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Thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. It is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of hemoglobin. There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia. Although they share similar symptoms, they are caused by different genetic mutations and have different degrees of severity.What is Alpha Thalassemia?
Alpha thalassemia is the condition where there is a reduced formation of alpha polypeptide chains because of an absence of alpha genes. There are two forms of alpha thalassemia depending on what genes are missing. Alpha + is when only one gene is missing from chromosome 16, while alpha 0 is when both genes are lacking from the same chromosome.
Symptoms − In some cases, there may be no symptoms and a person can be a carrier. This is often the situation where it is the alpha + form, and only one allele is affected. In other cases, where two alleles are missing, there are some symptoms such as smaller than normal red blood cells (microcytic anemia). In this case, there will be symptoms but they will not be too severe. If three of four alleles are missing then symptoms can be very bad and may include paleness, fatigue, swollen spleen, and jaundice. Such people may develop hemolytic anemia. If all four genes are affected a fetus will have Bart’s hydrops fetalis, and will not survive.
Diagnosis − The diagnosis is based on the examination of a smear of blood that shows very small red blood cells. Fetal hemoglobin and hemoglobin A2 is usually normal in alpha thalassemia. Genetic testing can show deletions of alleles and electrophoresis of hemoglobin can show the condition as well. Fetal tissue can also be removed to test for the condition.
Causes and Risk Factors − The condition is inherited and is due to a genetic mutation of the alpha genes that are responsible for making alpha polypeptide chains. This condition is more common in people who are of Southeast Asian, African descent, or are from the Mediterranean regions of Cyprus and Greece.
Prevention and Treatment − Genetic screening and counseling can help detect if there are genetic anomalies. Measuring hemoglobin levels in a couple may also help to show if they are carrying an alpha gene mutation. Sometimes a stem cell transplant while the fetus is in utero can cure them, or else the patient will need lifelong transfusions and potentially chelation therapy to remove excess iron from the blood. If the spleen becomes enlarged this may need to be surgically removed.What is Beta Thalassemia?
Beta thalassemia is where there is a reduced formation of beta polypeptide chains because of mutations in the beta globin genes that occur on chromosome 11. There are two types of beta thalassemia; one type is when only partial loss of function occurs. This is beta + thalassemia. The other type is the complete loss of function, which is beta 0 thalassemia.
Symptoms − The symptoms vary depending on the extent of the damage to the genes. Individuals with few problems with beta globulin production are often silent carriers who show no symptoms. Some people are intermediate and may show some symptoms. Major beta thalassemia (Cooley’s anemia), occurs when there are severe symptoms such as problems with the bone marrow, and severe anemia. Such patients can appear very pale; have jaundice, leg ulcers, enlarged spleens, and even gallstone formation.
Diagnosis − Beta thalassemia is diagnosed by looking for hemolytic anemia by examining a red blood cell smear under the microscope. Testing of hemoglobin can be done and with severe beta thalassemia the hemoglobin would be low, less than 6 g/dL. There would be higher than average fetal hemoglobin and hemoglobin A2 in certain types of beta thalassemia.
Causes and Risk Factors − This is inherited and is due to some type of genetic change (mutation) that has occurred in the beta globin genes. Beta thalassemia is more commonly found in people who are of Southeast Asian, African or Mediterranean descent.
Prevention and Treatment − Genetic screening and hemoglobin testing can indicate if a person is carrying the mutation. Treatment may require blood transfusions, and chelation therapy to remove excess iron due to the transfusions, and in some cases, spleen removal is needed.Differences: Alpha and Beta Thalassemia
Alpha thalassemia is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of alpha globin, one of the two types of protein chains that make up hemoglobin. There are four genes that control the production of alpha globin, and each person inherits two copies of these genes, one from each parent. If one or more of these genes is mutated, it can lead to a decrease in the production of alpha globin, resulting in a type of anemia known as alpha thalassemia.
There are four types of alpha thalassemia, depending on the number of alpha globin genes that are mutated. The mildest form is alpha thalassemia silent carrier, which occurs when one alpha globin gene is mutated. People with this form of thalassemia do not usually experience any symptoms and are usually unaware that they carry the gene mutation.
Alpha thalassemia trait occurs when two alpha globin genes are mutated, leading to mild anemia. Hemoglobin H disease occurs when three alpha globin genes are mutated, leading to moderate to severe anemia. People with this form of thalassemia may experience symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and enlargement of the spleen. The most severe form of alpha thalassemia is alpha thalassemia major, which occurs when all four alpha globin genes are mutated, leading to severe anemia and fetal hydrops, a life-threatening condition in which fluid builds up in the fetus’s body.
