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Hadoop is an open-source framework developed by Apache Software Foundation with its main benefits of scalability, reliability, and distributed computing. Data processing, Storage, Access, and Security are several types of features available in the Hadoop Ecosystem. HDFS has a high throughput which means being able to handle large amounts of data with parallel processing capability. Redshift is a cloud hosting web service developed by the Amazon Web Services unit within chúng tôi Inc., Out of the existing services provided by Amazon. It is used to design a large-scale data warehouse in the cloud. Redshift is a petabyte-scale data warehouse service that is fully managed and cost-effective to operate on large datasets.
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Hadoop HDFS has high fault tolerance capability and was designed to run on low-cost hardware systems. Hadoop can handle a minimum type size of TeraBytes to GigaBytes of files within its system. HDFS is master-slave architecture consisting of Name Nodes and Data Nodes where the Name Node contains metadata and Data Node contains real data to be processed or operated.
RedShift uses different data loading techniques such as BI (Business Intelligence) reporting, analytical tools, and data mining. Redshift provides a console to create and manage Amazon Redshift clusters. The core component of the Redshift Data Warehouse is a cluster.
Image Source: Apache.org
RedShift Architecture:Head to Head Comparison between Hadoop and Redshift (Infographics):
Below is the top 10 comparisons between Hadoop and Redshift are as follows.Key Differences Between Hadoop vs Redshift
Below is the Key Differences between Hadoop vs Redshift are as Follows
1. The Hadoop HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) Architecture is having Name Nodes and Data Nodes, whereas Redshift has Leader Node and Compute Nodes where Compute nodes will be partitioned as Slices.
2. Hadoop provides a command-line interface to interact with file systems whereas RedShift has a Management console to interact with Amazon storage services such as S3, DynamoDB etc.,
3. The database operations are to be configured by developers. Redshift automates the database operations by parsing the execution plans.
5. In terms of Hadoop architectural design, network, storage, security, and performance have been considered primary elements whereas in Redshift these elements can be easily and flexibly configured using Amazon cloud management console.
6. Hadoop is a File System architecture based on Java Application Programming Interfaces (API) whereas Redshift is based on a Relational model Database Management System (RDBMS).
8. Most of the existing companies are still using Hadoop whereas new customers are choosing RedShift.
9. In terms of, performance Hadoop always lacks behind and Redshift always wins over in the case of query execution on large volumes of data.
10. Hadoop uses Map Reduce programming model for running jobs. Amazon Redshift uses Amazon’s Elastic Map Reduce.
11. Hadoop uses Map Reduce programming model for running jobs. Amazon Redshift uses Amazon’s Elastic Map Reduce.
12. Hadoop is preferable to run batch jobs daily that becomes cheaper whereas Redshift comes out cheaper in the case of Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) technology that exists behind many Business Intelligence tools.
14. In terms of Data Loading too, Hadoop has been behind Redshift in terms of hours taken by the system to load data from the storage into its file processing system.
15. Hadoop can be used for low-cost storage, data archiving, data lakes, data warehousing and data analytics whereas Redshift comes under Data warehouse capabilities causing to limiting the multi-purpose usage.
