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For years, the scourge of the Internet has been ever increasing volumes of spam that clog inboxes around the world. According to a new report from Cisco (NASDAQ:CSCO), 2010 was the first year on record that spam volumes actually declined.

Cisco’s report also points out some counter-intuitive data about which types of technologies are being attacked. As opposed to Adobe PDF which had been a top target, Cisco said that Java vulnerabilities are now more exploited than those in Adobe Acrobat and Reader. Overall, Cisco is rating the status of cybersecurity threats at the end of 2010 at a level lower than they were in 2009, though there is still cause for concern.

The decline in spam volumes varies by geography according to Cisco. In the U.S., spam volume decline by 1.6 percent in 2010 in comparison to 2009. That said the U.S. still continues to lead globally in terms of spam with 11.1 trillion spam messages sent in 2010, down from 11.3 trillion sent in 2009. Among the other countries that experienced spam declines were Brazil with a 47.5 percent drop and Turkey which declined by 87 percent.

Mary Landesman, senior security researcher at Cisco, told chúng tôi that the decline in spam volumes in 2010 was due to 8 major takedowns of spam senders. She noted that one of the biggest spam farms that was removed in 2010 was an affiliate marketing facilitator that was linked to pharma spam. Landesman said that by taking down the affiliate engine, the revenue stream for the pharma spam was cut off, which reduced the volume of spam.

The decline in spam, however, should not be confused with a decline in risk.

“Spam volumes are not really tied to risk exposure,” Landesman said. “Spam filters do an excellent job of keeping the stuff out people’s inboxes.”

She added that as a result of good spam filters, spam isn’t as much of a risk as it once was. On the other hand, the Cisco report points to a number of new trends in 2010 that due put users at risk.

Over the course of 2010, Adobe’s PDF products were attacked and updated multiple times. However according to Cisco’s data gathered from its ScanSafe cloud security division, Adobe PDF vulnerabilities were not the most exploited vulnerabilities during 2010.

“In 2010, exploited Java vulnerabilities outpaced the exploit of Adobe Reader and Acrobat,” Landesman said. “Java was 3.5 times more frequently exploited than were malicious PDFs. That really spells out the need for paying attention to what’s making the headlines but also paying attention to the types of things that aren’t making the headlines.”

The shift in attacks away from PDF toward Java occurred over a 12-month period. According to Cisco, in January of 2010 Java exploits represented 1.5 percent of web malware while PDF exploits accounted for 6 percent. By November of 2010 the tables had turned with Java coming in at 7 percent and PDF malware at only 2 percent.

As to why attackers shifted from PDF to Java, it all has to do with opportunity.

“There were some Java vulnerabilities along with exploit code that were disclosed in the first quarter,” Landesman said. “Attackers found that the attacks were working and the reason why it continued to be successful is because people were not focused on the need to patch Java.”

Oracle updated Java at multiple points throughout 2010. What’s not clear is whether or not all users properly updated to the lastest patched Java updates.

“The Java patch cycle is not as finely honed as perhaps it could be,” Landesman said. “There have been complaints for users that check for an update, the system says they’re updated, but they’re not actually updated.”

Another Java update issue cited by Landesman is when Java is updated but it still leaves an older version installed as well, which then is still exploitable. She noted that the Java update issues could just be user error, though they are still valid concerns.

“They lead to continued exposure even if the user has attempted to patch,” Landesman said. “The thing is, you really have to question how many users have really tried to patch Java.”

Landesman noted that there was so much attention focused on vulnerabilities in Adobe PDF in 2009 that by 2010 everyone was looking for them and making sure they were patched. In contrast there was no such focus on Java.

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.

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What Is Kakaotalk? The Mobile Messaging App On The Rise

KakaoTalk’s popularity has exploded in recent years, so if you haven’t heard about South Korea’s hottest messaging app, it’s time to learn.

When it comes to social media platforms, it can be tempting to just stick with the big names you already know, but no one wants to miss out on the next big thing. And look, we don’t want to spark your FOMO, but have you heard of KakaoTalk?

Whether you’re familiar with this hot social messaging app or not, there’s a good chance you should start paying attention to it. Not only is KakaoTalk safe, but it might be essential in your digital marketing plan.

Bonus: Read the step-by-step social media strategy guide with pro tips on how to grow your social media presence.

What is KakaoTalk?

