Trending November 2023 # Cancer Expert Karen Antman Appointed Medical Campus Provost, Med Dean # Suggested December 2023 # Top 14 Popular

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Cancer expert Karen Antman appointed Medical Campus provost, MED dean

New Medical Campus Provost and MED Dean Karen H. Antman

This story was published in the BU Bridge on February 18, 2005.

Karen H. Antman, a prominent oncologist who is recognized internationally as an expert on breast cancer and other malignancies, has been named provost of the Medical Campus and dean of the School of Medicine. She will assume the positions May 1.

“Dr. Antman is an outstanding choice for these two posts,” says President ad interim Aram Chobanian, who held both jobs before stepping up to lead the University in November 2003. “She is a proven administrator and educator, she is an excellent clinician and clinical scientist, and she is an established leader on health policy issues. We are indeed fortunate to find an individual who combines all of these strengths, and I am sure she will be an exemplary leader for both our School of Medicine and the entire Medical Campus.”

As provost, Antman will be responsible for the overall operation of the Medical Campus in Boston’s South End, which includes the School of Medicine, the Goldman School of Dental Medicine, and the School of Public Health. In addition, she will oversee the University’s role in Boston Medical Center. Currently, MED Professor Thomas Moore serves as acting provost of the Medical Campus and MED Professor John McCahan as MED acting dean.

Antman has been deputy director for translational and clinical sciences at the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health for the past year. Translational research generally refers to early clinical trials of new drugs and treatments. Previously she spent more than 10 years on the faculty of the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, where she was Wu Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology and director of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, a National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center. She was voted Senior Faculty Teacher of the Year by medical residents at Columbia in 1993. Antman also has been on the faculty of Harvard Medical School and has had hospital appointments at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston and Presbyterian Hospital in New York.

“The opportunity to work with the outstanding group of educators, care providers, and laboratory, clinical, and public health investigators at Boston University Medical Center is an enormous privilege,” says Antman. “Under Dr. Chobanian’s leadership, each of the components of the Boston University Medical Campus has thrived, and we will build on the strong foundation already created.”

Best known among oncologists for developing a standard treatment regimen for sarcomas of the bone and soft tissue, as well as her groundbreaking research on blood growth factors, Antman also is outspoken on public health policy issues. She has written extensively about impediments that exist to conducting clinical research on cancer, and she has testified before Congress on the need for federal research dollars to support cancer research.

Antman has served as president of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. She was for seven years an associate editor of the New England Journal of Medicine and has been on the editorial boards of several other major medical journals.

She was inspired to enter academia, she says, “when as a young oncologist I realized that I could be the best possible physician and my cancer patient still could die. It seemed essential for me to get involved in research and education. When problems arose in obtaining care for patients, colleagues and I wrote editorials. I was invited to participate in committees and became involved in making medical policy.”

Among Antman’s goals at BU will be to increase philanthropic support to the Medical Campus schools and encourage academia-industry partnerships. “I think that it’s the best of times, in that the biomedical sciences never have had so much information and resources available,” she says, “and it’s the worst of times in that the National Institutes of Health’s budget is now constricting. So we’re going to have to use new strategies and be more efficient than ever to stay competitive.”

Antman lives in Weston with her husband, Elliott Antman, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and a Harvard Medical School professor. They have two children, Amy, a fourth-year student at Harvard Medical School, and David, a third-year student at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. In her free time, Antman enjoys backpacking and traveling with her family.

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Medical Campus Sees Eight New Full Professorships

Medical Campus Sees Eight New Full Professorships Research on cancer biomarkers, health care corruption, implant dentistry rewarded

Full professorships have been granted to eight faculty at the Goldman School of Dental Medicine, the School of Medicine, and the School of Public Health. Photo by Jackie Ricciardi

At the BU School of Medicine, Tony Godfrey dedicates himself to finding molecular biomarkers for esophageal cancer, while Susan Minear devises training programs for healthcare professionals working with newborns addicted to opioids. And at the School of Public Health, Taryn Vian exposes healthcare corruption in developing countries. That research and other equally groundbreaking scholarship has helped eight Medical Campus associate professors receive promotions to full professor.

