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It has been a few months since the trial between Epic Games and Apple wound down. Now, the judge leading the trial has made an initial ruling. And it’s a big win for Epic (and Fortnite).

Judge Yvonne Gonzalez-Rogers has filed a permanent injunction against Apple, with the ruling arriving early on Friday morning. This applies some major pressure to Apple, and it’s a giant setback for Apple’s App Store rules moving forward.

Update (09/10/2024): Apple has provided the following statement to Nick Statt:

Today the Court has affirmed what we’ve known all along: the App Store is not in violation of antitrust law. As the Court recognized ‘success is not illegal.’ Apple faces rigorous competition in every segment in which we do business, and we believe customers and developers choose us because our products and services are the best in the world. We remain committed to ensuring the App Store is a safe and trusted marketplace that supports a thriving developer community and more than 2.1 million U.S. jobs, and where rules apply equally to everyone.

The original article continues below.

Judge Gonzalez-Rogers says in the full ruling that the court cannot determine whether or not Apple is a monopoly in its own right, not under state or federal antitrust laws. However, the judge ruled that based on California’s competition laws, the company is engaging in anti-competitive behavior. Which led to this decision today.

Per the ruling:

Apple Inc. and its officers, agents, servants, employees, and any person in active concert or participation with them (“Apple”), are hereby permanently restrained and enjoined from prohibiting developers from including in their apps and their metadata buttons, external links, or other calls to action that direct customers to purchasing mechanisms, in addition to In-App Purchasing and (ii) communicating with customers through points of contact obtained voluntarily from customers through account registration within the app.

This will impact Apple in big ways, of course. But it will probably ripple out to other companies as well, including Google — which is also engaged in a legal battle with Epic Games. Just when Apple will be forced to make these changes to its digital storefront remains to be seen, but one would have to imagine it would be relatively soon.

Apple also recently agreed to settle with developers in the United States, which will add some other key changes to the App Store. And, of course, South Korea just forced both Apple and Google to allow third-party payment options within their digital storefronts.

What about Fortnite?

Going further, in light of Apple removing Fortnite from the App Store to really kick things off, Judge Gonzalez-Rogers also ruled that Apple doesn’t need to reinstate the popular battle royale game into the App Store, even after this specific ruling.

Per the judge’s statement:

(1) damages in an amount equal to (i) 30% of the $12,167,719 in revenue Epic Games collected from users in the Fortnite app on iOS through Epic Direct Payment between August and October 2023, plus (ii) 30% of any such revenue Epic Games collected from November 1, 2023 through the date of judgment; and

(2) a declaration that (i) Apple’s termination of the DPLA and the related agreements between Epic Games and Apple was valid, lawful, and enforceable, and (ii) Apple has the contractual right to terminate its DPLA with any or all of Epic Games’ wholly owned subsidiaries, affiliates, and/or other entities under Epic Games’ control at any time and at Apple’s sole discretion.

It will be interesting to see how Apple adapts to all of this. That is, if it holds up. Apple’s more than likely going to appeal this decision, so we may still be a ways away before this gets resolved.

The timeline August 13, 2023

Epic Games updates Fortnite on the


, bypassing the App Store review


. It adds a direct payment option, breaking another rule in the



Apple removes Fortnite from the App Store due to

Epic Games

breaking the App Store rules.


pic Games

launches a


blitz, and it also sues Apple for anti-competitive behavior.

Epic launches “Nineteen Eighty-Fortnite”, a parody


of Apple’s original “1984” ad:

Google removes Fortnite from the

Play Store

, as Epic Games also violated the Play Store’s rules.

Epic sues Google, too.

Spotify weighs in! Unsurprisingly, it applauds

Epic Games

for its


to stand up against Apple.

August 14, 2023

Facebook says Apple’s

App Store

fees make it impossible to help

small businesses

impacted by the coronavirus pandemic.

August 17, 2023

Apple threatens to revoke Epic Games’


accounts for not only


, but also


. That cut-off is set to take place on Friday, August 28, 2023.

August 18, 2023

Apple issues an official statement on the matter in


to Epic Games.