KakaoTalk (or KaTalk) is a popular messaging app in South Korea. It’s a free mobile service that offers text messaging, voice and video calls, group chats and more.

Though similar to Line or WeChat, KakaoTalk’s actually been around for 12 years. But its popularity has exploded in recent years, with an increase of over 8 million users worldwide between 2023 and 2023.

Chart via Statista.

You know how it’s common to say “let me Google that” when you’re thinking of looking something up? KakaoTalk has achieved that level of ubiquity, with South Koreans often using “Ka-Talk” as a verb (i.e. “I’ll Ka-Talk you later”).

According to eMarketer, a whopping 97.5% of smartphone users in South Korea used the app as of December 2023. That’s over 3 times the amount of users on the second most popular app, Instagram.

Chart via eMarketer.

KakaoTalk has become an ingrained part of South Korean culture, but you can use it anywhere in the world. You just need the app and an internet connection. KakaoTalk is also surprisingly popular in the Netherlands and Italy, and it’s only a matter of time before it catches on elsewhere.

The platform can connect businesses with an enormous base of potential consumers worldwide. Your KakaoTalk marketing campaign might extend far beyond South Korea.

How can you use KakaoTalk for business?

Example of a KakaoTalk Channel homepage.

Create a KakaoTalk Business Channel

Free to create and easy to maintain, a KakaoTalk Business Channel is a great call for business owners looking to break into the platform.

With this tool, you can build a searchable hub for your brand. You can also keep your followers updated with photos, videos and status updates. Perhaps best of all, you use the built-in smart chat function to have real-time communication with your clients.

KakaoTalk’s official chatbot logo.

Update your clients Reach new customers

If you’re looking to expand your reach further, you can access the Kakao BizBoard. This standalone B2B service allows businesses to share content across various platforms.

With BizBoard, you can create highly targeted ad campaigns using Kakao Sync.

Design custom emoticons

Like any social media app worth its weight in likes, KakaoTalk has a strong emoticon presence. The main stars are the incredibly adorable Kakao Friends. They’re so popular, they even have their own branded retail stores throughout South Korea.

Kakao Friends retail store via Universal Beijing.

Sure, it’s unlikely you’ll be able to come up with something as iconic as the beloved Ryan the lion. But you can still contribute custom emoticons to the KakaoTalk oeuvre. Simply sign up for the Kakao Emoticon Studio to design emoticons that rep your brand.

Examples of custom emoticons in the KakaoTalk store.

Directly sell food (if applicable)

Some brands might benefit from using KakaoTalk Order, the app’s take on popular services like UberEats or Doordash.

The food ordering service also has a robust boss center. It helps store owners manage their menus, create discount codes and stay in touch with their customer base.

How to start using KakaoTalk for business

KakaoTalk is both intuitive and easy to use. But there are some complications if you want to open a KakaoTalk Business Channel. Let’s walk through each step for setting up your KakaoTalk account.

Download the app

Since it’s predominantly Korean, KakaoTalk is likely tucked away in a deep corner of your app store, but you’ll find it there.

You might notice that there are some negative reviews for the app, which tend to center on one major takeaway. It’s hard to change the phone number or email address associated with your account, so make sure you get it right the first time.

Sign up for a personal account

KakaoTalk will likely start with your phone number. Again — make sure you use a number that you’ll have for a while, because it can be tough to change later on. This is a personal account, so you can use your own phone number, add a verified email address and use a profile picture if you so choose. Enable two-step verification to maximize security.

Create a KakaoTalk Channel

To start using KakaoTalk’s business features, you’ll want to create a KakaoTalk Channel (also known as a Kakao Channel). If you’re not fluent in Korean, you’ll want to let your browser’s translation feature do the heavy lifting.

It’s also a good idea to have Google Translate open in another window. You can also use the smartphone app, which has a live AR translate function.

Once you’re prepared, follow these steps:

Navigate to the Kakao Business admin page. You will be asked to sign in with your personal account and input your name. I set 155 as my name, because that’s the name of my podcast for which I’m creating a channel.

The next page may or may not auto-translate, but the yellow button at the bottom says “Create a new channel.”

Enter the channel name, search ID and brief description for your channel, and upload a profile picture (recommended: 640 x 640px). You can also select relevant categories for your brand from the dropdown menus below.

