Trending November 2023 # Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio # Suggested December 2023 # Top 15 Popular

You are reading the article Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio updated in November 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested December 2023 Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio

What is Portfolio Investment

Portfolio investments are investments in a portfolio of assets, including stocks, bonds, securities, debentures, deposits, or other financial instruments/assets. These investments are primarily made with the expectation that they will yield good returns or capital appreciation (i.e.) an increase in the value of investments. Risk and returns are directly proportional (i.e.) the higher the risk, the higher the returns.

Start Your Free Investment Banking Course

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others


Portfolio investments are assets acquired with the intention of maximizing wealth or earning income/ profits from the investment. This is a passive investment, as there won’t be any direct ownership or active management of assets. This can be either long-term or short-term; investors choose their investments based on their risk appetite and time period (i.e.) Long term or short-term.

Mutual funds and institutional investors predominantly deal with these investments. In the same way, pension funds and sovereign funds also invest in portfolios with a conservative approach. Risk tolerance is an important factor in choosing portfolio investments.

Features of Portfolio Investment

Portfolio investments are diversified, which reduces the risk by allocating the investments across various financial instruments, business sectors, and categories.

Investors’ risk tolerance and investment goals matter a lot in portfolio investments.

Stocks and bonds are predominantly considered portfolio investments but also include investment assets, a strategic investment method.

Example of Portfolio Investment

Mr. A wants to invest in a portfolio with moderate risks and returns. So, Mr. A plans to invest in the below portfolio. US Govt bonds offer a 2% yield of return per annum. This is a risk-free investment as the US Government provides it; at the same time, returns are also low. Blue-chip stocks offer around a 10% yield of return per annum. Dealing with equities always has risks, and the investments are not secured. So, the risk and returns both are high.

To have a moderate risk and returns, it is better to invest 50% in US Govt bonds and 50% in stocks, so the risk is also reduced, and the returns are averaged at 6%. In this case, returns are better than bonds but less than stocks, and at the same time, the risk is also reduced. If Mr. A wants more returns or low risk, it must decide by him, and he can change the proportion of the portfolio according to his risk tolerance and expectations of return.

Types of Portfolio Investment

There are different types of portfolios and different strategies for portfolio investment. It is up to the individual investor or the portfolio managers to choose the portfolio strategy based on the risk appetite and time horizon.

1. Hybrid Portfolio

A Hybrid portfolio is a diversified portfolio with a mix of high-risk and low-risk securities. It means investment in equities where risk and returns are high and in some fixed income securities like bonds, deposits, etc., where the risk and returns are comparatively lower than equities.

2. Aggressive Portfolio

An Aggressive portfolio invests in high-risk securities that will yield higher returns. The prime aim of this portfolio is to gain more returns from the investments, and their risk tolerance is at the higher end (i.e.) the investor in this portfolio is willing to take more risk in return for better gains.

They choose to invest in companies in the early stages of development with potential growth opportunities. They use the right business strategies where the risk is comparatively higher, and the returns also will be higher.

3. Defensive Portfolio

A Defensive portfolio is an investment in stocks dealing with essential/necessary goods. These stocks do well both in good times and bad times (i.e.) Even if the economy is bad, these stocks will perform as they deal with essential goods like food products, healthcare, household goods, etc., which are necessary for survival. This portfolio has less risk as they focus on essentials and yield better yields.

4. Income Portfolio

An Income portfolio is an investment in fixed income securities and dividend payout stocks that generate a regular source of income. The prime focus is to earn income from the investment. (E.g.) Bonds, deposits, Real estate investment trusts (REIT), etc., generate regular income through interest, rental income distribution, dividends, etc. These are low-risk investments and suitable for risk-averse investors.

5. Speculative Portfolio

 What Amount Should be Invested in Portfolio?

The amount to be invested in the portfolio is at the discretion of the investors and the investment plan offered by the investment managers. There are monthly SIP plans and lump sum investments.

Portfolio Investment Management

Portfolio investment management is the process of selecting the stocks and securities for a portfolio and overseeing their performance, and managing the funds keeping in mind the investment goals, risk tolerance, and time period. It requires analytical and decision-making skills to choose the right stocks for investments. The portfolio manager strategically takes the buy and sell call of stocks and aims to generate maximum returns.


