saw that by changing the number of pixels in the image, the image size in megabytes also changed. More pixels meant a larger file size, and fewer pixels made the file size smaller.
But how does that work? What does the number of pixels in an image have to do with its file size? In this quick lesson, I’ll show you exactly how pixels and file size are related, and how the colors in your image also play an important role. By the end, you’ll know how to easily figure out the size of an image on your own, and you’ll know exactly where that image size number comes from in Photoshop’s Image Size dialog box!
To follow along, you can open any image in Photoshop. I’ll use this photo that I downloaded from Adobe Stock:
The original image. Photo credit: Adobe Stock.
This is lesson 5 in my Resizing Images in Photoshop series.
Let’s get started!
Download this tutorial as a print-ready PDF!Where to find the current image size
To view the current size of your image, go up to the Image menu in the Menu Bar and choose Image Size:
This opens Photoshop’s Image Size dialog box, with a preview window on the left and the image size options along the right. The preview window was added in Photoshop CC:
The Image Size dialog box in Photoshop CC.
The current size, both in pixels (px) and in megabytes (M), is found at the top. The number next to the words Image Size shows the amount of space that the image is taking up in your computer’s memory. And below that, next to the word Dimensions, is the width and height of the image in pixels.
In my case, my image is taking up 42.1M of memory. And it has a width of 4700 px and a height of 3133 px. In a moment, I’ll show exactly how the image size and pixel dimensions are related:
The current image size, both in megabytes and in pixels.How pixels and color affect the image size
To really understand how the number of pixels in an image affects its file size, we also need to know how Photoshop displays the colors in your image. That’s because pixels alone don’t create the file size. Much of the size comes from the way Photoshop displays the color of each pixel.
Most full color images use what’s called RGB color. RGB stands for “Red, Green, and Blue”, which are the three primary colors of light. Every color you see in your image is made by mixing some combination of red, green and blue together.Photoshop’s color channels
Canceling the Image Size command.
Then I’ll switch over to the Channels panel, which you’ll find next to the Layers panel. And here we see the Red, Green and Blue channels that Photoshop is using. The RGB channel at the top isn’t really a channel. It represents the full color image that we’re seeing on the screen:
All colors in your image are made by mixing red, green and blue.
Learn more about RGB color and color channels in PhotoshopHow do color channels affect image size?
Each of the three color channels (Red, Green and Blue) takes up exactly 1 byte in memory for each and every pixel in the image. For example, if your image contained 10 pixels, each pixel would need 1 byte for red, 1 byte for green and 1 byte for blue, for a total of 3 bytes.
Of course, most images contain millions of pixels, not just 10. But the amount of memory that each pixel needs doesn’t change. It’s always 3 bytes for every pixel; one for red, one for green and one for blue.How to calculate the file size
So to figure out the file size of an image, all we need to do is take the total number of pixels, multiply it by 3, and we have our answer! Here’s how to do it.Step 1: Find the total number of pixels in the image
First, we need the total number of pixels, and we find that in the Image Size dialog box. I’ll re-open it by going back up to the Image menu and choosing Image Size:
And again, we see in the Dimensions section that my image has a width of 4700 px and a height of 3133 px:
The width and height of the image in pixels.
To find the total number of pixels, multiply the width and height together. In this case, 4700 pixels x 3133 pixels = 14,725,100 pixels. That’s a lot of pixels. But as we learned, the pixel count alone isn’t the whole story.Step 2: Multiply the total number of pixels by 3
Remember that each pixel in the image needs 3 bytes in memory; one for the Red channel, one for the Green channel, and one for the Blue channel. So to find the total file size, in bytes, multiply the total number of pixels by 3. In my case, 14,725,100 pixels x 3 bytes per pixel = 44,175,300 bytes.Step 3: Convert the image size from bytes to kilobytes
We have our total file size in bytes. But a byte is a very small unit of measurement, so it’s not very practical to refer to the size of an image in bytes. Instead, we usually talk about image size in either kilobytes or, more commonly, in megabytes.