That’s it. You’ve successfully made a KakaoTalk Channel for your brand, and have access to messaging, analytics, promotional coupons and the ability to be found in the user directory.

Upgrade to a KakaoTalk Business Channel (optional)

But wait, there’s more. If you upgrade to a KakaoTalk Business Channel, you’ll be able to reap the benefits further with a verified badge, better placement in search results and access to the fancy BizBoard we mentioned earlier.

There are some catches, though — you need a Korean business number, a business registration card and an employment certificate for the channel administrator to get to this next level. And if you’re working outside of Korea, that could require some special visas and visits to the lawyer.

If you’ve got the number, then here’s how to proceed:

Fill in all of the fields with your missing information.

Applications take three to five business days to be approved, and you’ll be notified through your registered KakaoTalk email when they’re complete. If you’ve incorrectly filled out any fields, your application may be rejected. If you’re approved, you can start using the BizBoard and enjoying the other benefits of a business account.

Frequently asked questions about KakaoTalk

With a potential language barrier and the fact that it’s relatively new to audiences outside of South Korea, you might have more questions about KakaoTalk. We’ve got you covered with our KakaoTalk FAQ.

Is KakaoTalk safe?

If you use it appropriately, KakaoTalk is indeed safe. The app offers standard security features like 2-step verification to ensure that it’s not easily accessible to hackers.

However, it is also important to note that South Korean laws do allow the app to share chat history with employees, and there have been a number of libel cases that have included chat records from the app.

For further protection, you can turn on end-to-end encryption if you toggle the “Secret Chat” mode. You can also use a VPN to add more anonymity to the app.

How much does KakaoTalk cost for businesses?

Whether you’re using a KakaoTalk Channel or a KakaoTalk Business Channel, both services are completely free.

The latter service boasts far more features, but it also requires users to obtain a South Korean business license and other documentation.

Some features may also require a South Korean phone number. Those aren’t impossible to get, but could prove costly.

Do KakaoTalk accounts expire?

For security purposes, KakaoTalk generally suspends accounts if they’re inactive for a year or longer. You might still be able to get it up and running again if that happens, but it’s not foolproof. Many people have complained that they’ve lost their entire chat history, so it’s probably not worth the risk.

Where can I get support for my KakaoTalk account?

If you’ve got any questions about your KakaoTalk account, they’ve got a handy FAQ page of their own — and it’s already available in English. You can also reach out to their customer service desk.

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The Rise Of The Incredible Edible Insect

During the last weeks of winter, in an airy kitchen at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, two design students are making cocktail bitters. A long wooden table holds mason jars and gleaming bottles of bourbon, vodka, and neutral grain spirits. The fragrance of ingredients that will macerate over the next few weeks, until they surrender their flavor to the alcohol, hangs in the air. There are white bowls of toasted coconut and raw cacao, as well as a jar of cinnamon sticks. Then, there are the crickets.

I am witnessing a test batch of Critter Bitters, which the pair first created for a school project in 2013. The challenge: make a product in response to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) titled “Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security.” The report noted that the global population, now at more than 7 billion, may grow to 9 billion by 2050. Already, nearly 1 billion people regularly go hungry. Insects–a source of protein that requires a fraction of the land, water, and feed as livestock–could help alleviate the looming crisis. “The case needs to be made to consumers that eating insects is not only good for their health, it is good for the planet,” the authors wrote. Knops and Plevin figured that while cricket-based bitters might not solve the food problem, the product could help overcome a psychological one. “People are more open to trying new things when there are cocktails involved,” Plevin says.

Baum and Whiteman forecast that insect protein powder would be among the hottest food and drink trends of 2023, along with oysters, unusual root vegetables, and whiskey.

Most of the world has been comfortable with entomophagy, or the practice of eating insects, for millennia. But it is only in the past few years that it has gained momentum in Western countries, particularly with respect to crickets. More than 30 start-ups specializing in crickets have launched in North America since 2012. A few raise the insects; the rest either sell cricket meal–milled to a fine powder that resembles nut flour–or products made from it, including cricket granola bars, cricket chips, cricket crackers, cricket chocolates, and cricket cookies. There are fledgling lines of dog treats too, and one company is working to mash crickets into a paste, the entomo­phagist’s answer to peanut butter. Late last year, the restaurant consultants Baum and Whiteman forecast that insect protein powder would be among the hottest food and drink trends of 2023, along with oysters, unusual root vegetables, and whiskey.

