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What is S Corporation?

The term “S Corporation” refers to the type of firm that meets specific requirements of the Internal Revenue Code (IRS). This type of corporation can pass the income or losses directly to the shareholders without paying any federal tax at the company level.

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Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

An S Corporation is a legal business entity allowing shareholders to pass through business income or losses directly to their tax returns without paying any federal tax at the company level.

This type of corporation enjoys the benefits of incorporation while being taxed like a partnership firm.

The ownership of an S Corporation is restricted to 100 shareholders or less. Besides, the shareholders must be individuals (only US citizens or permanent residents), specific estates & trusts, or certain tax-exempted organizations.

How to Form an S Corporation?

To form an S Corporation, an individual must follow the following steps:

First, select and reserve a legal name for your firm as per state regulations.

Prepare your Articles of Incorporation and submit them to the Secretary of State.

Issue certificates of stock to the existing shareholders.

Apply for a trade license and other sector-specific certificates to start the business.

Finally, obtain your Employer Identification Number (EIN) by filing either Form SS-4 or an online application at the IRS website.

Apply for other approvals required by local and state authorities, which may vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another. Generally, firms need tax ID numbers to pay unemployment, disability, and other payroll taxes.

File IRS Form 2553 (Election by a Small Business Corporation) within 75 days from your corporation’s formation date.


A corporation must meet the following criteria:

It must be a domestic corporation with business activities in its home country.

It shouldn’t have more than 100 shareholders.

All the shareholders must meet be eligible as per the IRS requirements.

It has just one category of share stock, which means all the shares bestow equal rights.

It can’t be a bank, insurance company, or international sales company.


Let us look at the following example to understand the concept.

Given that XYZ Inc. is an S Corporation, the profit will not be reported to the IRS at the company level; instead, it will be noted at the individual shareholder level. John and Jenny will report this profit while filing their income tax returns. Hence, John and Jenny will say $9 million and $11 million for their incomes.

The same logic is applicable in the case of losses. If XYZ Inc. suffers losses of a certain amount, both the shareholders will have to file the losses on their income tax returns in the same proportion of their percentage ownership of the firm.

What Qualifies as an S Corporation?

Typically, the shareholders of an S Corporation must be individuals, specific estates & trusts, or certain tax-exempt organizations. Corporations, partnerships, and non-resident individuals don’t usually qualify as eligible shareholders for an S Corporation.


The shareholders, employees, officers, and company directors enjoy limited liability protection.

The shareholders can pass through their share of profit & loss on their tax returns.

It eliminates the double taxation of income, wherein it is taxable once as corporate profit and again as dividend income.

The business enjoys perpetual existence beyond the death or cessation of the owners.

It requires annual tax filing compared to quarterly tax filings of C corporations.

Unlike C Corporation and LLC, only US citizens or permanent residents are eligible to be shareholders.

It has limitations and can’t have more than 100 shareholders.

It involves a large amount of formation and ongoing expenses for the incorporation of the business, including hiring a registered agent, annual report preparation, franchise tax fees, and other fees.

Mistakes committed during tax filing can result in the termination of the S Corporation status.

The IRS closely monitors the income distribution between shareholders and employees, as both categories are taxed differently.

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Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio

What is Portfolio Investment

Portfolio investments are investments in a portfolio of assets, including stocks, bonds, securities, debentures, deposits, or other financial instruments/assets. These investments are primarily made with the expectation that they will yield good returns or capital appreciation (i.e.) an increase in the value of investments. Risk and returns are directly proportional (i.e.) the higher the risk, the higher the returns.

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Portfolio investments are assets acquired with the intention of maximizing wealth or earning income/ profits from the investment. This is a passive investment, as there won’t be any direct ownership or active management of assets. This can be either long-term or short-term; investors choose their investments based on their risk appetite and time period (i.e.) Long term or short-term.