Epic Games is revealed to have sought a coalition of “Apple critics” to help fight against Apple.

August 20, 2023

The Wall Street Journal and other news publications sign an open letter asking for Apple to reduce its

App Store

fees down to a standard 15%.

August 21, 2023

Epic Games promotes the #FreeFortnite Cup, or


, that is meant to bring even more attention against


, and is promoting “anti-Apple” prizes.

Epic sought special treatment for Fortnite before it declared war against Apple and the App Store’s guidelines.

August 24, 2023

Judge Gonzalez-Rogers rules that Apple does not need to reinstate Fortnite back into the App Store as the legal battle wages on. The judge also rules that Apple cannot revoke the

Unreal Engine


tools, but it can still move forward with removing Epic’s developer account for


and macOS.

Apple says it agrees with the ruling made by Judge Gonzalez-Rogers, and is prepared to welcome Fortnite back onto


as soon as Epic Games is ready to follow the App Store guidelines.

August 26, 2023

Epic confirms that the new season of Fortnite, which is Marvel-themed, will not be available on iOS or Mac. Cross-platform functionality with those


is also removed.

August 28, 2023

Epic lets Fortnite players know in an email that it’s Apple’s fault they can’t


the new season of the game.

Apple revokes Epic Games’ App Store and developer accounts.

September 8, 2023

Apple countersues Epic Games in what it claims is a “breach of contract” related to its App Store practices.

September 9, 2023

Epic Games says Apple is going to disable the “Sign in with Apple”


as soon as Friday, September 11.

Apple changes its mind regarding “Sign in with Apple”, allows existing


to keep using it.

September 10, 2023 September 18, 2023

Epic Games shuts down Fortnite: Save the World for Mac as of September 23.

September 24, 2023

Epic Games, Spotify, Tile, and other


create the “Coalition for App Fairness” to take on Apple’s and Google’s digital storefront policies.

September 28, 2023

U.S. District Judge Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers says the public’s opinion regarding the legal battle between Apple and Epic Games should be considered, suggests a jury should be involved.

October 7, 2023

Judge rules that the court battle between Apple and Epic Games will resume in May 2023.

November 5, 2023

Fortnite returns to iOS thanks to GeForce Now game

streaming service

, and only available via Safari.

December 17, 2023

Judge orders both Tim




Federighi to testify in the legal battle between Apple and Epic Games.

December 21, 2023

Epic Games sends out “Free Fortnite” loot boxes to influencers, trying to drum up support

January 14, 2023

Epic Games expands its legal battle with Apple and Google to the United Kingdom

February 1, 2023

Apple’s CEO, Tim Cook, is ordered to sit through a 7-hour deposition

February 10, 2023

Epic Games CEO Tim Sweeney confirms that the company had been planning its lawsuit against Apple for months

February 22, 2023 February 25, 2023

After some delay, a judge ruled that Valve has to hand over requested documentation to Apple

March 1, 2023

Apple and Epic Games’ trial may be in person, and it is set to start in May

April 5, 2023

Facebook is trying very hard to avoid handing over requested documents to Apple

April 27, 2023

Apple has filed its expert witness testimony against Epic Games

April 28, 2023

Epic Games files its own expert witness testimony against Apple

April 28, 2023

Apple and Epic Games file revised witness testimonies

You're reading Apple Must Allow Other Forms Of In

Must We Give Up All Sense Of Privacy?

Must We Give Up All Sense of Privacy?

Privacy is dead, right? I mean, that’s all I’ve been hearing over the last year. From Edward Snowden to repeated hacks to claims that the US federal government is accessing personal information, we have nothing in the way of real privacy. No, according to all of the reports surrounding the Web, security, and privacy, the only thing we have going for us is, well, the realization that we’re not actually anonymous at all – either online or in our lives.

One can say what they’d like about the anti-privacy efforts going on across the world. Some say that when we head to the Web, we should expect to lose all privacy and to believe that we have it is following a fool’s errand. Others, however, argue that anonymity is a right and privacy is an expectation, and we should stop at nothing to get both.

