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Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are two types of behavioral disorders that can occur in children and adolescents. Although these disorders share some similarities, they are different in terms of their symptoms, causes, and treatments. Understanding the difference between these two disorders is crucial in determining the appropriate intervention and support for affected individuals.What is Conduct Disorder?
According to the DSM 5, CD is a “repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated”. The manual furthered that the following criteria should be met in the past 12 months.
The individual often does the following −
Aggression to People and Animals
Bullying, intimidating, or threatening
Initiating physical fights
Using weapons which can cause serious harm
Physically cruel to people and animals
Stealing with confrontation like extortion and mugging
Destruction of Property
Setting fire with the intention of harm
Destroying others’ property aside from setting fire
Deceitfulness or Theft
Breaking into a property
Lying for selfish reasons
Stealing without confrontation like shopliftingWhat is Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
The DSM 5 states that ODD has at least four of the following diagnostic criteria which lasts for at least six months and is manifested during non-sibling interaction.
The individual often manifests the following −
Losing one’s temper
Getting easily annoyed
Feels resentful or angry
Arguing with others
Defying rules or requests
Annoying others deliberately
Blaming others for one’s mistakes
Being spitefulDifferences: Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
One of the key differences between Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the nature of the behavior. CD is characterized by aggressive, destructive, and antisocial behavior, while ODD is characterized by defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior. Children with CD tend to be more physically aggressive and may engage in criminal activities, whereas children with ODD tend to be more verbally aggressive and may engage in noncompliant behaviors.
Another difference between the two disorders is their onset and course. Conduct Disorder often starts in childhood and may persist into adulthood if left untreated. Children with CD may exhibit early signs of disruptive behavior, such as lying, stealing, and fighting. As they get older, their behavior may become more serious, and they may engage in more severe forms of delinquency, such as arson, burglary, and assault. In contrast, Oppositional Defiant Disorder typically develops in early childhood and may improve over time, especially with the right treatment and support. Children with ODD may have difficulty regulating their emotions and may exhibit defiant and oppositional behavior in response to stress or frustration.
The causes of Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder also differ. Conduct Disorder is believed to have both genetic and environmental factors. Children with a family history of CD are more likely to develop the disorder, and exposure to violence, neglect, abuse, or other forms of trauma can increase the risk. In contrast, ODD is believed to be primarily a result of environmental factors, such as inconsistent or harsh parenting, a lack of positive reinforcement, and a chaotic or unstable home environment.
Treatment for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder also varies. For CD, a combination of medication and therapy may be needed, depending on the severity of the behavior. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing aggressive behavior in children with CD, and family therapy can also be helpful in improving communication and reducing conflict within the family. For ODD, behavioral therapy and parent management training are the primary treatments. These interventions focus on teaching children and parents strategies for managing behavior, improving communication, and reducing conflict.
The following table highlights the major differences between Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder −
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The diagnostic criteria for CD are aggression, destruction, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations.
On the other hand, those for ODD are angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant, and vindictiveness.
It can be observed from the respective criteria of the disorders that CD is more characterized by physical violence as compared to ODD.
The former includes physical fights, mugging, rape, and arson while the latter generally deals with upset moods, nonconformity, and spitefulness.
It can be observed from the respective criteria of the disorders that ODD is less characterized by physical violence as compared to CD.
Duration of Symptoms
Symptoms of CD must last for at least 12 months with at least one criterion being met in the past 6 months.
Generally, it will take a longer observation time for the diagnosis of CD to be finalized.
The symptoms of ODD must last for at least 6 months.
As for CD, the severity is marked according to the frequency and extent of conduct problems.
It is mild if there are few conduct issues which cause only minor harm, moderate if the occurrence of conduct problems is intermediate between mild and severe, and severe if there are many conduct problems and considerable harm is done.
The diagnosis for ODD is specified to be mild if the symptoms are merely confined to a certain setting, moderate if manifested in 2 settings, and severe if present in at least three settings.
There are three subtypes for conduct disorder: childhood-onset type, adolescent-onset type, and unspecified-onset type.
On the other hand, oppositional defiant disorder has no specified subtypes.Conclusion
In conclusion, Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder are two types of behavioral disorders that can occur in children and adolescents. Although they share some similarities, they differ in terms of their symptoms, causes, and treatments. Conduct Disorder is characterized by aggressive and antisocial behavior.
