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Genome sequence and genome map are both engravings of a genome.

Genome mapping is useful for pinpointing the location of and determining the proximity of individual genes. The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a worldwide scientific endeavour that can make use of this technique as a foundational first step. Low-resolution and high-resolution physical mapping, restriction enzymes as microscopic scalpels, genetic linkage maps, macro-restriction maps as a top-down approach, and contig maps as a bottom-up approach are all examples of mapping methods. Chromosome Isolation (Flow Sorting and Somatic Cell Hybridization)

Genome sequencing is a technique for evaluating the whole deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of a cell or organism in a single experiment. Whole-genome sequencing is another phrase for genomic analysis. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and the clone-by-clone technique are two sequencing approaches (does not require a genome map).

There is an effort to employ this technique as a research tool to aid in the development of therapeutic or pharmacological therapies.

What is Genome Sequencing?

Evaluation of the nucleic acid sequence, or the order of nucleotides (the fundamental building unit of nucleic acids) in DNA, is accomplished by a process known as genome sequencing. Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T) are the four nitrogenous biological components that make up DNA (T)

What is Genome Mapping?

It’s a map of the human genome’s internal structure. A genetic map is a useful tool for locating markers along the chromosomes (a lengthy molecule of Deoxyribonucleic acid containing a portion or the full genome of an organism).

Similarities: Genome Sequencing and Genome Mapping

Both are methods for analyzing genomes

Both are used to figure out the location of the genes

Also, both processes help in assessing illness/disease causing genes in the genome.

Differences: Genome Sequencing and Genome Mapping

The following table highlights the major differences between Genome Sequencing and Genome Mapping −


Genome Sequencing

Genome Mapping


DNA and RNA are composed of organic molecules called nucleotides, and gene sequencing requires determining the precise sequence of these building blocks.

The information provided by gene sequencing is more exhaustive and detailed than any previously available.

Generating a chromosomal blueprint, or “genome map,” involves identifying and placing DNA sequences on chromosomes.


Shotgun sequencing


DNA nanoball sequencing

Heliscope single molecule sequencing

Single molecule real time sequencing (SMRT)

Nanopore DNA sequencing

Examination of family histories (pedigrees)

Cross-breeding experiments

Molecular biology techniques

Linkage analysis

STS mapping


Restriction mapping

Fingerprint mapping


Helps in gathering information about medical value for future care. Helps in gaining knowledge about the type of genetic information, a DNA carries.

It gives information on genetic adaptations that can cause an illness or disease or can elevate the risk of illness development, even in people without any symptoms (asymptomatic people)

Technical accuracy

Safeguarding of information

Single test in a lifetime

Cascade testing to other family members

Information of value to future generations in a client’s family

Staying ahead of nongenetic healthcare providers

Sense of empowerment


Agricultural adaptations – improved agriculture and livestock

Diagnosis of illness/disease

Better understanding of evolution and human migration

Energy and environment


More accurate risk assessment

Time and Cost

This is a very pricey method and is also time-consuming

Genome mapping is not expensive and is a cheap method. It also takes very less time.


In conclusion, gene sequencing offers complete and comprehensive details, while gene mapping offers lesser details.

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Human Genome Project Goals Significance


The project began in 1990 and was completed in 2003, costing approximately $3.8 billion and involving hundreds of scientists worldwide.

Human genome project goals

The human genome project was completed in 2003 and had four main goals−

To read and decode one percent of the genome

To sequence at least 90% of the protein-coding genes in the human genome

To identify and map at least 10% of all human genes

To understand how the information encoded in DNA is converted into proteins.

Methods of the human genome project

The Human Genome Project is a global scientific endeavor aimed at understanding and mapping our minds. It was started in 1990, and the project is anticipated to be completed in 2005.

The Human Genome Project has three phases− 1) sequencing, 2) analysis and 3) technology development. The sequencing phase aims to assess all three billion base pairs in the human genome. The analysis stage involves the interpretation of data produced by the sequencing phase. The technology stage involves the development of bioinformatics and DNA chip technologies to aid in the analysis process.

The process of the human genome project

Scientists hope to uncover cures for many diseases and other ailments by studying genes and proteins. Although it took 13 years and $3 billion dollars to complete, the project has already discovered many important things about human genetics.


Identifying all human genes (sequencing) and determining their functions

Determining the order of bases in the DNA strand

Discovering the sequences in which genes are found on chromosomes.

The human genome is composed of twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes that are responsible for the production of proteins. Genes are essentially the blueprints for our bodies, and they determine everything from hair color to blood type to our risk for developing certain diseases.

The human genome project was one step closer to understanding how genetics work on a molecular level, which could potentially lead to new treatments/treatments for genetic diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, and cancer. It also helps us better understand how humans came into being in the first place and why they look and act (and get sick) the way they do.