Mutual funds and institutional investors predominantly deal with these investments. In the same way, pension funds and sovereign funds also invest in portfolios with a conservative approach. Risk tolerance is an important factor in choosing portfolio investments.

Features of Portfolio Investment

Portfolio investments are diversified, which reduces the risk by allocating the investments across various financial instruments, business sectors, and categories.

Investors’ risk tolerance and investment goals matter a lot in portfolio investments.

Stocks and bonds are predominantly considered portfolio investments but also include investment assets, a strategic investment method.

Example of Portfolio Investment

Mr. A wants to invest in a portfolio with moderate risks and returns. So, Mr. A plans to invest in the below portfolio. US Govt bonds offer a 2% yield of return per annum. This is a risk-free investment as the US Government provides it; at the same time, returns are also low. Blue-chip stocks offer around a 10% yield of return per annum. Dealing with equities always has risks, and the investments are not secured. So, the risk and returns both are high.

To have a moderate risk and returns, it is better to invest 50% in US Govt bonds and 50% in stocks, so the risk is also reduced, and the returns are averaged at 6%. In this case, returns are better than bonds but less than stocks, and at the same time, the risk is also reduced. If Mr. A wants more returns or low risk, it must decide by him, and he can change the proportion of the portfolio according to his risk tolerance and expectations of return.

Types of Portfolio Investment

There are different types of portfolios and different strategies for portfolio investment. It is up to the individual investor or the portfolio managers to choose the portfolio strategy based on the risk appetite and time horizon.

1. Hybrid Portfolio

A Hybrid portfolio is a diversified portfolio with a mix of high-risk and low-risk securities. It means investment in equities where risk and returns are high and in some fixed income securities like bonds, deposits, etc., where the risk and returns are comparatively lower than equities.

2. Aggressive Portfolio

An Aggressive portfolio invests in high-risk securities that will yield higher returns. The prime aim of this portfolio is to gain more returns from the investments, and their risk tolerance is at the higher end (i.e.) the investor in this portfolio is willing to take more risk in return for better gains.

They choose to invest in companies in the early stages of development with potential growth opportunities. They use the right business strategies where the risk is comparatively higher, and the returns also will be higher.

3. Defensive Portfolio

A Defensive portfolio is an investment in stocks dealing with essential/necessary goods. These stocks do well both in good times and bad times (i.e.) Even if the economy is bad, these stocks will perform as they deal with essential goods like food products, healthcare, household goods, etc., which are necessary for survival. This portfolio has less risk as they focus on essentials and yield better yields.

4. Income Portfolio

An Income portfolio is an investment in fixed income securities and dividend payout stocks that generate a regular source of income. The prime focus is to earn income from the investment. (E.g.) Bonds, deposits, Real estate investment trusts (REIT), etc., generate regular income through interest, rental income distribution, dividends, etc. These are low-risk investments and suitable for risk-averse investors.

5. Speculative Portfolio

 What Amount Should be Invested in Portfolio?

The amount to be invested in the portfolio is at the discretion of the investors and the investment plan offered by the investment managers. There are monthly SIP plans and lump sum investments.

Portfolio Investment Management

Portfolio investment management is the process of selecting the stocks and securities for a portfolio and overseeing their performance, and managing the funds keeping in mind the investment goals, risk tolerance, and time period. It requires analytical and decision-making skills to choose the right stocks for investments. The portfolio manager strategically takes the buy and sell call of stocks and aims to generate maximum returns.


The investor can choose the investment proportion considering the risk tolerance, return expectations, and time horizon.

Diversification of investments into different financial instruments helps to reduce risk and yield better returns.

Liquidity and flexibility exist in portfolio investment as the investor can exit from any particular investment at any time, and the remaining investment in the portfolio can be maintained.

Portfolio investments help to choose both fixed-income securities and capital appreciation investments. An Investor can choose the proportion of investment based on the strategic investment plan.

It is tough to track investment-related information constantly as the investments are diversified.