Critter Bitters abstracts the crickets further, filtering out the evidence rather than grinding it up. In fact, Knops and Plevin suspect that their pure cricket bitters–one of several flavors they plan to offer–may have fewer insect parts than are allowed in food by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); cinnamon sticks, for example, may legally contain up to 5 percent insects by weight.


The Global Menu

The Thai love fried locusts. South Africans munch on caterpillars. At least 2 billion people worldwide regularly eat insects, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Nutritionally, they are hard to beat: Insects are high in protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and “good” fats. More than 2,000 species have reportedly been used as food­–and with a million insect species and counting, more are sure to be found.

In the U.S., both events rippled through a food culture that is increasingly self-aware, if not always scientific–one populated by gluten-free trendsetters, protein-heavy paleo dieters, and eco-conscious loca­vores–and through a start-up culture filled with young idealists. “This generation has greater access to knowledge than just 30 to 40 years ago,” says David Gracer, a purveyor of exotic arthropods at SmallStock Food Strategies. “And when there are TED talks and FAO reports, they inspire a lot of people.”

Thanks to crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo, aspiring start-ups can now connect directly to an audience especially receptive to their message. Critter Bitters plans to launch its first Kickstarter campaign this spring, in part to gauge the potential of its customer base. Terry Romero, Kickstarter’s food outreach lead, has seen an uptick in insect-food projects. “Instead of the classic investor putting in a giant chunk of money, we are helping companies forge relationships with people who are emotionally invested in what they do,” she says. “These will often be loyal fans for years to come.”

Crowdfunding has also proved to investors that there’s a market to be tapped. Patrick Crowley launched Chapul, the first cricket protein bar in the U.S, with a $16,065 Kickstarter campaign in 2012. Last year, Crowley was on the reality show Shark Tank, where small businesses pitch to a panel of investors. By the end of the show, Crowley had convinced Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks pro basketball team, to invest $50,000 for 15 percent equity. And by the end of the year, Chapul had earned nearly $400,000 from sales both online and in health food stores, food co-ops, and at Central Market, a gourmet chain. This year it will launch in select Whole Foods. “This was really a passion project to spread an idea,” Crowley says. “I thought we were probably five to 10 years too early when we launched it; it’s happening a lot faster than I had envisioned.”

House Crickets

Eaten in Asia and the Americas, Acheta domesticus is one of two species that farmers can raise economically. Calories (per 100 grams of dry bug): 460 Protein: 67 g

Another success was SixFoods, the creator of Chirps cricket chips, which raised $70,599 on Kickstarter last year. Now, it’s distributing to co-ops in Boston and Seattle and is in talks with big-box stores. A cricket protein bar called Exo attracted $54,911 on Kickstarter in 2013; the start-up has since sold several hundred thousand bars, raised an additional $1.2 million, and may appear in JetBlue snack packs later this year. And Next Millennium Farms, which sells flour made from crickets it grows outside Toronto, raised $1 million from private investors. “Some of the largest food production companies in the world are in talks with us–flavoring companies that sell to PepsiCo, Unilever, McDonald’s,” says co-founder Jarrod Goldin. “Food producers have had to pay attention to what is going on.”

Palm Weevil

Eaten in Africa, Asia, Americas. Larval palm weevils are by far the most popular beetle eaten in the tropics. Calories (per 100 grams of dry bug): 480 Protein: 36 g

“When we started ordering crickets to our dorm, we realized America isn’t ready for that,” says Laura D’Asaro, who co-founded Six Foods shortly after graduating from Harvard. “We see our chips and cookies as a first step. It’s useful just to have crickets on the ingredients list and have Americans eating them. But we want to slowly introduce other products, with the ultimate goal of going to a restaurant where you can get a chicken burger, veggie burger, or ento burger.”


The culinary possibilities of ento food rest on a steady supply of the main ingredient, which is another reason crickets have taken off. North America already has an industrial cricket infrastructure; the insects have been grown for decades as fish bait and food for pet reptiles. To see how crickets are raised for people, last November, I took a trip to Big Cricket Farms in Youngstown, Ohio, the first food-grade cricket operation in the U.S.