The investor can choose the investment proportion considering the risk tolerance, return expectations, and time horizon.

Diversification of investments into different financial instruments helps to reduce risk and yield better returns.

Liquidity and flexibility exist in portfolio investment as the investor can exit from any particular investment at any time, and the remaining investment in the portfolio can be maintained.

Portfolio investments help to choose both fixed-income securities and capital appreciation investments. An Investor can choose the proportion of investment based on the strategic investment plan.

It is tough to track investment-related information constantly as the investments are diversified.

Proper securities and risk profile analysis needs to be carried out before making portfolio investments; otherwise, it may deliver desired returns.

It is tough for any individual investor to decide on a portfolio as it requires a lot of research and analysis; hence it creates a dependency for investors to rely on portfolio investment managers.

Financial knowledge is a must for investors to invest in portfolio investments.


Portfolio investments are good for those who want to balance their risk and returns and those who want to diversify their investments. The portfolio offers customization and helps investors to choose investments according to their risk tolerance, time horizon, and yield of returns. These services are offered by investment managers and other financial institutions that research and analyze securities and offer investment plans.

Recommended Articles

You're reading Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio

Defintion, Benefits, Llc & C Corp Examples

What is S Corporation?

The term “S Corporation” refers to the type of firm that meets specific requirements of the Internal Revenue Code (IRS). This type of corporation can pass the income or losses directly to the shareholders without paying any federal tax at the company level.

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others

Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

An S Corporation is a legal business entity allowing shareholders to pass through business income or losses directly to their tax returns without paying any federal tax at the company level.

This type of corporation enjoys the benefits of incorporation while being taxed like a partnership firm.

The ownership of an S Corporation is restricted to 100 shareholders or less. Besides, the shareholders must be individuals (only US citizens or permanent residents), specific estates & trusts, or certain tax-exempted organizations.

How to Form an S Corporation?

To form an S Corporation, an individual must follow the following steps:

First, select and reserve a legal name for your firm as per state regulations.

Prepare your Articles of Incorporation and submit them to the Secretary of State.

Issue certificates of stock to the existing shareholders.

Apply for a trade license and other sector-specific certificates to start the business.

Finally, obtain your Employer Identification Number (EIN) by filing either Form SS-4 or an online application at the IRS website.

Apply for other approvals required by local and state authorities, which may vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another. Generally, firms need tax ID numbers to pay unemployment, disability, and other payroll taxes.

File IRS Form 2553 (Election by a Small Business Corporation) within 75 days from your corporation’s formation date.


A corporation must meet the following criteria:

It must be a domestic corporation with business activities in its home country.

It shouldn’t have more than 100 shareholders.

All the shareholders must meet be eligible as per the IRS requirements.

It has just one category of share stock, which means all the shares bestow equal rights.

It can’t be a bank, insurance company, or international sales company.


Let us look at the following example to understand the concept.

Given that XYZ Inc. is an S Corporation, the profit will not be reported to the IRS at the company level; instead, it will be noted at the individual shareholder level. John and Jenny will report this profit while filing their income tax returns. Hence, John and Jenny will say $9 million and $11 million for their incomes.

The same logic is applicable in the case of losses. If XYZ Inc. suffers losses of a certain amount, both the shareholders will have to file the losses on their income tax returns in the same proportion of their percentage ownership of the firm.

What Qualifies as an S Corporation?

Typically, the shareholders of an S Corporation must be individuals, specific estates & trusts, or certain tax-exempt organizations. Corporations, partnerships, and non-resident individuals don’t usually qualify as eligible shareholders for an S Corporation.


The shareholders, employees, officers, and company directors enjoy limited liability protection.

The shareholders can pass through their share of profit & loss on their tax returns.

It eliminates the double taxation of income, wherein it is taxable once as corporate profit and again as dividend income.

The business enjoys perpetual existence beyond the death or cessation of the owners.

It requires annual tax filing compared to quarterly tax filings of C corporations.

Unlike C Corporation and LLC, only US citizens or permanent residents are eligible to be shareholders.

It has limitations and can’t have more than 100 shareholders.

It involves a large amount of formation and ongoing expenses for the incorporation of the business, including hiring a registered agent, annual report preparation, franchise tax fees, and other fees.