Proper securities and risk profile analysis needs to be carried out before making portfolio investments; otherwise, it may deliver desired returns.

It is tough for any individual investor to decide on a portfolio as it requires a lot of research and analysis; hence it creates a dependency for investors to rely on portfolio investment managers.

Financial knowledge is a must for investors to invest in portfolio investments.


Portfolio investments are good for those who want to balance their risk and returns and those who want to diversify their investments. The portfolio offers customization and helps investors to choose investments according to their risk tolerance, time horizon, and yield of returns. These services are offered by investment managers and other financial institutions that research and analyze securities and offer investment plans.

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Top 10 Benefits Of Aws Redshift

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Are you struggling to manage and analyze large amounts of data? Are you looking for a cost-effective and scalable solution for your data warehouse needs? Look no further than AWS Redshift. AWS Redshift is a fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service made available by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It is designed to handle large amounts of data and provides high performance and scalability at a low cost. AWS Redshift is used by organizations to store, analyze, and retrieve data from their data warehouse. This blog will explore 10 surprising benefits of using AWS Redshift for your data management needs. We will cover the basics of AWS Redshift, when and how it is used, and best practices for using it. So, let’s dive in!

Benefits of AWS Redshift in Data Management

AWS Redshift is fully managed:

One of the key benefits of using AWS Redshift is that it is a fully managed service. AWS takes care of all the underlying infrastructure and maintenance, freeing up your organization’s IT resources to focus on other tasks. For example, instead of spending time and resources on setting up and managing hardware, installing and updating software, and monitoring the health and performance of your data warehouse, you can use AWS Redshift and let AWS handle all of these tasks for you.

AWS Redshift is cost-effective:

Another benefit of using AWS Redshift is that it is cost-effective. AWS Redshift is priced based on the amount of data you store and the amount of data you query, and there are no upfront costs or long-term commitments. This means that you only pay for what you use, making it a flexible and scalable solution for your data management needs. For example, suppose you have a seasonal business and need to scale up your data warehouse during peak seasons and scale it down during off-seasons. In that case, you can easily do so with AWS Redshift without incurring additional costs.

AWS Redshift is scalable:

AWS Redshift integrates with other AWS services:

Source – Unsplash

AWS Redshift integrates seamlessly with other AWS services, such as Amazon S3, Amazon EMR, and Amazon Athena. This allows you to transfer data between these services and store, process easily, and analyze your data in a single, integrated platform. For example, you can use Amazon S3 to store your raw data, Amazon EMR to process and transform the data, and AWS Redshift to analyze and query the processed data.

AWS Redshift supports multiple data sources:

AWS Redshift supports multiple data sources, including CSV, JSON, and Apache Parquet. You can easily load data from these sources into your data warehouse and query it using SQL. For example, if you have data in CSV files and want to load it into AWS Redshift, you can use the COPY command to quickly and easily load the data into your data warehouse.

AWS Redshift has built-in security features:

AWS Redshift has built-in security features, including network isolation, rest encryption, and IAM authentication. This ensures that your data is secure and protected from unauthorized access. For example, you can use IAM to control access to your data warehouse and only allow authorized users to access and query the data. You can also enable encryption at rest to ensure that your data is encrypted when it is stored on disk.

AWS Redshift supports real-time data analytics:

AWS Redshift supports real-time data analytics using its columnar storage and MPP architecture. This allows you to quickly and easily run complex queries on large amounts of data, providing real-time insights and enabling data-driven decision-making. For example, if you have a large dataset and want to run a complex query to analyze it, you can use AWS Redshift to quickly and efficiently process the query and provide the results in real-time.

AWS Redshift supports data lake integration:

AWS Redshift can be integrated with data lakes, such as Amazon S3, allowing you to store and query data in a single platform. This simplifies data management and enables you to perform data lake analytics using SQL easily. For example, if you have a data lake on Amazon S3 and want to query the data using SQL, you can use AWS Redshift to connect to the data lake and run the queries.