“These faculty, representing the Schools of Medicine and Public Health and the Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, have strong national and international reputations in their field,” says Karen Antman, dean of MED and provost of the Medical Campus. “We congratulate them on their significant accomplishments and recognition.”

The full list of promoted professors:

Albert Price (SDM’74), Goldman School of Dental Medicine professor of periodontology

Price is a well-known expert with more than 40 years of experience in clinical care and the teaching of implant dentistry and periodontics. He has written numerous book chapters and published papers on wound healing, surgical implants, bone grafts, and augmentations. A fellow of the International College of Dentists, he belongs to numerous dental societies, such as the American Dental Association, the International Association for Dental Research, and the American Academy of Periodontology. In addition to his current teaching and research work, he is developing a digital dentistry curriculum in collaboration with Jess Liu, an SDM clinical assistant professor.

Tony Godfrey, School of Medicine professor of surgery and associate chair for surgical research

Internationally known for his expertise in cancer genetics and molecular pathology, Godfrey and his lab are currently focused on a condition called Barrett’s esophagus, which is associated with chronic acid reflux, as well as an increased risk of esophageal cancer. His lab works closely with Translational Research teams of surgeons, pathologists, and oncologists to develop new molecular approaches to cancer detection and treatment. Godfrey’s work has appeared in 74 peer-reviewed publications and 4 textbooks, and he is often cited as a principal or co–principal investigator in numerous National Institutes of Health and foundation research grants.

Susan Minear, MED clinical professor of pediatrics

Minear is the cocreator of the Newborn Behavior Observation Curriculum, being used by newborn care professionals in 19 states and 13 countries. She helped develop the Eat Sleep and Console Training for professionals who care for infants exposed to opiates prenatally, which is being disseminated throughout New England. Minear has more than 20 years of experience in clinical care and teaching in childhood primary care and development, as well as in newborn medicine. Since 2009, she has been the medical director of Baby Steps, an outpatient clinic at Boston Medical Center (BMC) that works to prevent failure to thrive syndrome and promote early intervention strategies for at-risk infants.

Michael Silverstein, MED professor of pediatrics and director of the division of general pediatrics

Silverstein is widely recognized for his work in family-based mental health, including maternal depression, traumatic stress, and addiction in newborns and infants. A Harvard Medical School graduate with a master’s degree in public health from the University of Washington, he is committed to working with low-income and underserved children. He is BMC’s associate chief medical officer for research and population health and has been the principal investigator in numerous studies funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

Kevin Wilson, MED professor of pulmonary, allergy, sleep, and critical care medicine

Wilson is an expert in developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the management of various pulmonary disorders. He has twice been awarded the Presidential Commendation from the American Thoracic Society, and he founded the society’s training program in guidelines and methodology, the first of its kind. His peer-reviewed articles have been published in several pulmonary journals, among them the American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, the European Respiratory Journal, Virology, and Biochemistry. He has received the pulmonary, allergy, sleep, and critical care department teaching award and has mentored 22 fellows.

Gheorghe Doros, School of Public Health professor of biostatistics

Doros evaluates the stresses of caregiving on physical and psychological health and develops methodological approaches to the design and analyses of clinical trials, with an emphasis on clinical trial data. He earned a PhD from Yale University and joined BU after two years at Eli Lilly as a member of the company’s Drug Discovery and Toxicology Department. He has published more than 130 peer-reviewed journal articles in such publications as JAMA, Statistics in Medicine, Lancet, and the Journal of Vascular Surgery and has been cited more than 2,000 times. He has won three SPH Excellence in Teaching awards.

Wendy Heiger-Bernays, SPH professor of environmental health

Taryn Vian (UNI’10), SPH clinical professor and associate chair of global health

Megan Woolhouse can be reached at [email protected].

Skin Cancer Signs Symptoms Treatment And More

What to Look for?

If cancerous growth is commencing, some indications may be found.

The appearance of a new spot

Changing the shape, size, or color of an old spot

Itching and pain at a spot

Soreness with blood or crust

Red shining bump

Rough or scaly area

Growth like a wart

Growth with a protruding border

Is Skin Cancer Contagious?