Mistakes committed during tax filing can result in the termination of the S Corporation status.

The IRS closely monitors the income distribution between shareholders and employees, as both categories are taxed differently.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

What Is System Testing? (Definition, Types, Examples)

In software testing, what is system testing?

System testing entails testing the whole system. All of the modules/components are linked together to see whether the system performs as planned. After Integration Testing, System Testing is carried out. This is crucial for producing high-quality output.

Example of System Testing

An automobile is not built as a whole by a car manufacturer. Each component of the automobile, such as the seats, steering, mirror, brake, cable, engine, car structure, and wheels, is made independently.

After each item is manufactured, it is tested separately to see whether it functions as intended. This is known as unit testing.

Now, when each element is integrated with another part, the completed combination is tested to see whether the assembly has had any side effects on the functioning of each component and if both components are operating together as intended, which is referred to as integration testing.

When all of the pieces are put together and the automobile seems to be ready, it is not.

The entire car must be checked for various aspects as defined by the requirements, such as whether the car can be driven smoothly, if the breaks, gears, and other functionality are working properly, if the car does not show any signs of fatigue after being driven for 2500 miles continuously, if the color of the car is widely accepted and liked, and if the car can be driven on any type of road, including smooth and rough, sloppy and straight, and so on. This entire testing effort is known as System Testing, and

The example performed as anticipated, and the customer was satisfied with the amount of effort necessary for the system test.

System Testing – Approach

It is carried out after the Integration Testing has been finished.

It is mostly a sort of Black-box testing. With the use of a specification document, this testing assesses the system’s functionality from the perspective of the user. It does not need any internal system expertise, such as code design or structure.

It includes both functional and non-functional application/product domains.

What is the Purpose of System Testing?

Completing a full test cycle is critical, and ST is the stage when this is accomplished.

System Testing is carried out in a comparable setting to that of production, allowing stakeholders to obtain a solid picture of the user’s response.

It reduces the number of troubleshooting and support calls made following a deployment.

At this level of the STLC, both the Application Architecture and the Business Requirements are tested.

System testing is critical and plays a key part in providing a high-quality product to the consumer.

How Do You Run a System Test?

It’s essentially a subset of software testing, and the Test Plan should always include room for it.

To test the system as a whole, requirements and expectations must be clear, and the tester must also understand how the program is used in real-timereal time.

In addition, the system’s functionality, performance, security, recoverability, and installability are all affected by the most commonly used third-party tools, OS versions, flavors, and architecture.

As a result, having a clear image of how the program will be utilized and what kinds of challenges it may encounter in real-time may be beneficial for testing the system. Furthermore, a requirements document is just as crucial as comprehending the program.

A clear and up-to-date requirements document may prevent a slew of misconceptions, assumptions, and queries for testers.

In summary, a clear and concise requirement document with the most recent revisions, as well as an awareness of real-time application use, may help ST be more productive. This testing is done in a methodical and organized way.

System Testing Types

ST is known as a superset of all sorts of testing since it covers all of the primary types of testing. Although the emphasis on different forms of testing varies according to the product, the organization’s procedures, the timetable, and the needs.

Overall, it may be summarized as follows −

Functionality Testing − To ensure that the product’s functionality meets the established criteria while remaining within the system’s capabilities.

Recoverability Testing − This ensures that the system can recover from a variety of input mistakes and other failure scenarios.

Interoperability Testing − To determine whether or not the system is compatible with third-party goods.

Performance Testing − Verifying the system’s performance in terms of performance characteristics under different conditions.

Scalability Testing − To ensure that the system can scale in terms such as user scaling, geographic scaling, and resource scaling.

Reliability Testing − To ensure that the system can be used for a longer period of time without failing.

Regression Testing − To ensure the system’s stability as it integrates various subsystems and performs maintenance chores.

Testing of the system’s user guide and other help-related documents to ensure that they are valid and useful.

To ensure that the system does not enable unauthorized access to data and resources, security testing is performed.

Usability testing is performed to ensure that the system is simple to use, understand, and run.

More Types of System Testing

Graphical User Interface (GUI) Testing − GUI testing is used to see whether a system’s graphical user interface (GUI) performs as planned. The graphical user interface (GUI) is what a user sees when using a program. Buttons, icons, checkboxes, List boxes, Textboxes, menus, toolbars, dialog boxes, and other GUI elements are all tested.