AWS Redshift is highly available:

AWS Redshift is designed to be highly available, with multiple redundant nodes and automatic failover. This ensures that your data warehouse is always available and accessible, even during a node failure. For example, suppose one of the nodes in your data warehouse goes down. In that case, AWS Redshift will automatically fail over to another node and continue to serve your queries without interruption.

AWS Redshift is easy to use:

AWS Redshift is easy to use and comes with a user-friendly web-based console and a range of tools and libraries for querying data. This makes it accessible to users with different technical expertise, allowing you to manage and analyze your data easily. For example, even if you are not a SQL expert, you can use the AWS Redshift web-based console to create tables, load data, and run queries using a simple, intuitive interface.


This blog has explored 10 surprising benefits of using AWS Redshift for your data management needs. We have seen that AWS Redshift is a fully managed, cost-effective, scalable, and secure solution for storing and querying large amounts of data. We have also seen that it integrates with other AWS services, supports multiple data sources, enables real-time data analytics, and is highly available and easy to use.

Here are some key takeaways from this blog:

AWS Redshift is a fully managed data warehouse service that is cost-effective, scalable, and secure.

AWS Redshift integrates with other AWS services and supports multiple data sources.

AWS Redshift enables real-time data analytics and is highly available and easy to use.

AWS Redshift simplifies data management and enables organizations to easily store, process, and analyze data.

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The Top 10 Benefits Of React

Before you decide to use React-Native you need to decide if it is possible to share code between web and native environments.

Once you have made that decision, you can then say yes! React native is the first and best step. We need to know what cross-platform development means in order to better understand why React native is important.

Understanding Cross-Platform Application Development

React Native allows you to create code that can be used to develop both Android and iOS applications. React Native’s code is primarily written in JavaScript. It can later be converted to native views at run time, which is one of its most valuable features. React Native development has been gaining momentum and is now unstoppable.

We will be revealing some of the greatest benefits of React Native as an app development tool for cross-platform apps in this article.

React Native is Perfect for Cross-Platform App Development

We have already said it and we will repeat it again: React Native is great for cross-platform app development. It gives stability and allows for transposable architecture. React Native is also cost-effective and ensures that the app runs well. React Native is different than other frameworks because it uses a native component of API. This makes it look like a native app for the platform. React, like Android or Uwp React, supports both demonstrative and analytical coding. This ensures that your code is clean.

We believe React Native is the best platform-independent application development tool.

Apps are far more stable than any framework

It features a modular architecture

It offers cross-platform development with a superior coding system to other systems

Garanties for optimal performance

Many pre-loaded elements make it easier to code

Flexibility in application development

Benefits of React Native for Cross-Platform Development Hot Reload

Allow Third-Party Plugins

Sometimes developers have to suffer when they use other frameworks. They aren’t allowed to use third-party plugins mainly. It isn’t secure to use them. React Native is a great tool for developers as it allows them to add plugins. It is a flexible platform that allows for customization and has pragmatic interfaces.

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React Native makes it possible to build cross-platform apps without worrying about the cost. More than half the code can be used on other platforms once the app has been created. Because errors are identified immediately, costs are lower for Quality. Each platform has its own UI elements. Because they are only needed once, the debugging time is also less than in other frameworks.

One Team

One team of developers proficient in a particular technology is sufficient for your project. This will allow you to avoid chaos and ensure that your broth is not spoiled by too many cooks.

Widens reach

A lot of businesses believe that a mobile app is a great way to increase their sales channels. This framework allows you to create cross-platform apps which are very useful because it allows companies to reach a wider audience. You can simultaneously target Android and iOS users with one app.

React Native was originally launched by Facebook as a framework. But, when Facebook decided to open-source it, it has not looked back. Developers will find the native community huge. They have free access to the documentation as well as individual experiences.