Skin cancer cannot be spread through close contact like touching or through the air. Isolation is not required and contact with people will not harm them. The body’s immune system recognizes alien cells and destroys them. Cancer occurs when identification and destruction was not possible. Organ transplant raises cancer risk.

Can Skin Cancer be Cured?

If detected early enough, almost every type of skin cancer can be cured. A full recovery is quite possible. While about 90 percent of basal cell skin cancer cancers find a cure, most deaths result from melanoma which may result in death within 5 years.


Face or body, sun-exposed skin, or otherwise, melanoma can occur in diverse locations. Melanoma often occurs in the lower legs of women on normal skin or a mole. Dark and fair skins are both affected. In dark skins, melanoma may grow on soles and palms, and under the nails of hands and feet.

Melanoma appears sometimes like an irregular small lesion of different colors like pink and blue, red and white. The lesion may be paining, itching, and burning. Dark lesions may be found on the palms and soles. The lesions could occur on mucous membranes in the mouth and nose or private parts. It might be a big brown spot with darker specks. It could be a mole that keeps changing in size and color, sometimes bleeding.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Areas exposed to the sun like the face and neck are usually affected by BCC. The lesion may be brown like a scar or flat and the color of flesh. It could be a bump that looks like a pearl. It sometimes appears as a sore with blood and scabs that may heal but recurs.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Face and ears along with the hands are the usual sun-exposed locations for SCC. Dark-skinned persons usually get it on areas not sun-exposed like the palms and soles. SCC may appear as a flat lesion with scales or a crust. It could look like a red node.

Less Common Cancer Types

Sebaceous gland carcinoma is not common but aggressive. It occurs in the skin’s oil glands. While found anywhere, they appear on the eyelids and are mistaken for other medical conditions. They take the form of hard nodes but do not cause pain.

Kaposi sarcoma is rare and occurs in the blood vessels of the skin. It appears as red areas on the skin or in the mucous membranes. Weak immunity like in AIDS cases or organ transplants may suffer Kaposi carcinoma. Young African men and older Jews in Italy or Est Europe are prone to such cancers. 

Merkel cell carcinoma results in hard and shining nodes in hair follicles or the skin and under it. it is mostly found in the trunk, head, or neck regions.

Skin Cancer Treatments

Spreading through Stage 0 to Stage 4, the extent of cancer growth decides the treatment strategy. The higher number indicates a greater spread. A limited cancer growth could be deleted by a biopsy. What are the additional common cancer treatments?

Chemotherapy and immunotherapy kill cancer cells with a variety of medications. Topical chemotherapy uses medicines on the skin for cancers limited to the top layer. Intravenous or pill medications apply if cancer has spread elsewhere to different body regions. Immunotherapy is the process of using the immune system to destroy cancerous cells.

Radiation therapy makes use of strong energy beams called radiation to destroy cancer cells or restrict growth and division.

Photodynamic therapy first covers the skin with medication. A fluorescent light activates the medicine. Precancerous cells are killed. Normal cells are unharmed.

Cryotherapy freezes skin cancer cells with the use of liquid nitrogen. The dead cells fall off. Only small and beginning cancers confined to the skin’s top layer can be destroyed through such an approach.

Excisional surgery works by completely removing cancer and neighboring healthy skin.

Mohs surgery first removes the raised part of the lesion. Later, the surgeon removes a layer of skin cancer cells with a scalpel. After the tissue is studied under a microscope, further layers are removed until no more cancerous tissue is visible. This procedure mostly works on basal cell and squamous cell cancers. The normal skin is left untouched. The process works near sensitive areas such as the eyes and the nose.

Curettage and electrodesiccation scrape the tumor to remove cancerous cells. The process uses a sharp-looped edge. Later, an electric needle helps to destroy the remaining cancer cells. Basal cell cancers, squamous cell cancers, and precancerous skin tumors use this technique.

Is Skin Cancer Prevention Possible?