Applications of HGP

The human genome project is a massive undertaking with numerous global benefits. Understanding the function of our DNA will allow researchers to develop new treatments for genetic diseases, create designer drugs that target specific ailments, and possibly even unlock the secrets of longevity. However, many people mistakenly believe that understanding DNA is the same as understanding life itself. In reality, it is only one small step on the long road to truly understanding life.


Most people agree that the results of the Human Genome Project have been a success. Researchers deciphered the entire human genome and made it available to be used for scientific, medical, and business purposes.

The project has helped researchers understand how genetic mutations lead to certain diseases and has made it easier for scientists to develop new ways of preventing those mutations from occurring in the first place. While many experts believed that the project would lead to new treatments, cures, and preventative measures within a few years, others argued that the effects would take much longer to become apparent−if they ever did at all.

Though there is still much more work to be done, it is clear that the Human Genome Project has provided invaluable information about our genetic makeup and presents healthcare professionals with potential opportunities to prevent or treat diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Thanks to this project, millions of people have benefited from its findings.


The Human Genome Project was a large, expensive undertaking with the goals of mapping and sequencing the human genome. The project was completed in 2003, and the results have been used in a variety of ways to improve human health. The project has also helped researchers to better understand the biology of a variety of diseases.


1. What is the Human Genome Project?

Ans: It was the goal of the Human Genome Project, a multinational endeavor to discover the sequence of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. Work on the project started in 1990 and was completed in 2003.

2. What does “sequencing” mean?

Ans: Sequencing is the process of determining the order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid). A single strand of DNA is made up of two chains, called polynucleotide chains, and each chain contains one strand of deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA).

Each nucleotide has three components− a phosphate group, a pentose sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose), and one of four bases− adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). Phosphate and pentose sugars are always present in equal numbers. The four bases are present in different amounts. For example, one chain may have 20 A’s but only 10 C’s.

3. What are the benefits of knowing our DNA?

Ans: The Human Genome Project has yielded many benefits, including−

New ways to diagnose diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease

New treatments for diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other illnesses

Better ways to predict people’s response to drugs like antibiotics and chemotherapy.

4. What are the benefits of sequencing an organism’s genome?

Ans: Sequencing an organism’s genome provides valuable insights into its genetic structure, function, and evolution, the knowledge that can be used to develop new treatments for disease and improve our understanding of biology in general. For example, human geneticists have already identified more than 1,000 disease-related genes based on their association with human diseases or traits such as height or earwax consistency/color.

Difference Between Javascript And Angularjs

JavaScript is a scripting language that is used to generate dynamic HTML pages with interactive effects on a webpage that runs in the web browser of the client. On the other hand, Angular JS is a framework that is built on JavaScript and adds new functionalities to HTML. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the creation of dynamic and single-page web applications (SPAs).

In this article, we are going to highlight the differences between Angular JS and JavaScript. Let’s start with a basic understanding of JavaScript and AngularJS.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a simple programming language that is most frequently utilised as a part of webpages. JavaScript implementations on webpages make it possible for client−side scripts to interact with the user and produce dynamic websites. It is a type of programming language that is interpreted and can handle features that are object−oriented.

The fundamental JavaScript programming language was given a standard form by the ECMA−262 Specification.

JavaScript is interpreted and therefore very lightweight.

It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.

JavaScript complements and is fully incorporated with HTML. It is free to use on several operating systems.

JavaScript Development Tools

Many different manufacturers have developed quite helpful JavaScript editing tools in order to make our lives easier. For example, Microsoft FrontPage is a widely used HTML editor. Web developers have access to a variety of JavaScript tools inside FrontPage, which may aid them in the process of creating dynamic websites.

Utilization of JavaScript

Creating interactive webpages often requires the usage of JavaScript. Its primary applications are:

Client-side validation,

Dynamic drop-down menus,

Including the date and the time,

Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),

Including things like clocks, etc.

Here’s a simple JavaScript code:





“This text in to JavaScript”



What is AngularJS?

The AngularJS Framework is an extremely strong version of JavaScript. Single Page Application (SPA) projects use Angular JS. It enhances the responsiveness of HTML DOM to user actions and adds new properties that increase HTML DOM’s capabilities.

AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.

If one already has a fundamental understanding of JavaScript, then learning AngularJS is a breeze.

General Features of Angular JS

The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:

With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.

Developers have the option, thanks to AngularJS, of writing client−side apps in JavaScript in a manner that is cleanly Model View Controller (MVC).

Applications that are created in AngularJS are compatible with a wide variety of browsers. AngularJS handles JavaScript code in a manner that is automatically appropriate for each browser.

AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.

Benefits of Using AngularJS

The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:

AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.

It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.

AngularJS code is unit testable.

Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.

AngularJS offers reusable components.

Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.

Drawbacks of Using AngularJS

Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.

Applications created with AngularJS are not secure since the framework only supports JavaScript, which makes them insecure. To keep an application safe, authentication and authorization have to be done on the server.

Not degradable: If a user of your application disables JavaScript, then nothing other than the default page will be shown.