Code Reusability

Pre-Built Components

React Native’s pre-built components make it easy to develop React Native mobile apps quickly. You can probably find the code for certain functions in React Native that has been written by a developer and you can download it free of charge.

The User Interface is Easier

Modular Architecture & Declarative coding style

Modular programming allows you to separate the functions of any program into individual blocks, known as modules. Because developers have the ability to view other projects, they can also generate updates. Declarative programming makes the React app design flexible and simplifies the coding process. Its intuitive UI allows any developer to simply glance at the code and get a complete understanding.

React Native, a brand new platform for building cross-platform mobile applications, is the best. Its features make it a great choice for making big apps. React Native’s future looks bright considering its current popularity.

Chatbot Sentiment Analysis Benefits In 2023

Chatbots are used in several industries to provide customers with better service. The chatbot market is estimated to be more than $1 billion in 2025. Although chatbots are becoming increasingly available, customer satisfaction with customer service chatbots is around 30%. This is partially due to the use of rule-based chatbots, which are not intelligent enough to deal with problems in human interactions.

Developing reliable chatbots that can quickly solve users’ problems is crucial to ensuring customer satisfaction. Bots capable of sentiment analysis can help businesses better understand their customers’ needs and take necessary actions.

How sentiment analysis can be applied to chatbots?

Through AI-powered methods, chatbots can identify users’ sentiments from their unstructured input and categorize them as positive, negative, or neutral using a labeled dataset. Depending on the emotional tone depicted in the text of customers, chatbots can give responses or take necessary actions. 

Figure 1. A simplified visualization of how AI-powered chatbots work What are the benefits of chatbot sentiment analysis? 1. Improve customer experience Figure 2. Example utterance sequences and their sentiment scores

Customers use more anger-related and less positive words when they are unhappy with your products, services, or chatbot. So, their conversations with chatbots carry important insights regarding their sentiment. 

By implementing sentiment analysis methods, you can understand customers’ needs, complaints, and wishes and take quick action against them. For instance, if a customer is frustrated, sentiment analysis can help your chatbot detect poor experience quickly and transfer the customer to a live agent.

Using sentiment analysis, chatbots can provide a more personalized experience for your customers. You can understand how they feel and what they need and create a friendly atmosphere where they are willing to have more conversations.1 

2. Gather input to improve recommendation systems

Recommendation systems help customers save time searching for what they want and need. However, their satisfaction decreases when the recommendations do not match their needs.

Thanks to chatbot sentiment analysis tools, you can improve recommendation systems in a way that they offer products or services based on consumers’ sentiments and interests. Customers can save time and energy, which increases their satisfaction.

As sentiment analysis methods can also identify customers’ behavioral patterns or purchasing habits, companies can provide wider choices, better recommendations, and personalized offers.2

3. Monitor your brand reputation

You can learn what your customers think about your products or services through chatbot services and get insights into what they think or feel about your brand. You can manage your brand reputation and develop new strategies using chatbot sentiment analysis methods. 

For example, you can ask for feedback through chatbots and understand how customers evaluate your brand.

4. Develop new growth strategies Industries that can benefit from chatbot sentiment analysis

All customer-facing industries can benefit from integrating sentiment analysis methods into their chatbots. Feel free to check our articles on the use of chatbots in:

To learn more about companies offering sentiment analysis, check our data-driven list of sentiment analysis services.

Further Reading

Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions:

For more in-depth knowledge on sentiment analysis, feel free to download our comprehensive whitepaper:



Begüm Yılmaz

Begüm is an Industry Analyst at AIMultiple. She holds a bachelor’s degree from Bogazici University and specializes in sentiment analysis, survey research, and content writing services.





Employee Relocation Packages: Costs And Benefits

What are the benefits of offering employee relocation packages?

There are several reasons why business owners should consider offering employee relocation packages.