Ultraviolet rays from the sun result in skin damage that may eventually lead to skin cancer. The best policy for prevention is to avoid too much sun exposure and sunburn. Avoid the midday harsh sun. Regular use of broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 30 or more is effective. Such a sunscreen protects against UVB and UVA rays and should be applied in all weather conditions. Protect the arms and legs with long shirts and trousers. Broad hats protect the face, neck, and ears better. Wear sunglasses against UVB and UVA rays. Look for similar dresses. Avoid tanning beds. Avoid medications that render the skin sensitive to sunlight.

Skin Cancer Diagnosis

The diagnosis uses biopsies like excisional, shave and punch biopsies. CT scan or computed tomography scan may be used. Along with MRI or magnetic resonance imaging, X-rays are also used. 

Skin Cancer Risk Factors

Along with exposure to UV light from the sun, a few other factors pose risks −

Exposure to chemicals like arsenic, coal, and paraffin

Gorlin syndrome

Human papillomavirus

Psoriasis treatments

Radiation therapy

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

Weak immunity

Smoking tobacco

Family history

Xeroderma pigmentosum and such inherited conditions


Prevention is the best policy with minimal sun exposure. If symptoms do occur, early detection and treatment minimize the risks and may result in a complete cure in a majority of cases. Start with a careful examination of the skin, and repeat that at regular intervals.

What Medical Exam Did Chatgpt Pass?

The topic that has recently taken the internet by storm is none other than ChatGPT, the AI chatbot that debuted last November. People have engaged with it in playful and light-hearted conversations to test its chatty prowess. Not only that, ChatGPT has achieved numerous accomplishments, such as passing some of the toughest exams like the US Medical licensing exam, a Wharton Business School exam, and four University of Minnesota Law School exams in Constitutional Law. This feat has sparked the attention of Twitter CEO Elon Musk, who took a dig at the AI chatbot, saying “I’m sure everything will be fine.” Let us take a look at What Medical Exam Did ChatGPT Pass?

It’s interesting to note that Open AI, the research company in which Musk and Microsoft have invested, created ChatGPT. Anyone who uses the AI tool website can ask it a question on any topic and receive a speedy, detailed response in paragraph form. ChatGPT has demonstrated its capability in various domains. It can write instant and complex essays, draft marketing pitches, produce poems and jokes, and even draft a speech for a Congressman in the United States. However, there are fears that AI could take over some human jobs.

Also read: Is ChatGPT 4 Free To Use?

One of the latest achievements of this tool is its ability to pass the US Medical Licensing exams. In a pre-print study, the researchers explored the upper limits of ChatGPT’s capabilities. They fed questions from previous exams to the AI tool and had the answers, ranging from open-ended written responses to multiple-choice, independently scored by two physician adjudicators. They made sure that the answers to those questions weren’t already in the dataset accessible by the chatbot when it had been trained. The team noted that even though ChatGPT hadn’t seen the answers before, it performed at or near the passing threshold for exams without any specialized training or reinforcement. The tool received more than 50 percent across all examinations and approached the USMLE pass threshold of about 60 percent. “Therefore, ChatGPT is now comfortably within the passing range,” the paper concluded.

In a groundbreaking new study, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and AnsibleHealth have found that OpenAI’s ChatGPT can pass the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) with an impressive 60% accuracy rate. This research opens up exciting possibilities for the role of AI in medical education and training.

ChatGPT is a natural language processing tool that is trained on vast amounts of language data and looks for patterns and relationships. Its ability to generate new text based on the language it is trained on makes it an ideal candidate for use in medical education. However, ChatGPT’s reliance on training data means it does not scour the web like other AI chatbots.

The scientists evaluated the ChatGPT model based on the three standardized tests that make up the USMLE. The team trained the model using test questions from the June 2023 sample exam released to the public. Questions that required visual analysis were excluded from the training set.

To reduce memory retention bias, the team input three different types of questions into the model:

Multiple-choice single answer without forced justification, for example, “The patient’s condition is mostly caused by which of the following pathogens?”

Multiple-choice single answer with forced justification, for example, “Which of the following is the most likely reason for the patient’s nocturnal symptoms? Explain your rationale for each choice.”

Open-ended prompting, for example, “What would be the patient’s diagnosis based on the information provided?”