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Sometimes individuals cannot recognize or identify objects and people and process auditory information or sounds despite the intact functioning of their senses. This occurs because of a neurological deficit in which they cannot process sensory information.What is Agnosia? Visual Agnosia
The occipital lobe assembles incoming visual information, and the parietal and temporal lobes help us understand the meaning of this information. Brain injury along the neural pathways that connect the brain’s occipital lobe with the parietal or temporal lobe results in visual agnosia.
Apperceptive Visual Agnosia − It is difficult to recognize the shapes or forms of an item for individuals with apperceptive visual agnosia. People with this problem may find it challenging to distinguish between different objects while looking at them side by side. An object might not be possible to duplicate or depict in a photograph. Instead, children could make the mistake of attempting to replicate an image of a circle and wind up sketching a sequence of concentric scribbles. Occipital−parietal cortical lesions are frequently responsible for apperceptive visual agnosia.
Associative Visual Agnosia − The inability to remember details related to an object is known as associative visual agnosia. This comprises an item’s name and knowledge of how to use it. Drawing an image of an object is still possible despite this type of agnosia. Lesions of the contralateral occipitotemporal cortex often cause associative visual agnosia.
Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness) − The inability to identify familiar faces is known as prosopagnosia. The fusiform face area (FFA), a particular portion of the brain that detects faces, is the source of the problem. Alzheimer’s illness can also cause face recognition issues, and this occurs because brain aging can harm this area. Additionally, autism may make it difficult to identify faces. Children with autism spectrum disorders could have a distinct facial recognition method and have more trouble comprehending another individual’s identity or emotional condition.Auditory Verbal Agnosia
Pure word deafness is another term for auditory verbal agnosia. It is characterized by the inability to distinguish and comprehend spoken words despite having normal hearing. Usually, it is due to a lesion in the right temporal area. However, people with auditory verbal agnosia can read, write, and communicate with pure word deafness.
Phonagnosia − The inability to recognize and distinguish familiar voices is known as phonagnosia. It appears when the sound association area of the brain is damaged. Usually, it is due to a lesion in the right part of the brain. If phonagnosia is present, people can still understand what is being spoken to them. Additionally, they could still be able to identify ambient noises or sounds produced by objects.Tactile Agnosia
The inability to perceive items by touch is known as tactile agnosia. Even if one can feel the object’s weight, one might not be able to grasp its importance or purpose. Brain lesions frequently bring on tactile agnosia in the parietal lobe. People who lack touch awareness can nonetheless identify items via sight. In addition to reaching for items, you can also make drawings of them.
Autotopagnosia − When individuals become visually disoriented or unable to identify the components of their own body, it is known as autotopagnosia. This disorder may be brought on by damage to the left parietal lobe of the brain. Even when their eyes are closed, people with autotopagnosia are always aware of where their limbs are in space.Etiology
Agnosia develops when certain neural pathways in the brain are disrupted. A sensory processing region is involved in these routes. These brain regions serve as knowledge and information repositories for perception and object recognition. Lesions on the brain’s parietal, temporal, or occipital lobes are frequently the cause of agnosia. Language and semantic information are stored in these lobes. Lesions may be brought on by encephalitis, strokes, or head trauma. Agnosia may also result from other brain disorders or conditions. These conditions include anoxia (loss of oxygen flow to the brain), carbon monoxide poisoning, dementia, and brain cancer.Treatment
There is no direct treatment for this condition. Patients may improve if the information is conveyed by modalities other than the damaged one. The consequences of agnosia may be reversed with the use of various therapy. Depending on the condition’s root cause, occupational treatment or speech therapy may help improve agnosia. There are many different types of therapy, including verbal tactics, alternative signals, compensating strategies using alternative modalities, and organizational strategies.
