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The Encrypting File System or EFS Encryption is one of the components of the NTFS file system. It is available on a high range of Windows operating systems. It is supported on Windows 11, Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows 2000, and Windows Server editions. There are other Cryptographic file systems available on other operating systems apart from Windows but Microsoft EFS is exclusive only to the Windows Operating Systems. It uses symmetric key encryption with a combination with public key technology to protect files. The file data is then encrypted with a symmetric algorithm called as DESX.

Encrypting File System (EFS)

The key used for these kinds of symmetric encryption is called as File Encryption Key (or FEK). This FEK is in return encrypted with a public or a private key algorithm like RSA and stored with the file. The main positive aspect of using two different algorithms is that the speed of encrypting those files. And these increase in speeds of encrypting files helps the users to effectively encrypt large chunks of data. The speed of symmetric algorithms is about 1000x faster than that of the traditional asymmetric encryption techniques.

The process of EFS Encryption

The process is fairly simple yet secure.


The first step involves the file itself. Using the Symmetric Key (FEK) the file is encrypted. This is just one aspect of the total encryption.

Now the Symmetric Key (FEK) is encrypted with a public key for the user, and the Encrypted FEK is stored in the Encrypted file’s header. As simple as that.


Here, the reverse of encryption is done as the name suggests.

First of all, the Encrypted FEK from the Encrypted File’s Header is fetched and decrypted using the Public Key.

Now, the decrypted FEK is used to decrypt the Encrypted file finally and then the file is made readable to the authorized user.

EFS vs. BitLocker encryption

BitLocker is another technique of encrypting files on Windows just like EFS. This means that Windows provides two methods of encrypting files just on Windows. A user can also encrypt a file twice by encrypting it first with EFS and then with BitLocker or vice versa. This feature makes it 2x more secure than usual.

BitLocker has an image of slowing down the computer when used to encrypt files, but EFS is considered to be far more light-weight. But this difference is not seen much on modern hardware that is available and used more often.

Summing up

EFS encryption encrypts files or folders one by one. Unlike BitLocker that encrypts them together. This also means that when a file is executed, and Windows creates a temporary cache of that file, that temporary cache can be used as a leak to the information and unauthorized access can be taken over by an unintended user. EFS works with NTFS only.

This does not mean that a user should not be using EFS but what this really means is that the user has a choice of encrypting files with a suitable algorithm depending upon what type of data that file stores within it.

We will in the next few days, cover the following topics:

Stay tuned!

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How To Open Or Run A Jar File On Windows 11/10

What is Java executable JAR file?

A JAR file is an archiving format that not only stores directories and source files and can also be run as executable files. Such Java ARchive files can contain Java class files that will run when the JAR is executed.

While Archiver tools like 7-Zip can extract content from JAR files, but doing that is pointless – we need to execute the files just as we run the EXE files.

How to run a JAR file in Windows 11/10

Since Java or JAR files can’t run on Windows on their own, you need to install the Java Framework or what is popularly called Java. That said, Java files can be dependent on a particular version of Java. So the steps you need to take to open JAR files on Windows 11/10 are:

Download and install Java.

Set the System path

Run the JAVA file

Set Java file association

Establish a file association with Java runtime.

1] Download and install Java Framework

To run a JAR file on Windows, you need to install Java on your system. Go to Java Download Page, and install it. The default will install the latest version only. However, if your JAR file needs a different version of Java, you can download it from here.

Sometimes, an existing older version of Java can cause an issue. So, if you are facing such a problem, make sure to remove the older version first. Use the official Java Remover tool to get rid of it. Then install the latest version.

2] Set System Path for Java

Next, you need to set the JAVA_HOME path. It ensures that any JAVA file you run can find the necessary libraries for the program. You can also use the command line to echo the Java path to determine if it is correct.

3] Run a Java or JAR file

If you have a JAR file which is not running on its own, then you can use java JDK to run it. Open Command Prompt, and type java -jar name_of_jar_file.jar. It will execute the JAR file automatically.

4] Set the Java or JAR file association

The last step is to establish a file association with Java runtime. It will make sure that every time you run, you are not asked to select a program that can execute it.

Select ‘Choose another app.’

And then choose Select app from the computer.

You should see ‘Java(TM) Platform SE binary’ listed in this context menu but don’t select it.

Locate the file which can run the JAVA or JAR file which is available in the path we suggested above.

Make sure to check the box which says, “Always use this program.”

Once done, all future JAR files will automatically open with Java run time library. You should see the Java icon for all of these files.

How run Java JAR from command line?

You’ll need to use the java command to run a .jar file

If you don’t have java installed, you can fix that by installing the default-jre package.

We hope these tips were easy to understand and were of help to open or run a Java file on Windows 11/10. 

Customize Windows 11 File Explorer

Customize Windows 11 File Explorer [New Features + Tips & Tricks] Make File Explorer do more for you with these tips




Given that you spend a lot of time navigating through File Explorer, it makes sense to get the most out of it.

File Explorer got a facelift in Windows 11 so if you’re yet to get the hang of it, we share how you can easily customize it to work for you.



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File Explorer is the default file manager in Windows. It allows you to browse all the folders on your PC and easily access, open, and edit files. By default, Windows File Explorer is not only a file explorer but also a basic file manager.