Eaten in the Americas. The eggs of these backswimming bugs have been eaten in Mexico for centuries. Calories (per 100 grams of dry bug): 330 Protein: 57 g

The farm resides in a former vegetable co-op, a 5,000-square-foot warehouse tucked in the back of a parking lot. Kevin Bachhuber, Big Cricket’s co-founder, had promised I would hear the chorus of breeders–mature crickets capable of reproducing–but when I stepped inside, I met only silence. A crisis of unknown origin had killed more than a million breeders weeks before my arrival. Luckily, I missed the direct aftermath: the deathly smell of 900 pounds of rotting cricket corpses. “It was like a little genocide,” Bachhuber said.

The fledgling industry poses an interesting conundrum to government agencies. Like larger livestock, crickets are subject to federal and state regulations. Until the relevant agencies can sort out the finer points, both they and the start-ups they regulate have been collectively winging it. When Big Cricket Farms had to rebuild its stock after the mass death of its breeders, Bachhuber followed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic chicken egg rules to decide whether eggs from a pet-grade cricket farm can be hatched for human consumption, for example. The FDA and the Ohio State Department of Health simply require a guarantee that food-grade crickets are farm-raised rather than wild-caught to avoid pesticides and other unintentional contaminants. And as of now, the USDA has no plans to inspect cricket farms and likely won’t unless there is an obvious and widespread health problem or they begin producing amounts comparable to beef and other meat, says Sonny Ramaswamy, director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture. That’s not likely anytime soon: Americans alone eat about 26 billion pounds of beef a year.

“The ultimate goal is going to a restaurant where you can get a chicken burger, veggie burger, or entoburger.”

Although crickets are unlikely to transmit illnesses like mad cow disease or swine flu, they do get sick, and that is perhaps the trickiest part of the business. Big Cricket Farms chose the European house cricket, Acheta domesticus, for its taste and nutritional profile. But the species is prone to cricket paralysis virus, which can whip through a farm and leave 95 percent of the insects dead. It’s also the only farmed cricket subject to a less contagious picornavirus, which I later learned may have caused the die-off at Big Cricket. The company subsequently switched to a hardier stock: the tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus. It also began researching a receiving room that would disinfect new shipments of eggs or crickets with virus-killing ultraviolet light. “The nice thing about being in the first year of operations of a start-up,” Bachhuber told me, “is that your stress levels will never be higher.”

Big Cricket got its start through the Youngstown Business Incubator, and at the end of my visit to Ohio, Bachhuber and I headed to the former furniture store it occupies across town. A conference room had been set up for a small reception, and a long table held typical party fare: platters of cheese and hard sausage, veggies with dip, chips, and crackers. At the end of the row sat one bowl of homemade cricket pesto and another with whole crickets sautéed in garlic. The pesto looked like any other, and I spooned some on my plate. But the crickets–there was no abstraction here. These had eyes, antennae, and legs. If this is the future, might as well see what I’m in for, I thought.

I can’t say the crickets went down smoothly. I had to drown them in pesto and shovel them in with a cracker. It was an eating experience reminiscent of childhood, when my parents made me take just three more bites of an unfamiliar food before I could leave the table. As then, I did so warily, willing my tongue and teeth not to explore. I’m no picky eater these days, but if consuming whole insects is the eventual goal, I think it will take a while to convince the American palate. But that cricket pesto? Washed down with a cricket bitters cocktail? That, I’d have weekly.

This article was originally published in the May 2023 issue of Popular Science.

Insects In The Grocery Aisle

Dozens of cricket-food start-ups have launched in the past few years–and nearly all disguise the insects in familiar products.

Crickers Crackers

Varieties: rosemary garlic, classic sea salt. $6

Critter Bitters

Varieties: pure cricket, vanilla, cacao, toasted almond. Launches in summer 2023. Price: N/A

Hopper Crunch Granola

Varieties: toasted coconut, cranberry and almond, cacao and cayenne. $10

Next Millennium Farms Flour

Varieties: regular, organic gluten-free, organic. Prices start at $15

Exo Protein Bar

Varieties: cacao nut, blueberry vanilla, apple cinnamon, peanut butter and jelly. $3