Testing for Compatibility − Compatibility testing ensures that the generated product is compatible with a variety of browsers, hardware platforms, operating systems, and databases, as specified in the requirements specification.

Handling Exceptions − Handling Exceptions Testing is done to ensure that even if the product encounters an unexpected fault, it displays the relevant error message and does not cause the program to halt. The exception is handled in such a manner that the error is shown while the product recovers and the system is able to complete the wrong transaction.

Testing by Volume − Volume testing is a sort of non-functional testing in which a large volume of data is used to test. To test the system’s performance, for example, the database’s data volume is raised.

Stress Evaluation − Stress testing involves raising the number of users on an application (at the same time) until the program fails. This is done to see whether the application will fail at any point.

Sanity Checks − When a build is published with a change in the code or functionality, or if a problem has been repaired, sanity testing is conducted. It ensures that the modifications made did not impact the code and that no new issues have arisen as a result, and that the system continues to function normally. If a problem arises, the build will not be approved for further testing. In order to save time and money, rigorous testing is not performed on the build, which results in the build being rejected due to a problem discovered. Sanity testing is done for the specific modification or problem that has been resolved, not for the whole system.

Smoke Testing − Smoke Testing is a kind of testing that is done on a build to see whether it can be further tested or not. It ensures that the build is ready to test and that all-importanttime real features are operational. Smoke testing is carried out for the whole system, from start to finish.

Exploratory Testing − Exploratory testing is all about investigating the application, as the name implies. Exploratory testing does not include any scripted testing. Along with the testing, test cases are written. It emphasizes implementation over preparation. The tester is free to test independently, relying on his intuition, experience, and intelligence. In contrast to other strategies that employ the structural method to execute testing, a tester may select any feature to test first, i.e. he can choose the feature to test at random.

Adhoc Testing − Adhoc testing is unplanned testing that takes place without any documentation or preparation. The application is tested without any test cases by the tester. A tester’s goal is to break the application. To uncover the main faults in the program, the tester relies on his expertise, guesswork, and intuition.

Checking the installation − The purpose of installation testing is to ensure that the program is installed correctly. The installation of the program is the user’s first engagement with the product, hence it’s the most crucial phase of testing. The sort of installation testing required is determined by a number of elements, including the operating system, platform, software distribution, and so on.


System testing is crucial because if done incorrectly, serious concerns might arise in the real world.

The properties of a system as a whole must be confirmed. Any webpage would be a basic example. If it isn’t well tested, the user may find the site to be very sluggish, or the site may crash if a big number of people log in at the same time.

These features cannot be checked until the whole website has been examined.

Guide To Types Of Php Annotations With Examples

Introduction to PHP Annotations

PHP annotations are basically metadata which can be included in the source code and also in between classes, functions, properties and methods. They are to be started with the prefix @ wherever they are declared and they indicate something specific. This information they provide is very useful to coders, helpful for documentation purposes and also an IDE may use this to display certain popup hint kind of things. The same annotation can also be used for other purposes besides validation such as to determine what kind of input needs to be given in a form and also for automation purposes. There are various kinds of annotations like the @var and @int types which can be used for specific uses as their name itself suggests.

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Syntax class Example { public $new; }

Annotation is @var here and whenever it is encountered just before the piece of any code (public $new here for example) it indicates that the $new is to have a value of type integer as told by the annotation.

class Example { public $shop; }

Annotations can also be used for specifying the range where it displays the maximum and the minimum values that are to be accepted as integer values for the function and the label gives the purpose of this function.

Types of PHP Annotations

Given below are the types:

1. Built-in Annotations

There are 2 built-in functions in annotations which are as follows:

a. Compiled: This annotation indicates that if the method/function should be JIT compiled or not. It is also a function scope type of annotation.

b. SuppressWarnings: This is another built-in annotation which means that any warnings thrown as part of the execution of the succeeding code below it must be suppressed.

2. Meta Annotations

These are those type of annotations which can be used to apply for other annotations. They are used for configuration of annotations.

a. @Annotations

There is a kind of annotation classes which will contain @annotation.


[@Annotation] class MyAnnoExample { }

b. @Target

As the name suggests, this annotation indicates those types of class elements or a method upon which the annotation will be applicable.