Unfortunately, the pessimist in me believes that there’s really no way to achieve that goal. While I’d like to see the governments around the world spend less time allegedly intruding our privacy, I’m a realist. I understand that we’ve come to a place where we can never go back. Like it or not, our privacy is dead. And to believe it’s not is a mistake.

Look, I don’t like to say that our Web (or personal) privacy is dead, but how can we ever undo something that has been going on for so long? It appears, based on the evidence made public over the last year, that we’ve been had.

We’ve had all of our personal communications collected, according to reports, and we’ve unknowingly been having her information kept on a server somewhere in the event governments need it, according to those reports. In other words, we’ve allegedly been spied upon for what some might say is no reason.

Similarly, we’ve had our data collected by companies across the globe. Today’s world is all about data and how much is available to a company to capitalize on. We’ve always known there have been some privacy concerns related to data sharing with companies, but it’s the piling-on effect that has made it worse and worse.

To be fair, the US government has specifically said that it’s not collecting US information and has denied all claims that it’s acting outside the scope of our freedoms. Companies have also made clear that any data that has been collected is encrypted, leaving it open to no one.

Still, we’ve left an indelible mark on the Internet and the future just by having a connection to the Web. And that’s a little more than concerning.

Luckily, there are some organizations that care about this stuff and have been fighting for improved data security, most notably the Electronic Frontier Foundation. But we can’t simply hope that we will be able to rely on those organizations to save us.

From this vantage point, it appears companies are incapable of saying “no” to governments around the world, and governments have no problem accessing data with impunity. Nothing can stop them unless we all collectively find issue with it and speak up.

Until that changes, I can’t see how we can possibly turn the privacy tide.

Researcher: Vulnerabilities In Aircraft Systems Allow Remote Airplane Hijacking

The lack of security in communication technologies used in the aviation industry makes it possible to remotely exploit vulnerabilities in critical on-board systems and attack aircraft in flight, according to research presented Wednesday at the Hack in the Box security conference in Amsterdam.

Teso showed how the absence of security features in ADS-B (automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast), a technology used for aircraft tracking, and ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System), a datalink system used to transmit messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite, can be abused to exploit vulnerabilities in flight management systems.

He did not experiment on real airplanes, which would be both dangerous and illegal, according to his own account. Instead Teso acquired aircraft hardware and software from different places, including from vendors offering simulation tools that use actual aircraft code and from eBay, where he found a flight management system (FMS) manufactured by Honeywell and a Teledyne ACARS aircraft management unit.

Using these tools, he set up a lab where he simulated virtual airplanes and a station for sending specifically crafted ACARS messages to them in order to exploit vulnerabilities identified in their flight management systems—specialized computers that automate in-flight tasks related to navigation, flight planning, trajectory prediction, guidance and more.

The FMS is directly connected to other critical systems like navigation receivers, flight controls, engine and fuel systems, aircraft displays, surveillance systems and others, so by compromising it, an attacker could theoretically start attacking additional systems. However, this aspect was beyond the scope of this particular research, Teso said.

Identifying potential targets and gathering basic information about them via ADS-B is fairly easy because there are many places online that collect and share ADS-B data, such as chúng tôi which also has mobile apps for flight tracking, Teso said.

After this is done, an attacker could send specifically crafted ACARS messages to the targeted aircraft to exploit vulnerabilities identified in the code of its FMS. In order to do this, the attacker could build his own software-defined radio system, which would have a range limit depending on the antenna being used, or he could hack into the systems of one of the two main ground service providers and use them to send ACARS messages, a task that would probably be more difficult, Teso said.

Teso created a post-exploitation agent dubbed SIMON that can run on a compromised FMS and can be used to make flight plan changes or execute various commands remotely. SIMON was specifically designed for the x86 architecture so that it can only be used in the test lab against virtual airplanes and not against flight management systems on real aircraft that use different architectures.