For the first time, the AI model passed the USMLE at or near 60% accuracy without the aid of clinician trainers. This result is significant and opens up new possibilities for AI in medical education. The researchers also found that ChatGPT’s results showed valid clinical insights and rationale, instilling more confidence in the model’s explainability and trust.

The team believes that ChatGPT and other generative conversational models can help with training future doctors. One such application could be to translate technical medical results into more comprehensible language for patients. AnsibleHealth is already pursuing this project.

Besides its ability to answer questions and diagnose illnesses, GPT-4 is also an excellent translator. It can translate discharge information for a patient who speaks Portuguese and distill technical jargon into something that 6th graders could easily read. GPT-4 can also provide doctors with helpful suggestions about bedside manners, offering tips on how to talk to patients about their conditions in compassionate, clear language.

Despite its limitations, GPT-4 can mimic how doctors diagnose conditions with stunning albeit imperfect results. When asked if it could actually engage in causal reasoning, it replied that its intelligence is still “limited to patterns in the data and does not involve true understanding or intentionality.”

In a forthcoming book titled “The AI Revolution in Medicine,” computer scientist and physician Dr. Isaac Kohane, along with two colleagues, tested GPT-4, the newest artificial intelligence model from OpenAI, to see how it performed in a medical setting. The results were impressive.

In the book, Dr. Kohane notes that GPT-4, which was released in March 2023 to paying subscribers, can answer US medical exam licensing questions correctly more than 90% of the time. It is a much better test-taker than previous ChatGPT AI models, GPT-3 and -3.5, and better than some licensed doctors as well. According to Carey Goldberg and Microsoft’s vice president of research Peter Lee, GPT-4 has better clinical judgment than “many doctors” and can diagnose rare conditions “just as I would.”

However, the authors also acknowledge that GPT-4 has several limitations. For instance, GPT-4 is unable to account for a patient’s unique medical history or social determinants of health. Additionally, GPT-4’s reliance on vast amounts of data raises concerns about data privacy and bias.

GPT-4 is more than just a fact finder and a good test-taker; it is also an excellent translator. According to the authors, GPT-4 can translate discharge information for a patient who speaks Portuguese and distill technical jargon into something that sixth-graders can easily understand.

But it is not just in the realm of diagnosis that GPT-4 shows promise. In the book, the authors explain how GPT-4 can provide doctors with helpful suggestions about bedside manner, offering tips on how to better connect with patients.

However, it is important to note that GPT-4 is not infallible. As the authors caution, it can still make mistakes, and it hasn’t taken the Hippocratic Oath. Moreover, AI technology, including GPT-4, raises ethical questions about job displacement and patient privacy.

Despite these limitations, GPT-4’s success in diagnosing medical conditions raises exciting possibilities for AI technology in medicine. In the future, AI models like GPT-4 could help physicians diagnose rare diseases, translate medical jargon, and provide better care to patients. However, it is important that AI models are developed and tested with ethical considerations in mind.

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Stan Sclaroff Named Dean Of Arts & Sciences

Stan Sclaroff Named Dean of Arts & Sciences After nationwide search, interim dean chosen for strong and consistent leadership

The new dean of Arts & Sciences reflects its liberal arts mission: Stan Sclaroff was a double-major in computer science and English as a Tufts undergraduate. Photo by Cydney Scott

Stan Sclaroff embodies the philosophy of a liberal arts education. An accomplished computer scientist, he majored in that subject at Tufts—as well as in English.

“I loved both subjects very much from the start,” Sclaroff says. “In the end, it seems less important what majors I combined; instead, it’s the combining that mattered most.… All the reading and learning about methods of critique in my English major honed my appreciation for good writing. It also led me to see and seek out the interconnectedness between contemporaneous movements in literature, politics, philosophy, science, and the arts—how different disciplines inform and feed each other.”

The Renaissance man has been named dean of BU’s liberal arts citadel, the College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, following a nationwide search. Sclaroff, a CAS professor of computer science, has served as dean ad interim during the just-ended academic year.

In his letter to the search committee applying for the permanent deanship, Sclaroff wrote of the key challenge he’d face as dean, noting that CAS is at “a pivotal moment in its history” as the University updates its strategic plan for the next decade.