Property annotation is just before the property class declaration.

Class which is allowed before the declaration of class.

Function is declared before the function declaration.

Method annotation allows proceeding the method declaration.

Annotation is allowed for proceeding to declaration of annotation class.

c. @Repeatable

This annotation means that it may be repeated any number of times when being used.

d. @Inherited

This can also be used on the other user defined annotation classes as a meta-annotation. These inherited annotations are automatically inherited to the respective sub-classes when they are used upon a superclass.

3. Custom Annotations

These are very similar to declarations of the normal class. Each element of the annotation type is defined by each of the property declarations.

Examples of PHP Annotations

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1


[@Annotation] [@Target("class")] class MyAnnoEx { [@Required] public string $prop; public array $arrayProp = []; public embedAnno $embed; } [@Annotation] [@Target(["class", "annotation"])] class embedAnno { } [@Annotation] [@Target("property")] class propAnno { } @Annotation @Target("method") class methodAnno { public string $val; public function __construct(string $val) { } }

This is just a basic example showing the usage of all the different types of annotations which are shown above. All the ones in the example like embed annotation, property annotation, method annotation are custom annotations.

Example #2

<?php /** * @Replace(“exmaple”, “for”, “annotation”) */ class MyNamedComponent { } echo str_replace(“First”, “Second”, “First Example”);


In this example we are naming the annotation as replace since the below code represents the usage of string replace function which is str_replace, an inbuilt function of PHP. Using this function, the first parameter passed in the function is replaced by the second one.

Example #3


<!–Declaring First name for the form First_Name: <!–Declaring Last_Name for the form Last_Name: <!–Declaring Location for the form Stay location: <!–Declaring EMAILID for the form EmailID: <!–Declaring Password for the form Password: <!–Declaring Password for the form Gender: <input type=”radio” value=”Male” <input type=”radio” value=”Female” <?php if(example($_POST[‘confirm’])) { if(!example($error)) { } }


In this example, we are showing annotations in combination with the form validation in PHP. Using annotations we are labeling all the parameters which are required as input parameters to the form such as first and last name, email, location and password.


With the above examples we have noticed how annotations are a powerful tool to use and express metadata about our methods, classes or properties. We have also seen how to combine different kinds of annotations to declare workers who will perform certain tasks by writing some metadata about them. This makes them easy to find and gives actual information on whether or not they can be used.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to PHP Annotations. Here we discuss the introduction to PHP annotations with types of annotations and respective examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Need And Types Of C++ Formatter

Definition of C++ Formatter

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Need of C++ Formatters in Source Code

Let us understand the need for C++ formatters with the help of an example:


using namespace std; intmain() { int num1, num2, add; cout<< “Enter the first integer”; cout<< “Enter the second integer”; add = num1 + num2; cout<< “The result is ” <<add ; return 0; }

The above code is the simple addition of 2 integer numbers. But how it is written makes it very uneasy or difficult to understand. There is a need for proper indentation and required spaces in the code. Code after ‘{‘ should be written and should be indented properly to show that the required block of code is a part of it. It should be formatted as given below:

using namespace std; intmain() { int num1, num2, add; cout<< “Enter the first integer”; cout<< “Enter the second integer”; add = num1 + num2; cout<< “The result is ” << add; return 0; }

Types of C++ Formatters

There are a lot of formatters / beautifiers available in the market. Let us understand some of the commonly used formatters in detail:

1. Clang-Format

Clang format is one of the most popular open-source formatters used to format C, C++, and Objective C source code. It automatically formats the C++ code and helps better understand the code. To format the source code automatically according to Electron C++, we need to run the following command:

clang-format -i

Users can also perform the formatting of code according to the specific requirements (other than the one available by default) by inserting the style in ‘.clang-format’ file or using the option -style = “{key:value, ….}”.

2. PrettyPrinter 3. Jindent

It automatically indents the code according to the syntax and correct coding conventions, which helps in finding the bugs in the code and saves time. One of the cool features of Jindent is that it provides a plugin for almost all popular IDEs like Visual Studio, Eclipse, Netbeans, etc so that it can be used easily by the programmers/ testers working on them. It allows its invocation from the shell scripts. Jindent provides support for all the Operating systems is it Windows, Mac, or Linux. Jindent is very user-friendly as it provides the GUI so that the user can perform actions like formatting settings, changing the environment variables, etc, very easily.