Bitty Cookies

Varieties: orange ginger, chocolate cardamom, chocolate chip. $10

Rise Of The Communist Party Of China


The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the People’s Republic of China’s founding and sole ruling party (PRC). The CCP won the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang under Mao Zedong’s leadership, and Mao declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Since then, the CCP has ruled China with the help of eight smaller parties in a united front, and it has complete control of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive CCP leader has added their theories to the party’s constitution, which outlines the party’s ideological beliefs, collectively known as socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Foundation and Early History

Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, two progressive intellectuals who wanted to bring about social and economic reforms in China, founded the Communist Party of China (CPC) in Shanghai in 1921. Its establishment was part of the larger May Fourth Movement, a political and cultural movement aimed at challenging traditional Chinese values and bringing about modernity and reform. The party began as a small gathering of intellectuals and students. It was heavily influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology and sought to destabilise the existing Chinese government and establish a socialist society. The CPC quickly grew in popularity, and by 1925, it had established branches in major cities across China.

During the Chinese Civil War, the CPC and its leader Mao Zedong were able to seize control of the country and establish the People’s Republic of China with Beijing as its capital in 1949. Since then, the CPC has remained China’s dominant political party, enacting economic reforms that have aided the country’s rapid economic growth and modernization.


The ideology that led to the rise of the Communist Party of China (CPC) can be traced back to the mid-1800s. The ideas of the CPC combined Marxist, Leninist, and Mao Zedong Thought with traditional Chinese values to create a unique vision for transforming Chinese society. This prompted rural campaigns aimed at improving education and economic development, which fuelled support for the CPC and aided its rise to power across mainland China. The Great Leap Forward of 1958 consolidated state control over almost every aspect of daily life while also aiming to rapidly industrialise China through farm collectivization and rapid expansion of the heavy industry.


The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is the People’s Republic of China’s ruling political party. It was founded in 1921 by Chinese revolutionaries such as Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, and Mao Zedong to bring down the feudal system and establish a socialist state.

Through propaganda, censorship, and strict control over civil society, media, and the internet, the CCP has also been successful in imposing its ideology on the Chinese people.


The Communist Party of China’s (CPC) organizational structure enabled them to become a powerful force in China. Formed in 1921, the CPC was an amalgamation of different branches, each representing its political beliefs. This enabled them to gain millions of members across the country, giving them both financial and political power. With this power, they were able to implement social reforms to improve public services and increase public support. In addition, they financially repressed landlords and estate owners who opposed them. This structure allowed them to expand their base of support without relying heavily on massive armies or weapons, making them a formidable force during times of civil unrest. Ultimately, this organization allowed them to emerge victorious over their rivals, such as the Kuomintang, and become a dominant political party in China.

The pictured shows the top five Chinese Communist Party secretary (Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Ren Bishi) statue at xibaipo . China Shijiazhuang, Hebei Xibaipo, April 16, 2013.

Symbol Party to Party Relations Electoral History

The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) rose to prominence in 1921 when they were founded in Shanghai. Under Mao Zedong’s leadership, the CPC was successful in overthrowing the Nationalist government during the Chinese Civil War and establishing the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Since then, the CPC has been China’s ruling party, wielding considerable power over the government and society. The CPC joined the United Nations in 1971 and has been a major player in international politics ever since. The CPC’s power and influence remain a defining factor in Chinese politics today.


The Chinese Communist Party’s rise has been a remarkable success story. From a small group of revolutionaries in the 1920s, it grew into one of the world’s most powerful political forces. It has maintained its legitimacy through a combination of economic growth, political reform, and social stability. Despite its ups and downs, the Communist Party of China has been able to bring stability and prosperity to a once-chaotic country. China’s Communist Party, as the world’s second-largest economy, will continue to play an important role in the global political and economic landscape in the coming years.


Q1. Has China experienced any turmoil since 1949?

Ans. Yes, China has experienced tremendous turmoil since 1949, including the 1949 Revolution, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.

Q2. Do people support the CPC for what reasons?

Ans. People support the CPC because it is seen as a party that stands for the interests of the Chinese people, and pursues economic and social policies that benefit the country.

Q3. What is Deng Xiaoping’s legacy?

Ans. Deng Xiaoping is remembered for his leadership in reforming China’s economy and opening it up to the world. He is credited with modernizing China and transforming it into an economic superpower.

Cisco Voip: Getting To Mobililty

Cisco Systems has made a couple of announcements about mobility of late.