Beta thalassemia, on the other hand, is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of beta globin, the other type of protein chain that makes up hemoglobin. There are two genes that control the production of beta globin, and each person inherits one copy of these genes from each parent. If one or both of these genes are mutated, it can lead to a decrease in the production of beta globin, resulting in a type of anemia known as beta thalassemia.
There are two main types of beta thalassemia: “beta thalassemia minor” and “beta thalassemia major”. Beta thalassemia minor occurs when one beta globin gene is mutated, leading to mild anemia. People with this form of thalassemia may experience symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and pale skin. Beta thalassemia major, also known as Cooley’s anemia, occurs when both beta globin genes are mutated, leading to severe anemia and other complications. People with this form of thalassemia may require regular blood transfusions to survive.
The following table highlights the major differences between Alpha Thalassemia and Beta Thalassemia −
Alpha thalassemia is where there is a reduced formation of the alpha polypeptides.
Beta thalassemia is where there is a reduced formation of the beta polypeptides.
In alpha thalassemia there can be no symptoms or in severe cases hemolytic anemia and an enlarged spleen, paleness, jaundice, and fatigue.
In beta thalassemia, there can be no symptoms or in severe cases, there can be issues with the bone marrow as well as problems such as severe anemia, jaundice, gallstones, and enlarged spleens.
Alpha thalassemia is diagnosed by the presence of very small red blood cells in a red blood cell smear; genetic testing and electrophoresis of hemoglobin.
Beta thalassemia is diagnosed by noting hemolytic anemia in a red blood cell smear; hemoglobin testing may indicate higher than average fetal hemoglobin, and hemoglobin chúng tôi lower than normal overall hemoglobin values.
A mutation of one or more of the alpha genes on chromosome 16, causes alpha thalassemia.
A mutation of one or more of the beta globin genes on chromosome 11 causes beta thalassemia.Conclusion
In summary, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia are two types of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin. Alpha thalassemia is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of alpha globin, while beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of beta globin.
Both types of thalassemia can range from mild to severe, depending on the number and type of gene mutations present. Proper diagnosis and treatment are important.
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It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.
Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).What is ACB?
ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.
An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.What is VCB?
VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.
The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.Difference between ACB and VCB
Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:
Basis of Difference ACB VCB
Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.
Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.
Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.
Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.
Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.
Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.
Need of arc chute
Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.
ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.
VCB does not require the arc chute.
Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.
Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.
Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.
Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.
Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.
Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.
Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.Conclusion
The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.
What is Kerberos?
Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.
Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.What is SSL?
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.
SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.Difference between Kerberos and SSL
KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.Working of Kerberos
Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.
Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.
The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.Conclusion
Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.
Homozygous and heterozygous are terms used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism, specifically the alleles present in its genes. An allele is a version of a gene that controls a particular characteristic. For example, the gene for eye color has different alleles for blue, brown, green, and hazel eyes.What is Homozygous?
When two identical alleles (recessive or dominant) of the same gene are present, the condition is called homozygous. Because there is no dominant allele to inhibit the expression of the gene in a homozygote person, the recessive features are phenotypically expressed in this case, providing Mendelian laws hold true.
Examples of homozygous genotypes − Assuming that A stands for dominant alleles and a for recessive alleles, a homozygous person might have either the AA or aa genotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Given the limited understanding of genetics at the time, Mendel referred to homozygous plants as true-breeding plants. Consistently reproducing the same characteristics in its progeny is a hallmark of a true-breeding plant, suggesting that the underlying causes are also consistent. A later generation of researchers deduced that these “factors” were, in fact, different alleles of the same gene.
Diseases or conditions that occur in the homozygous condition − Recessive alleles are responsible for a wide variety of human disorders. This is the situation with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), which is caused by a recessive mutation in the NPHS2 gene in roughly 14 percent cases, and is manifested only in the homozygous form. As the sickle-cell trait allele is recessive, sickle-cell anaemia and related illnesses only manifest in the homozygous situation.What is Heterozygous?
When both copies of a gene, called “alleles,” are distinct, a condition known as heterozygosity results. According to Mendelian genetics, a dominant allele will be expressed whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous, whereas a recessive allele will be silenced in the heterozygous state.
Examples of heterozygous genotypes − Heterozygotes have the genotype Aa, where A denotes dominance and a recessive allele is denoted by a. Heterozygosity indicates that alleles are being secretly carried, but depending on the genotype of the offspring, they may not be shown in the phenotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Mendel referred to what we now know to be heterozygous plants as hybrids because he understood that they possessed a combination of components (alleles) rather than just one. Here is how the crossing of two purple-flowering plants resulted in some offspring with white flowers. Since both parents were heterozygotes, their offspring received the recessive gene for white blossom colour.Differences: Homozygous and Heterozygous
The following table highlights the major differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous −
Homozygous is the condition in which there are two alleles for a gene, both of which are exactly the same, either both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.