Difference between JavaScript and AngularJS

The following table highlights the major differences between JavaScript and AngularJS:

Key JavaScript AngularJS

Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.

It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.

Programmed It uses the C and C++ programming languages to write its interpreters. The code behind AngularJS is written in JavaScript.

Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.

Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.

Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.

Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.


The creation of web apps may be accomplished using either of these two web technologies. Both JavaScript and AngularJS are free and open−source programming languages. AngularJS is an open-source framework based on the MVC approach.

JavaScript is a kind of computer language that may be used to create websites. It can make websites more interactive. It is possible to alter the content on websites in order to check user reaction at the browser end. As a result, it is possible to influence user activity by integrating dynamic content such as drag−and−drop components, sliders, and a great many other things. It is the basis for all JavaScript technologies and is considered to be one of the three basic technologies that make up the World Wide Web.

Difference Between Acb And Vcb

A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.

Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).

What is ACB?

ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.

An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.

What is VCB?

VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.

The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.

Difference between ACB and VCB

Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:

Basis of Difference ACB VCB

Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.

Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.

Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.

Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.

Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.

Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.

Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.

Need of arc chute

Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.

ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.

VCB does not require the arc chute.

Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.

Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.

Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.

Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.

Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.

Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.

Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.


The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.

Difference Between Kerberos And Ssl

What is Kerberos?

Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.

Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.

What is SSL?

SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.

SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.

Difference between Kerberos and SSL

KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.

Working of Kerberos

Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.

Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.

The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.


Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.

Difference Between Homozygous And Heterozygous

Homozygous and heterozygous are terms used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism, specifically the alleles present in its genes. An allele is a version of a gene that controls a particular characteristic. For example, the gene for eye color has different alleles for blue, brown, green, and hazel eyes.

What is Homozygous?

When two identical alleles (recessive or dominant) of the same gene are present, the condition is called homozygous. Because there is no dominant allele to inhibit the expression of the gene in a homozygote person, the recessive features are phenotypically expressed in this case, providing Mendelian laws hold true.

Examples of homozygous genotypes − Assuming that A stands for dominant alleles and a for recessive alleles, a homozygous person might have either the AA or aa genotype.

Examples from Mendel’s work − Given the limited understanding of genetics at the time, Mendel referred to homozygous plants as true-breeding plants. Consistently reproducing the same characteristics in its progeny is a hallmark of a true-breeding plant, suggesting that the underlying causes are also consistent. A later generation of researchers deduced that these “factors” were, in fact, different alleles of the same gene.

Diseases or conditions that occur in the homozygous condition − Recessive alleles are responsible for a wide variety of human disorders. This is the situation with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), which is caused by a recessive mutation in the NPHS2 gene in roughly 14 percent cases, and is manifested only in the homozygous form. As the sickle-cell trait allele is recessive, sickle-cell anaemia and related illnesses only manifest in the homozygous situation.

What is Heterozygous?

When both copies of a gene, called “alleles,” are distinct, a condition known as heterozygosity results. According to Mendelian genetics, a dominant allele will be expressed whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous, whereas a recessive allele will be silenced in the heterozygous state.

Examples of heterozygous genotypes − Heterozygotes have the genotype Aa, where A denotes dominance and a recessive allele is denoted by a. Heterozygosity indicates that alleles are being secretly carried, but depending on the genotype of the offspring, they may not be shown in the phenotype.

Examples from Mendel’s work − Mendel referred to what we now know to be heterozygous plants as hybrids because he understood that they possessed a combination of components (alleles) rather than just one. Here is how the crossing of two purple-flowering plants resulted in some offspring with white flowers. Since both parents were heterozygotes, their offspring received the recessive gene for white blossom colour.

Differences: Homozygous and Heterozygous

The following table highlights the major differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous −





Homozygous is the condition in which there are two alleles for a gene, both of which are exactly the same, either both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.

Heterozygous is the condition in which there is one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene.

How many forms it can occur in (assuming Mendelian genetics)

The homozygous condition can occur in two forms.

The heterozygous condition can only occur in one form.

Potential genotypes

Assuming A is dominant and a is recessive, in the homozygous condition the genotypes can be either AA or aa.

In the heterozygous condition, the genotype can be Aa.

Mendel’s term

Mendel’s term for homozygous was true-breeding.

Mendel’s term for heterozygous the term was hybrid.

Mendelian genetics

In the case of homozygotes, an allele is always expressed phenotypically because it is present on both chromosomes.

In the case of heterozygotes, an allele is not always phenotypically expressed unless it is dominant, and it can be carried as a recessive allele that is not expressed.

Diseases or conditions

The homozygous condition is responsible for about 25 percent of cases of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and is the state in which the alleles for sickle-cell anemia are expressed.


Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an organism and the alleles present in its genes. Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles, while heterozygous organisms have two different alleles.

The difference between homozygous and heterozygous is important in terms of inheritance and expression of traits, with homozygous organisms having a higher risk of passing on genetic disorders.

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