The first one, issued at the end of April (read it here), snuck past us initially, but we caught up with it. It describes a partnership with Nokia that “extends the rich Cisco Unified IP phone capabilities to Nokia Eseries dual-mode smartphones over Cisco Unified Wireless Networks, to offer users a seamless mobile experience in the enterprise environment and public cellular networks.”

Translation: With the help of some software from Cisco, Nokia’s dual-mode handsets will be able to place and receive phone calls over Cisco wireless LANs—when they’re in range—and save money on cellular minutes. In enterprise telephony parlance, this bit of technology will ‘port the desktop phone number’ to the Nokia device over Wi-Fi.

It’s nice to see Cisco taking the first steps toward mobilizing its formidable IP telephony capabilities. And in characterizing this dual-mode capability as “mobile unified communications” (a stretch in our view), the announcement constitutes at least a tacit endorsement of the idea that mobile phone users in the field should have access to the same communications resources they enjoy at their office desk.

But if the company wants to be a serious contender in anything that could legitimately be called mobile unified communications, Cisco is looking at a serious game of catch-up, as a generation of smaller, more nimble competitors has already got a formidable head start.

The first to take on the challenge of the dual-network telephony were the so-called fixed/mobile convergence (F/MC) vendors—startups such as Kineto Wireless and the other members of its Unlicensed Mobile Access coalition (UMA) or BridgePort Networks and other members of the Mobile Ignite trade group.

These companies figured out how to identify the “best available network” for a call and how to engineer automated, on-the-fly handoffs between carriers’ cellular networks and local wireless LANs for mobile users. (With Cisco/Nokia solution, it appears, the user can manually select Wi-Fi or cellular.)

These technical solutions (which relate only to voice, not other communications modes) have been available for years now, although as they are carrier-centric solutions—that is, they are deployed in carrier networks—and the carriers by and large have not seen fit to deploy them yet, they are not currently an option for many would-be adopters.

There are, however, several enterprise-centric solutions that chúng tôi has written about in some detail. Technology from DiVitas Networks, OEM provider FirstHand Technologies, and (to a lesser degree) Siemens Communications, not only goes beyond basic F/MC to mobilize PBX functions and/or other key modes of enterprise communication, they are fully available for deployment now.

For Cisco to get to the place where these providers sit today—again, with a level of functionality that could be reasonably termed mobile unified communications—will not be easy.

Providing extended communications features, such as PBX functions (hold, forward, extension dialing, etc.), e-mail, conferencing, corporate directory access, and the like over cellular networks is not a trivial problem.

Doing this over Wi-Fi is relatively easy, DiVitas CEO Vivek Khuller told chúng tôi in a recent conversation, “because you are in control of the network and it’s an all-IP network. However to provide the same feature set over cellular is not a trivial task. That requires coordination—both on the client side and on the server side—between two disparate networks: cell voice and cell data,” Khuller said.

“When you combine all three together—cell voice, cell data, and Wi-Fi—it gets even more difficult,” Khuller continued. “There could be three people on a single call; one on cell, one on campus Wi-Fi, another on public Wi-Fi—three very different networks, controlled by three separate entities. How do you now manage that call—without echo, latency, with everybody having equal features?”

From DiVitas’s perspective, the task is far easier if that functionality was a fundamental goal of the product’s initial design—from the ground up. It’s tougher to do as an add-on to an architecture that didn’t envision it at the outset.

Which brings us to Cisco’s second announcement (last week), of the Cisco 3300 Series Mobility Services Engine or MSE (read the release here).

If you don’t know what a Mobility Services Engines is, don’t feel bad. Neither did we. If we’ve got it right, this is an appliance-based middleware platform that will serve the ambitious goal of normalizing and integrating the entire spectrum of networking technologies, both wired and wireless, allowing the sharing of both data and application functionality among devices, regardless of their network connections.

The “platform offers an open application programming interface (API) for consolidating and supporting an array of mobility services across wireless and wired network,” according to the company. That is, software applications—and other appliances—will be able to access resources provided by the MSE.

Cisco will be releasing an initial four software offerings for the MSE platform, one of which—Cisco Mobile Intelligent Roaming (MIR), due out some time in the second half of the year—can facilitate (but not actually execute) handoffs when devices roam between networks.

“If we know that network performance is changing in a way that impacts the application, it might make sense to transition to another network. MIR can provide that intelligence to other platforms that actually trigger the roam,” Chris Kozup, Senior Manager, Cisco Mobility Solutions told our sister publication Wi-Fi chúng tôi in an interview.