Heterozygous is the condition in which there is one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene.
How many forms it can occur in (assuming Mendelian genetics)
The homozygous condition can occur in two forms.
The heterozygous condition can only occur in one form.
Assuming A is dominant and a is recessive, in the homozygous condition the genotypes can be either AA or aa.
In the heterozygous condition, the genotype can be Aa.
Mendel’s term for homozygous was true-breeding.
Mendel’s term for heterozygous the term was hybrid.
In the case of homozygotes, an allele is always expressed phenotypically because it is present on both chromosomes.
In the case of heterozygotes, an allele is not always phenotypically expressed unless it is dominant, and it can be carried as a recessive allele that is not expressed.
Diseases or conditions
The homozygous condition is responsible for about 25 percent of cases of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and is the state in which the alleles for sickle-cell anemia are expressed.Conclusion
Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an organism and the alleles present in its genes. Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles, while heterozygous organisms have two different alleles.
The difference between homozygous and heterozygous is important in terms of inheritance and expression of traits, with homozygous organisms having a higher risk of passing on genetic disorders.
The thyroid and thymus are both endocrine glands that are located in the neck region and play an important role in the endocrine system. However, despite their similar location, the thyroid and thymus have several distinct differences.What is Thyroid?
The thyroid functions as an endocrine system organ. Two different hormones produced by this gland control metabolic rate.
Structure − Thyroid anatomy consists of four lobes located in the base of the human neck. In the lobes, follicles are found, which are encased in epithelia. Follicles are where hormones are synthesised.
Function − The thyroid’s two hormones help regulate metabolic rate. Production of hormones includes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Each of the thyroid’s follicles is responsible for producing them from iodine molecules.
Regulation − Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland hormones regulate thyroid hormone release. Each of these brain areas is part of a negative feedback loop that regulates their respective activities. The hypothalamus becomes active when there are insufficient levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted as a result, prompting the anterior pituitary to release thyroid-stimulating hormone, which, in turn, encourages the thyroid to produce and release the two thyroid hormones into the circulation.
Disorders − Problems with the thyroid gland often fall into two categories: either the gland is producing too little or too much of the hormones that regulate metabolism. Due to an underactive thyroid, a lack of hormone production can cause a sluggish metabolism, leading to weight gain, as well as dry, brittle hair. In contrast, a person with an overactive thyroid frequently has high heart rate and weight loss.What is Thymus?
Triangular in form, the thymus is a lymphatic system organ that plays a role in immunological response.
Function − The thymus’s job is to prevent infections, especially in the growing foetus and newborn kid, by producing antibodies to fight off harmful pathogens. Bone marrow produces white blood cells, which then go through a final stage of development to become T-cells. Several subsets of T cells contribute to cell-mediated immunity in distinct ways.
Regulation − A mechanism including the hypothalamus of the brain and the pituitary gland regulates the thymus’ generation of immune system cells and the thymus’ maturation of cells. The brain may tell the pituitary to signal the thymus to make more T cells when a cell-mediated immune response is needed.
Disorders − Hypogammaglobulinemia and myasthenia gravis are two thymus-related disorders. The autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis is caused by an overactive thymus that makes molecules called antibodies that target the receptors on muscle cells.Differences: Thyroid and Thymus
The following table highlights the major differences between Thyroid and Thymus −
The thyroid is an endocrine gland that produces hormones to regulate the metabolic rate in the body.
The thymus is an organ of the lymphatic system where white blood cells develop further into T cells.
The thyroid gland consists of two lobes, each comprised of follicles surrounded by epithelia.
The thymus consists of an outer capsule and inner medulla section and is made up of two lobules.
Changes in size with age
The thyroid does not change in size as you age unless there is a problem.
The thymus does change in size and actually becomes smaller as you age.
What it produces
The hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine are secreted by the thyroid gland.
Mature lymphocytes called T cells are formed by and produced by the thymus from other white blood cells.
The function of the thyroid gland is to regulate metabolism and metabolic rate.
The function of the thymus is to produce T cells for the cell-mediated immune response.
Thyroid problems include overproduction and underproduction of thyroid hormones.
Thymus problems include myasthenia gravis and hypogammaglobulinemia.Conclusion
The thyroid and thymus are two distinct endocrine glands that have different functions, hormones, and diseases. The thyroid regulates the body’s metabolic rate, while the thymus helps protect the body from infections and diseases.
Understanding the differences between these two glands is important for maintaining good health and preventing diseases.
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