For people with particular kinds of agnosia, verbal descriptions may be useful. It may be helpful for certain people, such as prosopagnosics, to hear someone describe a friend or family member so that they may more quickly identify them based on this description than by visual clues. Individuals with prosopagnosia or environmental agnosia may find other cues very helpful.Conclusion
The most effective way to treat agnosia is to address the underlying cause and symptoms. The major objective is to provide the patient with the ability to carry out daily activities independently. For someone with environmental agnosia, alternate cues like tactile indicators or color cues that represent a new space or serve as a reminder of a location can be used. An individual with visual agnosia may find organizational techniques to assist greatly. When garments are arranged on various hangers, for instance, the individual is given tactile clues that make it simpler for them to recognize particular types of clothing rather than depending just on visual cues.
It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.
Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).What is ACB?
ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.
An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.What is VCB?
VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.
The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.Difference between ACB and VCB
Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:
Basis of Difference ACB VCB
Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.
Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.
Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.
Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.
Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.
Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.
Need of arc chute
Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.
ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.
VCB does not require the arc chute.
Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.
Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.
Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.
Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.
Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.
Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.
Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.Conclusion
The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.
What is Kerberos?
Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.
Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.What is SSL?
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.
SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.Difference between Kerberos and SSL
KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.Working of Kerberos
Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.
Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.
The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.Conclusion
Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.
Homozygous and heterozygous are terms used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism, specifically the alleles present in its genes. An allele is a version of a gene that controls a particular characteristic. For example, the gene for eye color has different alleles for blue, brown, green, and hazel eyes.What is Homozygous?
When two identical alleles (recessive or dominant) of the same gene are present, the condition is called homozygous. Because there is no dominant allele to inhibit the expression of the gene in a homozygote person, the recessive features are phenotypically expressed in this case, providing Mendelian laws hold true.
Examples of homozygous genotypes − Assuming that A stands for dominant alleles and a for recessive alleles, a homozygous person might have either the AA or aa genotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Given the limited understanding of genetics at the time, Mendel referred to homozygous plants as true-breeding plants. Consistently reproducing the same characteristics in its progeny is a hallmark of a true-breeding plant, suggesting that the underlying causes are also consistent. A later generation of researchers deduced that these “factors” were, in fact, different alleles of the same gene.
Diseases or conditions that occur in the homozygous condition − Recessive alleles are responsible for a wide variety of human disorders. This is the situation with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), which is caused by a recessive mutation in the NPHS2 gene in roughly 14 percent cases, and is manifested only in the homozygous form. As the sickle-cell trait allele is recessive, sickle-cell anaemia and related illnesses only manifest in the homozygous situation.What is Heterozygous?
When both copies of a gene, called “alleles,” are distinct, a condition known as heterozygosity results. According to Mendelian genetics, a dominant allele will be expressed whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous, whereas a recessive allele will be silenced in the heterozygous state.
Examples of heterozygous genotypes − Heterozygotes have the genotype Aa, where A denotes dominance and a recessive allele is denoted by a. Heterozygosity indicates that alleles are being secretly carried, but depending on the genotype of the offspring, they may not be shown in the phenotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Mendel referred to what we now know to be heterozygous plants as hybrids because he understood that they possessed a combination of components (alleles) rather than just one. Here is how the crossing of two purple-flowering plants resulted in some offspring with white flowers. Since both parents were heterozygotes, their offspring received the recessive gene for white blossom colour.Differences: Homozygous and Heterozygous
The following table highlights the major differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous −
Homozygous is the condition in which there are two alleles for a gene, both of which are exactly the same, either both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.
Heterozygous is the condition in which there is one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene.
How many forms it can occur in (assuming Mendelian genetics)
The homozygous condition can occur in two forms.
The heterozygous condition can only occur in one form.
Assuming A is dominant and a is recessive, in the homozygous condition the genotypes can be either AA or aa.
In the heterozygous condition, the genotype can be Aa.
Mendel’s term for homozygous was true-breeding.
Mendel’s term for heterozygous the term was hybrid.
In the case of homozygotes, an allele is always expressed phenotypically because it is present on both chromosomes.
In the case of heterozygotes, an allele is not always phenotypically expressed unless it is dominant, and it can be carried as a recessive allele that is not expressed.
Diseases or conditions
The homozygous condition is responsible for about 25 percent of cases of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and is the state in which the alleles for sickle-cell anemia are expressed.Conclusion
Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an organism and the alleles present in its genes. Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles, while heterozygous organisms have two different alleles.
The difference between homozygous and heterozygous is important in terms of inheritance and expression of traits, with homozygous organisms having a higher risk of passing on genetic disorders.
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