Actually bringing about the connection transfer requires another device or gateway, and one member of Cisco’s technology “partner ecosystem”—Silicon Valley startup Agito Networks—announced (in conjunction with the MSE release) that its RoamAnywhere Mobility Router will integrate with the Cisco Engine to provide customers with a full-blown solution for seamless cellular/Wi-Fi handoff.

So, before the end of this year, Cisco VoIP shops will have the tools needed to begin to provide communications capabilities to far-flung mobile workers. For better or worse, it will involve one or more additional devices in the network infrastructure that customers will have to manage and troubleshoot.

This article was first published on chúng tôi

Cisco Switch Configuration Basic Commands

Accessing the Switch

The first step in configuring a Cisco switch is to access the switch’s command-line interface (CLI). This can be done through a console cable or through a Telnet or SSH connection. To access the switch through the console, connect a console cable to the switch and a computer’s serial port. Then, open a terminal emulator software such as HyperTerminal on the computer and set the baud rate to 9600. Press Enter and the switch’s login prompt will appear.

To access the switch through Telnet or SSH, use the command “telnet [switch IP address]” or “ssh [switch IP address]” on the computer’s command prompt. The switch’s login prompt will then appear.

Entering Configuration Mode

Once logged in, the switch will be in user mode. To enter configuration mode, use the command “enable” to enter privileged mode and then “configure terminal” to enter configuration mode. The prompt will change to “switch(config)#” indicating that the switch is now in configuration mode.

Setting the Hostname

The hostname is the name assigned to the switch and is used to identify the switch in the network. To set the hostname, use the command “hostname [hostname]” in configuration mode. For example, to set the hostname to “switch1”, the command would be “hostname switch1”.

Setting the IP Address and Default Gateway

The IP address and default gateway are used to communicate with other devices on the network. To set the IP address and default gateway, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “ip address [IP address] [subnet mask]” to set the IP address and “ip default-gateway [default gateway]” to set the default gateway. For example, to set the IP address to and the subnet mask to, the command would be “ip address”. To set the default gateway to, the command would be “ip default-gateway”.

Enabling and Disabling Interfaces

To enable or disable an interface, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “shutdown” to disable the interface or “no shutdown” to enable the interface. For example, to disable interface Fa0/1, the command would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “shutdown”. To enable the interface, the command would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “no shutdown”.

Setting the VLAN

VLANs are used to segment a network into smaller logical networks. To set the VLAN, use the command “vlan [VLAN number]” to enter VLAN configuration mode. Then, use the command “name [VLAN name]” to set the VLAN name. For example, to set VLAN 10 with the name “sales”, the command would be “vlan 10” followed by “name sales”.

Configuring Port Security

Port security is used to restrict access to a switch port by limiting the number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port. To configure port security, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “switchport port-security” to enable port security on the interface. To set the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port, use the command “switchport port-security maximum [number of addresses]”. For example, to enable port security on interface Fa0/1 and set the maximum number of MAC addresses to 2, the commands would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “switchport port-security” and “switchport port-security maximum 2”.

Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

STP is used to prevent loops in the network by electing a root bridge and blocking certain ports. To enable STP, use the command “spanning-tree vlan [VLAN number] root primary” in configuration mode. This will set the switch as the primary root bridge for the specified VLAN. To set a specific interface as the root port, use the command “spanning-tree vlan [VLAN number] interface [interface number] root primary”. For example, to enable STP on VLAN 10 and set interface Fa0/1 as the root port, the commands would be “spanning-tree vlan 10 root primary” and “spanning-tree vlan 10 interface Fa0/1 root primary”.

Saving Configuration Changes

Once all of the desired changes have been made, it is important to save the configuration to the switch’s non-volatile memory (NVRAM). This can be done by using the command “copy running-config startup-config” in configuration mode. This command will save the current configuration to the switch’s NVRAM so that it will be used when the switch is rebooted.


These are just a few of the basic commands that are commonly used when configuring Cisco switches. With a solid understanding of these commands and a little practice, configuring a Cisco switch can become a simple task. However, it is important to remember that each network is unique and may require additional configuration commands to meet the specific needs of the network. Always refer to the Cisco documentation for additional information and troubleshooting tips.

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