One kilobyte is equal to 1024 bytes. So to convert bytes to kilobytes, divide the total number of bytes by 1024. With my image, 44,175,300 bytes ÷ 1024 = 43,139.94 kilobytes (or KB).Step 4: Convert the image size from kilobytes to megabytes
Even kilobytes is too small of a measurement type to be very practical for most images. So instead, we usually refer to file size in megabytes. One megabyte is equal to 1024 kilobytes. So to find the total image size in megabytes, divide the number of kilobytes (43,139.94) by 1024, which gives us 42.1 megabytes (or MB, although for whatever reason, the Image Size dialog box shortens “MB” to just “M”).
And if we look again at the Image Size dialog box, we see that sure enough, Photoshop is showing me that the size of my image is 42.1M:
Photoshop agrees with our calculations.How to calculate image size – Quick summary
And that’s really all there is to it! To figure out the image size, just follow these simple steps:
4. Divide the number of kilobytes by 1024 to get the image size in megabytes.
And there we have it! In the next lesson, we’ll look at web resolution, the popular belief that you need to lower the resolution of an image before uploading it online, and how easy it is to prove that it’s just not true!
You can jump to any of the other lessons in this Resizing Images in Photoshop chapter. Or visit our Photoshop Basics section for more topics!
Windows 11 has been launched, and although some features have been removed, several new ones have been added. Microsoft brings you a new task menu, widgets window, search field, and UI options with recently launched Windows 11 OS. Along with changes, the taskbar is centrally placed at the bottom, unlike the old version. Though it doesn’t give a choice of resizing the taskbar, the process may be performed using the registry to change its size. Taskbar this time has only three resizing options like small, default, and large. This post will guide you on how to change the taskbar size on Windows 11.
The position of the taskbar can not be altered, it is a limitation for those who like to change it as per convenience. Although, the new position and style have given a new look to the taskbar in Windows OS. Along with the limitation of resizing, Windows 11 has restricted many more functions in its very new version.
Before you go to the steps, make sure you have backed up the Windows Registry on your PC. It is because modifying the registry is risky and it can cause irreversible damage to your computer if you don’t know what you are doing.How to change Taskbar size on Windows 11
If you want to change the Taskbar size on your Windows 11 PC, you can do it using a registry tweak. To change it, do the following:
Then select Registry Editor from the search result.
Navigate to the path – ExplorerAdvanced
This way you can change the Taskbar size and show small Taskbar icons on your Windows 11 PC. If you want to learn more about the above steps in detail, continue reading:
Once you’re in the Registry Editor window, go to the following path:HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerAdvanced
You can set the Value data 0 for the small size.
If you prefer the default taskbar size, set it to 1.
For the larger taskbar size, you need to set the Value data 2.
Read: How to resize the Start Menu and Taskbar in Windows 10.
If you wish, you can revert the changes to their original size. To do so, open the registry editor and go to the following address:HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerAdvanced
Now go to the right side of the Registry Editor window, delete the TaskbarSi DWORD (32-bit) Value, and you’re done.
This way you can change the size of the Windows 11 taskbar.
This post will show you how to move Taskbar to the Top on Windows 11.How do I resize my Taskbar size?
To resize the Taskbar size in Windows 11, you need to use the Registry Editor. Open it and go to HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerAdvanced. Create a REG_DWORD value named TaskbarSi and set the Value data as 1 or 2. By default, it is set to 1, representing a normal size.Can you customize Taskbar in Windows 11?
Yes, you can customize Taskbar in Windows 11 using Windows Settings and Registry Editor. It is possible to add or remove icons, change Taskbar size, show or hide data/time, enable or disable system tray icons, etc. On the other hand, you can show or hide preset Taskbar icons as well.
Read next: How to enable Remember window location on Windows 11.
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