As previously mentioned, the research and demonstrations were performed against virtual planes in a lab setup. However, the FMS vulnerabilities identified and the lack of security in communication technologies like ADS-B and ACARS are real, Teso said

In a real-world attack scenario, the pilot could realize that something is wrong, disengage the auto-pilot and fly the plane like in the old days using analog systems, Teso said. However, flying without auto-pilot is becoming increasingly difficult on modern aircraft, he said.

Teso did not reveal any specifics about the vulnerabilities he identified in flight management systems because they haven’t been fixed yet. The lack of security features like authentication in ADS-B and ACARS is also something that will probably take a lot of time to address, but the researcher hopes that it will be done while these technologies are still being deployed. In the U.S., the majority of aircraft are expected to use ADS-B by 2023.

Apple Notifies Itunes Users Of $100M In

Parents of kids who racked up hundreds of even thousands of dollars in in-app purchases can now begin to seek compensation for their bills.

The “Apple In-App Purchase Litigation Administrator” just sent out an email with information regarding the settlement and deadlines for submitting payment requests.

In short, those with charges under $30 will receive a $5 iTunes gift card. Cash refunds will be distributed to those with bills exceeding that amount.

Here’s the email in its entirety:


If your iTunes account was charged for an in-app purchase made by a minor in a game app without your knowledge or permission, you could be entitled to benefits under a class action settlement.

The parties have reached a settlement in a consolidated class action lawsuit against Apple Inc. (“Apple”) regarding in-app purchases of game currency charged by minors to an iTunes account without the account holder’s knowledge or permission. If the settlement is court-approved, your rights may be affected. The United States District Court for the Northern District of California authorized this notice. The Court will have a hearing to consider whether to approve the settlement so that the benefits may be paid. This summary provides basic information about the settlement.

What’s This About?

In a consolidated class action lawsuit pending against Apple, Plaintiffs alleged that certain iOS applications (“Apps”) distributed through the App Store allowed minors to charge iTunes accounts for in-app purchases of game currency without the account holders’ knowledge or permission. Apple denies all allegations and is entering into this settlement to avoid burdensome and costly litigation. The settlement is not an admission of wrongdoing.

Who’s Affected?

You’re a “Class Member” if you’re a United States resident who paid for an in-app purchase of game currency charged to your iTunes account by a minor without your knowledge or permission in a Qualified App. For a searchable list of Qualified Apps and the full definition of “Game Currency,” please go to chúng tôi Qualified Apps consist of all apps in the games category with a minimum age rating of 4+, 9+, or 12+ that offer in-app purchases of game currency.

What Benefit Can You Get From the Settlement?

You may choose between (a) a single $5 iTunes Store credit or (b) a credit equal to the total amount of Game Currency that a minor charged to your iTunes account without your knowledge or permission within a single forty-five (45) day period, less any refund you previously received (“Aggregate Relief”). A cash refund in lieu of an iTunes Store credit is available if (a) you no longer have an active iTunes account, or (b) your claims exceed $30 in total. Additional requirements for claiming charges after the forty-five (45) day period apply. You must complete a valid Claim Form to receive settlement benefits.

The Claim Form will require you to attest that you: (a) paid for Game Currency charges in Qualified Apps charged to your iTunes account by a minor without your knowledge or permission; (b) did not knowingly enter your iTunes password to authorize any such purchase(s) and did not give your password to the minor to make any such purchase(s); and (c) have not received a refund from Apple for those charges. In addition, if you choose Aggregate Relief, the Claim Form will require you to identify the Qualified App, date of purchase, and price paid for each claimed charge. If you claim Aggregate Relief in excess of $30, you will also need to describe the circumstances under which a minor charged Game Currency to your iTunes account without your knowledge or permission.

Who is Eligible for Cash Refunds?

Cash refunds will be available to Class Members who no longer maintain iTunes accounts or whose total Aggregate Relief claims exceed $30.

A detailed notice and Claim Form package contains everything you need and is available at chúng tôi You can also obtain a Claim Form package by calling 1-855-282-8111.

Please read the full notice, which is available at chúng tôi and decide whether you wish to make a claim.