16. Hadoop platform provides support to various external vendors and its own Apache projects such as Storm, Spark, Kafka, Solr, etc., and on the other side Redshift has limited integration support with its only Amazon productsHadoop vs Redshift Comparison Table
Availability Open Source Framework by Apache Projects Priced Services provided by Amazon
Implementation Provided by Hortonworks and Cloudera providers etc., Developed and provided by Amazon
Performance Hadoop MapReduce jobs are slower Redshift performs more faster than Hadoop cluster
Scalability Limitations in scalability Easily be down/upsized as per requirement
Pricing Costs $ 200 per month to run queries The price depends on the region of the server and is cheaper than Hadoop
Speed Faster but slower compared to Redshift 10 times faster than Hadoop
Query Speed Takes 1491 seconds to run 1.2TB of data 155 seconds to run 1.2TB data
Data Integration Flexible with the local file system and any database Can load data from Amazon S3 or DynamoDB only
Data Format All data formats are supported Strict in data formats such as CSV file formats
Ease of Use Complex and trickier to handle administration activities Automated backup and data warehouse administrationConclusion
The final statement to conclude the big winner in this comparison is Redshift that wins in terms of ease of operations, maintenance, and productivity whereas Hadoop lacks in terms of performance scalability and the services cost with the only benefit of easy integration with third-party tools and products. Redshift has been recently evolving with tremendous growth and acceptance by many customers and clients due to its high availability and less cost of operations compared to Hadoop makes it more and more popular. But, till now most of the existing Fortune 1000 companies have been using Hadoop platforms in its architectures to manage the customer data.
In most the cases RedShift has been the best choice to consider for the business purposes by any client or customer in order to handle the large and sensitive data of any financial institutions or public information with more data integrity and security.Recommended Article:
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There is still a lot of confusion about the difference between SUM vs SUMX in Power BI. This is key knowledge that users have to master because both functions can be used across different scenarios, but there are cases where one is more efficient than the other. You may watch the full video of this tutorial at the bottom of this blog.
I’m going to focus on one example here that would show the distinction between the two. But before I jump into that example, it is important to understand the difference between an aggregating function and an iterating function.
When it comes to DAX, there are two types of calculation engines – the aggregators and iterators.
Aggregating functions include SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, MAX and COUNT. Iterators, on the other hand, are functions that have an X at the end, like SUMX.
Iterating functions go through every single row of a table to add logic to each of these rows.
Aggregating functions look at the entire column left over after the context is placed in a formula. From there, a single aggregation is done for the entire column at a single time.
How is SUM used as an aggregator?
In this example, I’m going to compute for the Total Revenue in the sample data given.
The context is always important here. In this case, each specific date is the context of each specific result.
If I dig deeper into this table, it will show that there is a direct relationship flowing from the Date going into the Sales table.
Then if I look at the data working underneath this model, this is how everything fits together.
So the relationship is linked to the Order Date column here. Once specific dates from this column are filtered, the corresponding results are shown under the Revenue column.
From there, the SUM would just do one big calculation of the filtered results.
Now, I’m going to use SUMX on the same sample data so that you can see the difference. I can actually calculate for that Revenue without touching the Revenue column.
When the SUMX function is used, it will always ask for a table. Note that either a physical table or a virtual table can be used here.
To come up with the Revenue, I’m going to choose the Sales table. Then, I’ll place an expression, which can be a measure or a specific column from that table into this formula so that it can start running logic on every row. The expression, as explained here, returns the sum of an expression evaluated for each row of the table.
Since the sample data includes the Order Quantity, I’m going to use that here to get the Total. I’m also going to use the Unit Price.
Once I drag that formula into the report, the results are exactly the same.
Of course, they’re both showing the same results because they are both deriving data from the same two columns – the Order Quantity and the Unit Price.
Why use the SUMX if it yields the same result as the SUM anyway?
With the SUMX, the logic is applied not just to an entire column, but to every single row within that column. In fact, I could delete the Revenue column and still be able to retrieve specific results.
So imagine that logic being applied at every row. It multiplies the Order Quantity and Unit Price for the 1st row then saves that into the memory. It does the same thing to the 2nd row and all the other rows after that, saving each individual result.
This means that at the end, what’s being used to calculate the SUMX is not the physical data on the table, but the results saved in the memory.
Hopefully I was able to explain the main difference between SUM vs SUMX in Power BI, especially to those who are still getting the hang of what Power BI can really do.
SUMX will also be useful in cases where you have thousands to millions of rows. As long as the tables and columns referenced in your measures are there, using iterating functions would make the process more efficient.
All the best,
It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.
Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).What is ACB?
ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.
An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.What is VCB?
VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.
The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.Difference between ACB and VCB
Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:
Basis of Difference ACB VCB
Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.
Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.
Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.
Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.
Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.
Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.
Need of arc chute
Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.
ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.
VCB does not require the arc chute.
Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.
Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.
Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.
Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.
Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.
Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.
Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.Conclusion
The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.
What is Kerberos?
Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.
Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.What is SSL?
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.
SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.Difference between Kerberos and SSL
KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.Working of Kerberos
Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.
Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.
The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.Conclusion
Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.
Homozygous and heterozygous are terms used to describe the genetic makeup of an organism, specifically the alleles present in its genes. An allele is a version of a gene that controls a particular characteristic. For example, the gene for eye color has different alleles for blue, brown, green, and hazel eyes.What is Homozygous?
When two identical alleles (recessive or dominant) of the same gene are present, the condition is called homozygous. Because there is no dominant allele to inhibit the expression of the gene in a homozygote person, the recessive features are phenotypically expressed in this case, providing Mendelian laws hold true.
Examples of homozygous genotypes − Assuming that A stands for dominant alleles and a for recessive alleles, a homozygous person might have either the AA or aa genotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Given the limited understanding of genetics at the time, Mendel referred to homozygous plants as true-breeding plants. Consistently reproducing the same characteristics in its progeny is a hallmark of a true-breeding plant, suggesting that the underlying causes are also consistent. A later generation of researchers deduced that these “factors” were, in fact, different alleles of the same gene.
Diseases or conditions that occur in the homozygous condition − Recessive alleles are responsible for a wide variety of human disorders. This is the situation with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), which is caused by a recessive mutation in the NPHS2 gene in roughly 14 percent cases, and is manifested only in the homozygous form. As the sickle-cell trait allele is recessive, sickle-cell anaemia and related illnesses only manifest in the homozygous situation.What is Heterozygous?
When both copies of a gene, called “alleles,” are distinct, a condition known as heterozygosity results. According to Mendelian genetics, a dominant allele will be expressed whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous, whereas a recessive allele will be silenced in the heterozygous state.
Examples of heterozygous genotypes − Heterozygotes have the genotype Aa, where A denotes dominance and a recessive allele is denoted by a. Heterozygosity indicates that alleles are being secretly carried, but depending on the genotype of the offspring, they may not be shown in the phenotype.
Examples from Mendel’s work − Mendel referred to what we now know to be heterozygous plants as hybrids because he understood that they possessed a combination of components (alleles) rather than just one. Here is how the crossing of two purple-flowering plants resulted in some offspring with white flowers. Since both parents were heterozygotes, their offspring received the recessive gene for white blossom colour.Differences: Homozygous and Heterozygous
The following table highlights the major differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous −
Homozygous is the condition in which there are two alleles for a gene, both of which are exactly the same, either both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.
Heterozygous is the condition in which there is one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene.
How many forms it can occur in (assuming Mendelian genetics)
The homozygous condition can occur in two forms.
The heterozygous condition can only occur in one form.
Assuming A is dominant and a is recessive, in the homozygous condition the genotypes can be either AA or aa.
In the heterozygous condition, the genotype can be Aa.
Mendel’s term for homozygous was true-breeding.
Mendel’s term for heterozygous the term was hybrid.
In the case of homozygotes, an allele is always expressed phenotypically because it is present on both chromosomes.
In the case of heterozygotes, an allele is not always phenotypically expressed unless it is dominant, and it can be carried as a recessive allele that is not expressed.
Diseases or conditions
The homozygous condition is responsible for about 25 percent of cases of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and is the state in which the alleles for sickle-cell anemia are expressed.Conclusion
Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an organism and the alleles present in its genes. Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles, while heterozygous organisms have two different alleles.
The difference between homozygous and heterozygous is important in terms of inheritance and expression of traits, with homozygous organisms having a higher risk of passing on genetic disorders.
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