A larger talent pool

The biggest benefit of providing employee relocation packages is accessing a wider talent pool. Do you want to hire the best talent in the world? You need to be willing to get new employees where they need to be to work for you. In today’s climate, a competitive relocation package is table stakes to attract the top candidates you’re looking for. After all, who wants to work for a company that makes relocation a burden? 

Less time for HR to fill the role

When a human resources (HR) department is free to find the best candidates for a job regardless of location, they’re able to find the best people in much less time. And as qualified talent is identified faster, your HR department can reduce costs in recruitment and onboarding. As you build a team from different backgrounds, you also improve your corporate diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) efforts. It’s a win-win. [Related article: How to Create an Inclusive Workplace Culture]

Improved retention rates

As you find the right people for the right role, employee productivity, satisfaction and retention rates all go up. When people have committed to moving to a brand-new location for the right job and fit, they’re motivated to stay with the company. Employee retention is typically a result of a good corporate environment. That starts with the onboarding process, which can include the employee relocation experience. [Learn how to reduce employee turnover.]

What are the drawbacks of offering employee relocation packages?

Of course, there are also downsides to employee relocation packages that business owners should weigh.

High cost of relocation

The biggest drawback to relocating an employee is the high cost of moving. There are many expenses, such as shipping or moving services as well as assistance with purchasing a new house or leasing a new apartment. Simple elements of moving, like finding a place to live or buying airfare to fly an entire family to a new city, all need to be considered, and these costs add up quickly. 

Decreased productivity

A company’s screening process is incredibly important when considering potential employees. Many candidates will be thrilled to be a part of the team, but there are other people who just need a job and may not actually want to be in this new location. To get the best out of your people, they need to want to be there. If an employee is miserable and stressed in their new environment, they’re hardly going to be doing their best work. In fact, there is a known correlation between stress and decreased productivity.

Risk of early resignation

It’s no small thing to ask a person and their family to uproot their lives to move to a new city or state. The process is disruptive and exhausting for employees and a lot of work for a company to ensure a healthy transition. In fact, according to the Allied survey, over 25% of relocated employees say the biggest stress of moving is adjusting to their new community. If that adjustment goes poorly, a relocated worker may regret their employment agreement and want to back out of it.

Making sure an entire family adjusts to a major move is one thing, but making sure your employee is the right fit is just as important. Companies need to be proactive after the move to make sure the staffer is adjusting to their new environment. If they’re not adapting well and decide to leave, that relocation investment was all for nothing.

Did You Know?

While some people move for a job, moving is also a reason why some employees quit their jobs.

Why should employees consider negotiating their relocation package?

While employers have a lot to consider when creating employee relocation packages, the employees are ultimately the ones who are making a big life change and, as such, will want to keep certain factors in mind. Key among those considerations is the ability to negotiate the relocation package.

Though most companies have a relocation package mostly figured out by the time they make an offer, employees may have individual needs or requests to make the move as painless as possible. Priya Jindal, founder of Nextpat, said employees shouldn’t hesitate to ask for those things.

“For many companies, relocating you in the beginning is a cheaper option than an initial salary boost,” she said. “Of course, that’s a separate negotiation consideration.”

When Jindal’s organization relocates employees, it provides the following benefits:

A few days off

House-hunting trips domestically and housing internationally

10 days of hotel expense reimbursement on either end of the move

Payment for all moving expenses, including packing



A relocating employee may want to consult a real estate attorney if their relocation package involves selling or purchasing a house.

The employee relocation balance

Relocating an employee is no small task, but the benefits are well worth it. When you create a welcoming, accommodating relocation package, your employees receive the assistance they need at every step and you gain top talent. However, if there’s one small part of your compensation package that’s lacking, that could deter candidates from joining your company in the first place. With thoughtful planning and execution, you can build a relocation plan that satisfies you as the business owner as well as your relocating employee. Learn more about bringing on new staffers in our employee hiring guide.

Andrew Martins contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. 

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