To claim a settlement benefit, you must submit a valid Claim Form on or before January 13, 2014. If you do not claim a settlement benefit within this time period, you will lose your right to obtain this benefit.

If you don’t want to make a claim and you don’t want to be legally bound by the settlement, you must postmark your request to exclude yourself by August 30, 2013, or you won’t be able to sue, or continue to sue, Apple about the legal claims and allegations in this case. If you exclude yourself, you will not be eligible to receive a payment from this settlement.

If you stay in the Class, you may object to the settlement. Objections must be received by August 30, 2013. The detailed notice describes how to exclude yourself or object. The Court will hold a hearing in this case (In re Apple In-App Purchase Litigation, Case No. 5:11-CV-01758-EJD) on October 18, 2013 at 9:00 a.m. to consider whether to approve (1) the settlement and (2) attorneys’ fees and expenses of up to $1.3 million for Class Counsel, and service awards to each of the five Plaintiffs of up to $1,500 each. You may appear at the hearing, but you don’t have to.

For More Information About the Settlement

To obtain a full notice and claim form, go to chúng tôi or call toll free 1-855-282-8111. For more details, go to chúng tôi or write to Boni & Zack LLC, Attn: Joshua D. Snyder, 15 St. Asaphs Road, Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004; or Saltz Mongeluzzi Barrett & Bendesky, P.C., Attn: Simon B. Paris, 1650 Market Street, Floor 51, Philadelphia, PA 19103.

For More Information About Apple Parental Controls

For Spanish-Language Information About the Settlement

Por favor diríjase a chúng tôi para obtener una copia de este aviso y otros documentos importantes e información en español.


A Collection Of 10 Data Visualizations You Must See


Writing codes is fun. Creating models with them is even more intriguing. But things start getting tricky when it comes to presenting our work to a non-technical person.

This is where visualizations comes in. They are one of the best ways of telling a story with data. In this article, we look at some of the best charts and graphs people have created using tools like Python, R, and Tableau, among others.

I have also included the link to the source code or the official research paper, so you can attempt to create these visualizations on your machines or just get a general understanding of how it was created.

Let’s get into it.

Visualizing the tree line using solar panels

This is a beautiful graph where the author has visualized the trees around his house using solar panel data and the position of the sun.

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: R

Calculating the Age of the Universe

Using data from Hyperleda, the author created this visualization in R to calculate the age of the universe. Astonishingly, his calculations were only off by -0.187% from the accepted age of the universe.

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: R

Rendering the Moon using Earth’s Colors

This is a rendering of how the moon would look if it was filled with Earth’s colors. A spectacular effort using the moon’s topography which was converted to colormap using matplotlib and cpt city. The 3-D model was created with blender and python.

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: Python

Gaussian Distribution

What’s impressive about this graphic is that it was created using JavaScript in a HTML document (you read that correctly).

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: JavaScript

1.3 Billion Taxi Trips in New York City

An absolutely gorgeous firefly-like visualization. The author collected, cleaned and plotted the pick-up and drop-off locations of all taxi rides in New York between January 2009 and June 2024.

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: Python

Instability of an unsteered bicycle

This surreal visualization shows 800 runs of a bicycle being pushed to the right. For each run, the path of the front wheel is shown until the bicycle fell over. The research paper is written in a humorous tone as well, adding to the already fascinating effort of creating self-riding bicycles.

You can access the research paper here.

Tool Used: Python

The World Seen Through 17,000 Travel Itineraries

According to the author, “Each city is plotted with its (lat, lng) coordinates and connected to any other city that came after it in someone’s itinerary. For example, London is connected to Paris because there’s at least one itinerary going from the former to the latter. The countries were clustered together and colored using the Louvain Modularity. All countries of the same color have trips that go between each other more often than other countries.”

You can further read about it, and access the source code files, here.

Tools Used: Tableau, Gephy

The BB-8 Droid

If you are a fan of the Star Wars franchise then this one is for you. The author created this droid using shapes (and a couple of other libraries) in R.

You can access the source code here.

Tool Used: R

Visualizing Solar Eclipses

The author has visualized solar eclipses over 5 millennia based on type, date, duration, and latitude. A spectacular effort.

