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While orbiting the sun, a planet revolves around itself. The time it takes a planet to orbit itself once is called a period of rotation. The rotation time of the earth is 23 hours and 56 minutes. Therefore, a day on earth is 24 hours. Only the planets in our solar system can survive on the earth we live on. Because it is at the right distance from the sun, the earth has the right temperature, the right source of water, the right atmosphere, and the ozone layer. Life can continue on earth. Due to the reflection of light on the water and land areas of the earth, when viewed from the sky the earth appears bluish-green.
Fig:1 Elliptical motion of planetsWhat is an Equinox?
If the time duration of day and night is equal that day is referred to as Equinox. It occurs twice a year. One is on March 20 and another one is on September 22. When the planet’s sub polar point crosses through its equator that process is called an equinox. Both Northern and southern hemispheres experience approximately identical time durations of day and night time in an equinox time. The sub polar point and equator are on the same point during the equinox in a year. The earth orbits the earth in an elliptical orbit. So it is a misconception that summer appears when the earth is closest to the sun and winter when it is in decline. Seasons are caused by the earth orbiting the sun at an angle of 23.5°.Types of Equinox
These occur twice a year. One is on March 20 and another one is on September 22. These two equinoxes are named the vernal equinox and autumnal equinox. It is also called spring equinox and fall equinox. The earth’s northern hemisphere is farthest from the sun due to its 23.5°tilt, while the southern hemisphere is adjacent to the Sun. So while the northern hemisphere is winter, the southern hemisphere is summer.Seasons of Equinox
The vernal equinox and autumnal equinox happen on different dates for both hemispheres. The equinox that happens in March is the Vernal equinox. The equinox that occurs in September is the autumnal equinox. When the vernal equinox is in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere is in the autumnal equinox. The northern hemisphere is in the autumnal equinox then the southern hemisphere is in the vernal equinox. The solar declination is zero degrees in the time of equinoxes. The earth does not tilt 23.5° towards the sun during the time of equinoxes. This happens only during the equinoxes. The sub polar point and equator are on the same point during the equinox in a year. The sub polar points change their direction before and after the equinox from north or south. The sub polar point moves to the north and the Northern hemisphere tilt towards the sun after the March equinox. The sub polar points move to the south and the Southern hemisphere tilt towards the sun after the September equinox.What is a Solstice?
The longest day or night time of the year will happen when the sun is too far away from the equatorial plane. This time is called solstice. It happens twice a year. In other words, a pole of the planet is extremely closer or away from the orbit of the star which is orbiting the planet. Equinox does not change the period of day and night. But solstice changes the time duration of day and night. The complete display of daylight is the peak moment of the solstice in the poles. At the same time solstice is marked very rarely in the equator. The sub solar points are marked by solstice when it reaches the north and south most latitudes. The sub solar point will cross all latitudes between north and south latitudes two times a year.Types of Solstice
The solstice occurs two times a year. Summer solstice and winter solstice are the two types of solstice. The summer solstice occurs in a year when the time duration of the day is long. The winter solstice occurs in a year when the time duration of the day is shorter. The summer solstice is on June 21 and the winter solstice is on December 22.Seasons of the Solstice
The Summer solstice and winter solstice are the seasons of the solstice. Solstice is also known as midsummer and midwinter because it happens in the middle of those seasons.
The longest day of the year is called the summer solstice. The shortest day of the year is called the winter solstice. The summer solstice is on June 21 and the winter solstice is on December 21. During the summer solstice, the intensity of rays from the sun will stay for a long time.
So the time of the daylight will be longer. The Winter solstice has a short time of daylight.Conclusion
The planets orbit the Sun in a fixed curved orbit. It is elliptical. The time it takes for the planets to orbit the sun once is called the planetary orbit. If the time duration of day and night is equal that day is referred to as Equinox. It occurs twice a year. One is on March 20 and another one is on September 22.
The rotation time of the earth is 23 hours and 56 minutes. Therefore, a day on earth is 24 hours. The longest day or night time of the year will happen when the sun is too far away from the equatorial plane.