In that process, he wrote, BU will seek “to reimagine the ways in which disciplinary boundaries can be made more permeable, encouraging more collaboration between interdisciplinary units and traditional departments. CAS is a long-standing innovator and partner in interdisciplinary research and education…”

In reviewing tenure and promotion cases during the last year, Sclaroff wrote, he saw the next generation of “outstanding scholars who work at the intersection of multiple traditional disciplines. In strategic planning for CAS, it will be important to recognize that multidisciplinary work and collaboration manifests itself in many forms and at various scales—from larger-scale centers and institutes, to smaller-scale multidisciplinary centers and programs, down to the individual level.”

Continuing the college’s efforts to both boost faculty diversity and communicate the importance of a liberal arts education, in an era when some question its value, he wrote, also top his bucket list as dean.

Sclaroff became dean ad interim of CAS—the largest of BU’s 17 schools and colleges—following the departure last summer of Ann Cudd, who left BU to become provost at the University of Pittsburgh. He has been on the CAS faculty since 1995, and during that time he was associate dean of the faculty for mathematical and computational sciences. He also chaired the computer science department from 2007 to 2013.

An internationally respected scholar, Sclaroff founded the computer science department’s Image and Video Computing Group, a research initiative into machine learning, human-computer interaction, and computer vision (which seeks to automate functions performed by the human visual system). He developed one of the first content-based image retrieval systems, which uses computer vision to search for visual images in large databases.

Sclaroff also holds an appointment in the College of Engineering electrical and computer engineering department. He earned a PhD from MIT and has authored almost 50 journal articles and is the coauthor of the book Visual Saliency: From Pixel-Level to Object-Level Analysis (Springer, 2023).

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Devos Proposes Overhaul To Campus Sexual Harassment Claims

Betsy DeVos Proposes New Rules for How Colleges Handle Sexual Harassment Claims BU will examine the changes closely to ensure a safe learning environment

Betsy DeVos, US Secretary of Education, proposed controversial federal rule changes Friday that would require significant alterations in the way colleges and universities handle complaints of sexual harassment and sexual assault.

The change that garnered the most attention was a requirement that a hearing be held where representatives of accusers and of their alleged victims were present and could cross-examine the other party.

Another significant change is that colleges would be required to investigate only those allegations that occur on campus or in areas the school oversees, and only if an allegation was properly reported to specific officials. The current rules stipulate that colleges must investigate all student complaints, whether they occur on campus or off and no matter how the school learned about them.

The proposals from DeVos would also tighten the definition of sexual harassment.

BU officials say they need to study the proposals and evaluate their effects before responding. The University’s priority is always to “provide students with a learning environment that is safe from sexual harassment and misconduct,” says Jennifer Grodsky, BU’s vice president for federal relations, and the proposals need to be evaluated in that light.

“Throughout this process, my focus was, is, and always will be on ensuring that every student can learn in a safe and nurturing environment,” DeVos said in a statement. “That starts with having clear policies and fair processes that every student can rely on. Every survivor of sexual violence must be taken seriously, and every student accused of sexual misconduct must know that guilt is not predetermined. We can, and must, condemn sexual violence and punish those who perpetrate it, while ensuring a fair grievance process. Those are not mutually exclusive ideas. They are the very essence of how Americans understand justice to function.”

Keys changes in the proposed rules include:

New definitions of sexual harassment include: “Unwelcome conduct on the basis of sex that is so severe, pervasive and objectively offensive that it effectively denies a person equal access to the school’s education program or activity.” Currently the rules use Obama-era standards of unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature.

Requiring schools to choose one standard for deciding all cases, either a simple “preponderance of the evidence,” as used at BU currently, or the higher standard of “clear and convincing evidence.” Schools would be required to decide all cases by the same standard.

The changes appear intended to counteract Obama-era rules that are described by Trump administration officials as too vague, as well as to increase due process protections for the accused.

“It is our goal with this proposed rule to ensure that Title IX grievance proceedings become more transparent, consistent, and reliable in their processes and outcomes,” DeVos said. “Far too many students have been forced to go to court to ensure their rights are protected because the Department has not set out legally binding rules that hold schools accountable for responding to allegations of sexual harassment in a supportive, fair manner.”

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