You can access the Tableau workbook here.

Tool Used: Tableau

The Jimi Hendrix Experience

This Tableau visualization contains all of Jimi Hendrix’s live performances between 1967 and 1970. It includes which songs were played and their frequency, where the concerts were held, among other insightful data.

You can access the Tableau workbook here.

Tool Used: Tableau


How To Create Bootstrap 5 Forms? – Webnots

Forms are important and unavoidable part of any website. Bootstrap 4 uses the standard HTML5 form elements to add variety of elements within a form. In this article let us explore on how to create different styles of forms in Bootstrap 5. Remember, Bootstrap is a frontend framework. It only allows you to create readymade components with precompiled CSS and scripts. You should find a way to process the form inputs received at your server.

Bootstrap 5 Forms Tutorial

This tutorial covers the following topics:

Bootstrap 5 form classes

Kitchen sync form

Inline forms

Using form group

Form using grid layout

Sizing and adding help text

Other variations

Form validations

1. Bootstrap Form CSS Classes

Form is a bigger component compared to many other components like button, badges and alerts. It contains the following basic CSS classes:

CSS ClassDescriptionRemarks.form-groupUsed to group form controls .form-controlText inputsIt can be a text, password, date, time, etc..form-control-fileFile Upload .form-checkCheckbox and radio button .form-check-inputInput element class For checkbox and radio button.form-check-labelText label classFor checkbox and radio button.form-control-lgLarger form elements .form-control-smSmaller form elements .form-control-plaintextPlain text inputUsed for read only input elements

2. Kitchen Sync Form Using Various Elements

This is a checkbox 1. This is a checkbox 2. This is a checkbox 3.

The result will look like below on the browser:

3. Inline Forms

If you have noticed in the above example, all the elements are aligned below the label or legend. You can also make the elements aligned inline using “.form-inline” class like below:

And the result will be shown like below with all three elements aligned horizontally in a single row.

4. Grouping Form Elements with Form Group

You can easily group similar elements within a form using “.form-group” class like below:

The grouping will add the border bottom as shown below, you will not see any other visible changes with “.form-group” class.

Grouping Elements in a Form

5. Form with Grid System

When you need different columns and width for different form elements then use the default  grid system to align the elements as needed. Below is an example of a form with grid layout:

It will produce the following result on the browser:

Bootstrap 4 Form Using Grid Layout

6. Sizing and Adding Help Text for Fields

In the above example, we have used two more additional classes:

“.form-control-lg” to make the elements larger. Use “.form-control-sm” class to make it smaller.

“.form-text” class is used to add help text in muted form with the help of “.text-muted” class.

7. Other Variations

Below are some of the simple ways to customize the Bootstrap 4 form:

By default the form elements occupy full width which can be restricted by placing it inside a container or using additional CSS.

Also you can place the forms inside grid classes to control the size and responsiveness of the form.

It is also possible to have disabled elements using “.disabled” class.

8. Form Validations

The important part of using forms is to validate the mandatory inputs are entered by the user. There are two ways to validate the inputs – use custom script for validation or leave the validation part to the browser.

8.1. Validation with Custom Script

Enter city. Enter state. Enter zip code. (function() { “use strict”; window.addEventListener(“load”, function() { var form = document.getElementById(“form-validation”); form.addEventListener(“submit”, function(event) { if (form.checkValidity() == false) { event.preventDefault(); event.stopPropagation(); } form.classList.add(“was-validated”); }, false); }, false); }());

8.2. Browser Validation

You can just remove the custom script in the above form code to allow the browser to stop the form submission. The default validation is done by all modern browsers like Chrome, Safari and Firefox.

You will see the following error message, when the user did not fill the required field and submit the form.

Wrapping Up

Forms are important component on any webpage for collecting user inputs. Bootstrap 4 allows to create simple to complex forms to show different input fields with grouping. But complex validation and processing of the collected data at server side needs a scripting language like PHP. So, you should integrate the forms in PHP to get and process the user data.

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