This time is called solstice. It happens twice a year. In other words, a pole of the planet is extremely closer or away from the orbit of the star which is orbiting the planet. Equinox does not change the period of day and night. But solstice changes the time duration of day and night.FAQs
Q1. Define Newton’s law of Gravitation
Ans: A particle with mass M in the galaxy attracts all particles in the galaxy with a certain force. That gravitational force is directly proportional to the multiplication of its mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Q2. Describe the planet with the highest temperature among the planets found in the solar system?
Ans: Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. After the moon, this is the brightest sky visible in the sky. Unlike other planets, which rotate in the opposite direction, the sun rises in the west and sets in the east. We can easily see Venus with the naked eye. It is visible in the lower sky in an east or west direction.
Q3. What is the cosmic year?
Ans: The cosmic year is the time it takes for the earth to orbit the Milky Way galaxy at the speed of 250km/h ( 9 million km/h). This equates to 225 million Earth years.
Q4. What is a polar galaxy?
Ans: Although all galaxies appear to move from east to west, only one is known to be immobile and is called a polar galaxy. The polar galaxy is not visible from the southern hemisphere of the Earth. The polar galaxy appears to be in one place, as it is located directly relative to the Earth’s spiral axis.
Q5. What is microgravity?
Ans: Microgravity is the state in which objects or humans appear to be weightless. Microgravity means very small gravity. When astronauts and a few objects float in space, we can sense the effects of microgravity.
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It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.
Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).What is ACB?
ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.
An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.What is VCB?
VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.
The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.Difference between ACB and VCB
Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:
Basis of Difference ACB VCB
Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.
Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.
Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.
Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.
Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.
Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.
Need of arc chute
Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.
ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.
VCB does not require the arc chute.
Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.
Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.
Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.
Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.
Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.
Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.
Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.Conclusion
The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.
What is Kerberos?
Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.
Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.What is SSL?
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.
SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.Difference between Kerberos and SSL
KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.Working of Kerberos
Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.
Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.
The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.Conclusion
Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.
Homozygous and heterozygous are terms used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism, specifically the alleles present in its genes. An allele is a version of a gene that controls a particular characteristic. For example, the gene for eye color has different alleles for blue, brown, green, and hazel eyes.What is Homozygous?
When two identical alleles (recessive or dominant) of the same gene are present, the condition is called homozygous. Because there is no dominant allele to inhibit the expression of the gene in a homozygote person, the recessive features are phenotypically expressed in this case, providing Mendelian laws hold true.
Examples of homozygous genotypes − Assuming that A stands for dominant alleles and a for recessive alleles, a homozygous person might have either the AA or aa genotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Given the limited understanding of genetics at the time, Mendel referred to homozygous plants as true-breeding plants. Consistently reproducing the same characteristics in its progeny is a hallmark of a true-breeding plant, suggesting that the underlying causes are also consistent. A later generation of researchers deduced that these “factors” were, in fact, different alleles of the same gene.
Diseases or conditions that occur in the homozygous condition − Recessive alleles are responsible for a wide variety of human disorders. This is the situation with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), which is caused by a recessive mutation in the NPHS2 gene in roughly 14 percent cases, and is manifested only in the homozygous form. As the sickle-cell trait allele is recessive, sickle-cell anaemia and related illnesses only manifest in the homozygous situation.What is Heterozygous?
When both copies of a gene, called “alleles,” are distinct, a condition known as heterozygosity results. According to Mendelian genetics, a dominant allele will be expressed whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous, whereas a recessive allele will be silenced in the heterozygous state.
Examples of heterozygous genotypes − Heterozygotes have the genotype Aa, where A denotes dominance and a recessive allele is denoted by a. Heterozygosity indicates that alleles are being secretly carried, but depending on the genotype of the offspring, they may not be shown in the phenotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Mendel referred to what we now know to be heterozygous plants as hybrids because he understood that they possessed a combination of components (alleles) rather than just one. Here is how the crossing of two purple-flowering plants resulted in some offspring with white flowers. Since both parents were heterozygotes, their offspring received the recessive gene for white blossom colour.Differences: Homozygous and Heterozygous
The following table highlights the major differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous −
Homozygous is the condition in which there are two alleles for a gene, both of which are exactly the same, either both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.
Heterozygous is the condition in which there is one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene.
How many forms it can occur in (assuming Mendelian genetics)
The homozygous condition can occur in two forms.
The heterozygous condition can only occur in one form.