4. Highlighter

It is very user-friendly and hence pretty simple to use. Users must copy the source code in the desired text field, choose the C++ language, and Style dropdown to have the required formatting. It provides other interesting features as well as one can also choose to see the line numbers on the left side of the code and can directly insert the source code in the HTML page without adding any external CSS and JavaScript file to it.

Conclusion – C++ Formatter

The above description clearly explains the various formatters/beautifiers available in the market used to format the source code of C++ programs. Proper formatting and indentation are a must while working on real-time projects as it helps in a clear understanding of code and finding the bugs and hidden errors easily, especially the syntactical ones. It helps the maintenance team also to maintain the code properly and proceed further accordingly.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to C++ Formatter. Here we also discuss the definition and need for C++ formatters, along with various types and examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Vba Variables, Data Types And Dim

VBA Variables, Data Types and Dim

Declaring variables using the various data types in VBA

Written by

CFI Team

Published August 8, 2023

Updated June 27, 2023

Declaring VBA Variables using Dim

This guide breaks down VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. Typically, the very first step after naming your macro is declaring your variables. Variables are names for different pieces of the data that the macro will be working with. However, this sometimes proves difficult since it’s hard to plan ahead how many variables will be used in the macro. Eventually, when the macro is written, the user may add or remove certain variables. This will become more apparent further into this guide to writing VBA macros.

The very top of each macro after the sub name is a section called the declarations. Here, the user lists and names all the different variables he or she will use, and declares their data types. This is done by using the “Dim” statement. The “Dim” statement is followed by the name of the variable, and sometimes the statement “as [datatype]”. For example, if we wanted to create a variable for a Stock Price, we could write “Dim stockPrice as double”. This creates a variable called the stockPrice, which takes on the data type double. A double data type is one of the data types that allows for decimals, as opposed to the integer data type.

It’s not necessary to always declare the data type. Sometimes, it’s sufficient to declare the name, and VBA can infer the data type when the variable is used in the code later on. However, it’s generally safer to declare the data type you expect to use.

Each declaration will take its own line. It’s helpful to group variables of the same data type together.

Variable Data Types

There are quite a few VBA data types, but for the general purposes of financial modeling not all of them are used.

Below is a list of common VBA variables (known as data types) used in macros and their purposes:

Integer: Used to store number values that won’t take on decimal form.

Single: Used to store number values that may take on decimal form. Can also contain integers.

Double: A longer form of the single variable. Takes up more space, but needed for larger numbers.

Date: Stores date values.

String: Stores text. Can contain numbers, but will store them as a text (calculations cannot be performed on numbers stored as a string)

Boolean: Used to store binary results (True/False, 1/0)

Again, there are other data types, but these are the most commonly used for creating macros.

Storing a Value in a Variable

After a variable has been created, storing a value in it is simple.

Variable name = Variable value

String variable name = “Variable value”

(When using strings, you have to surround the text in quotation marks. This is not true for number or binary values)

Each named variable can only hold one value at a time.

Example of Declaring Variable Data types with Dim

Here is a break down of how to use Dim in VBA:

Declaring a company name variable: “Dim companyName as String”

Setting the company name variable:

companyName = “Tesla”

companyName = “Wells Fargo”

companyName = “No company name is available”

Declaring a variable to store net income: “Dim netIncome as Single” (or Double, depending on the scale)

Setting the net income variable:

netIncome = -5,000

netIncome = 0

netIncome = 1,000,000.64

Declaring a binary variable to store growth: “Dim isGrowthPositive as Boolean”

Setting the growth variable:

isGrowthPositive = True

isGrowthPositive = False

isGrowthPositive = 1 (same as True)

As you can see in the above example, these variables (and some extra variables to show grouping best practices) have been declared. Values have also been stored in the main variables. However, if this macro were to be run, it would simply store these values in the variables, and not use them in any way. To continue learning how to use variables, you need to know the VBA methods available to each one.

Additional Resources

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. To keep learning and progressing your Excel skills we highly recommend these additional CFI resources:

Update the detailed information about Defintion, Examples And Types Invested In Portfolio on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!