Assuming A is dominant and a is recessive, in the homozygous condition the genotypes can be either AA or aa.
In the heterozygous condition, the genotype can be Aa.
Mendel’s term for homozygous was true-breeding.
Mendel’s term for heterozygous the term was hybrid.
In the case of homozygotes, an allele is always expressed phenotypically because it is present on both chromosomes.
In the case of heterozygotes, an allele is not always phenotypically expressed unless it is dominant, and it can be carried as a recessive allele that is not expressed.
Diseases or conditions
The homozygous condition is responsible for about 25 percent of cases of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and is the state in which the alleles for sickle-cell anemia are expressed.Conclusion
Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an organism and the alleles present in its genes. Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles, while heterozygous organisms have two different alleles.
The difference between homozygous and heterozygous is important in terms of inheritance and expression of traits, with homozygous organisms having a higher risk of passing on genetic disorders.
The thyroid and thymus are both endocrine glands that are located in the neck region and play an important role in the endocrine system. However, despite their similar location, the thyroid and thymus have several distinct differences.What is Thyroid?
The thyroid functions as an endocrine system organ. Two different hormones produced by this gland control metabolic rate.
Structure − Thyroid anatomy consists of four lobes located in the base of the human neck. In the lobes, follicles are found, which are encased in epithelia. Follicles are where hormones are synthesised.
Function − The thyroid’s two hormones help regulate metabolic rate. Production of hormones includes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Each of the thyroid’s follicles is responsible for producing them from iodine molecules.
Regulation − Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland hormones regulate thyroid hormone release. Each of these brain areas is part of a negative feedback loop that regulates their respective activities. The hypothalamus becomes active when there are insufficient levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted as a result, prompting the anterior pituitary to release thyroid-stimulating hormone, which, in turn, encourages the thyroid to produce and release the two thyroid hormones into the circulation.
Disorders − Problems with the thyroid gland often fall into two categories: either the gland is producing too little or too much of the hormones that regulate metabolism. Due to an underactive thyroid, a lack of hormone production can cause a sluggish metabolism, leading to weight gain, as well as dry, brittle hair. In contrast, a person with an overactive thyroid frequently has high heart rate and weight loss.What is Thymus?
Triangular in form, the thymus is a lymphatic system organ that plays a role in immunological response.
Function − The thymus’s job is to prevent infections, especially in the growing foetus and newborn kid, by producing antibodies to fight off harmful pathogens. Bone marrow produces white blood cells, which then go through a final stage of development to become T-cells. Several subsets of T cells contribute to cell-mediated immunity in distinct ways.
Regulation − A mechanism including the hypothalamus of the brain and the pituitary gland regulates the thymus’ generation of immune system cells and the thymus’ maturation of cells. The brain may tell the pituitary to signal the thymus to make more T cells when a cell-mediated immune response is needed.
Disorders − Hypogammaglobulinemia and myasthenia gravis are two thymus-related disorders. The autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis is caused by an overactive thymus that makes molecules called antibodies that target the receptors on muscle cells.Differences: Thyroid and Thymus
The following table highlights the major differences between Thyroid and Thymus −
The thyroid is an endocrine gland that produces hormones to regulate the metabolic rate in the body.
The thymus is an organ of the lymphatic system where white blood cells develop further into T cells.
The thyroid gland consists of two lobes, each comprised of follicles surrounded by epithelia.
The thymus consists of an outer capsule and inner medulla section and is made up of two lobules.
Changes in size with age
The thyroid does not change in size as you age unless there is a problem.
The thymus does change in size and actually becomes smaller as you age.
What it produces
The hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine are secreted by the thyroid gland.
Mature lymphocytes called T cells are formed by and produced by the thymus from other white blood cells.
The function of the thyroid gland is to regulate metabolism and metabolic rate.
The function of the thymus is to produce T cells for the cell-mediated immune response.
Thyroid problems include overproduction and underproduction of thyroid hormones.
Thymus problems include myasthenia gravis and hypogammaglobulinemia.Conclusion
The thyroid and thymus are two distinct endocrine glands that have different functions, hormones, and diseases. The thyroid regulates the body’s metabolic rate, while the thymus helps protect the body from infections and diseases.
Understanding the differences between these two glands is important for maintaining good health and preventing diseases.
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