The default interface is not very intuitive for most users and contains many folders that are not used daily. Most users will gladly opt for other file managers that offer more features, but if you dig deeper, the built-in File Explorer has much more to offer.

How to change the appearance of the File Explorer?

Besides adding additional features like drag and drop, you can customize the appearance of your Windows Explorer using themes and styles. 

1. Change the File Explorer theme

Windows 11 comes with a dark theme that extends to its utilities. If you like a light or dark theme, you can adjust the settings to suit your needs. The background and theme settings you apply for Windows also apply to File Explorer.

You can select custom colors if you’re unsatisfied with the default dark and light theme modes.

2. Change the layout, size, and arrangement of files/folders

The File Explorer app organizes your files, folders, and drives in an intuitive way. You can easily find what you need and organize your stuff best.

These settings exist, but Compact view is the new entrant. This option allows you to view your files and folders in a more stacked display to accommodate more items. It is especially helpful if you hate scrolling up and down.

Don’t forget to check out our article on more folder settings that will further help you stay organized.

3. Hide/show File Explorer panes

By default, the File Explorer comes with the navigation pane on the left, the details pane, and the preview pane. While they display important information such as sub-folders, file details, and a preview of the file, not all users require these details all the time.

If you find that these panes make the File Explorer a bit bulky, you can choose to hide them.

Modify the functionality of the File Explorer 2. Change default programs to open files

Expert tip:

Another feature that may annoy you in File Explorer is the Show more options where folder windows open in separate processes. To get rid of this feature, you can customize your File Explorer and restore the classic File Explorer ribbon.

3. Add new file options

Aside from the default options that come in the File Explorer context menu, you can add more. This makes it easier especially when moving files so that you can avoid the drag-and-drop or copy-paste method.

4. Cast feature

If you’re presenting a project in front of your colleagues who don’t have access to a computer or to the file in question, File Explorer allows you to cast directly to your TV or another PC.

For this feature to work, you’ll have to ensure that both devices are on the same network and within range. Other customization options include creating and showing libraries.

Organize your files using File Explorer 1. Open files/folders in a new window

Just like browsers, File Explorer allows you to keep the primary window open and create new windows when you want to open a file or folder. 

This is extremely helpful, especially in cases where you’re dealing with a lot of files and want to keep tabs on your progress.

Although the search function has existed for ages, most users don’t know just how powerful it is. For instance, you can search for files based on size, file extension, dates, or with a specific tag.

For file extensions, all you have to do is enter the asterisk followed by the type of extension. For instance *.png will bring up files with that extension to help you narrow down your search. You can even start the search with the first few letters of the file name to refine your search better.

If you’re having problems and for some reason, the search in File Explorer is not working, check out our expert article for answers.

As you can see, File Explorer in Windows 11 has so much to offer, and all you need to do is customize it to your liking.

Aside from File Explorer, we also have an awesome recommendation for Windows 11 extensions that you can use to enhance user experience.

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How To Reduce Video File Size In Windows 11/10?

The way in which videos are made and shared these days have come a long way. Unless you are a professional YouTuber, high video qualities like 2K, or 4K can seem wasteful and a bit of an overkill, since most videos are used for casual recreational and sharing purposes. In a case where you do come across a video that is too big to be shared or uploaded, you may want to reduce its size. So today, I’ll be suggesting some hassle-free ways in which you can do so. I will be discussing freeware as well as a free online tool.

What impacts a video’s size?

The two most common ways in which you can reduce a video’s size without impacting its quality is by either trimming the footage down or removing audio from the video. You can bring your video’s resolutions down but that is going to take a toll on its quality, although tools and software try their best to make the impact as minimal as possible. The resolutions that you choose to go with largely depend on the device that your video will be broadcasted on. The bigger the screen of your device, say television or a home projector, the higher the resolutions you would need. So, one should make modifications to their videos accordingly.

There are several other factors that can play a role in the varied video sizes like video codec and the bitrate. Video bitrate is the amount of data that is used by a video per second. Different videos require different bitrate to stream without losing their quality, depending on their resolution and frame rates. The video codec is used to encode a video and compress its data. Different codecs provide different compression ratios, depending on the contents of the video. For example, the H.265 codec offers a 50% better compression ratio than the H.264 codec.

How to reduce video file size in Windows 11/10

You can reduce video size without losing quality. Using this free video compressor software or online tool you can make video size smaller.

ShotCut free video compressor software

ShotCut is a full-fledged video editing tool used by people far and wide to efficiently cut down on the size of their videos. In order to edit a video on ShotCut, you have to follow the steps mentioned below:

Download & install ShotCut, open it and import a video file using the ‘Open File’ option.

Using an H.264 profile is good enough to cut down on the video size without giving up too much on its quality, and it is what ShotCut itself claims to have done the job for most of its users.

It is in the export settings that you will find options to compress your videos. You can play around with the resolutions and the aspect ratios. You should keep in mind that you make proportionate changes to your configurations unless you want a distorted video.

Changing the output automatically modifies the attributes of the video, suppose you shift from HDV (1080p HD film at 25 fps) to HDV (720p HD film at 29 fps). Your FPS and resolution will change automatically, and so will your corresponding size. Going smaller than the preset resolution, however, will require you to calculate the appropriate dimensions manually.

VideoSmaller free video compressor online tool

Compatible with both Mac and Windows, VideoSmaller is a clean, easy-to-use video compressing tool. The first thing you’ll notice is that it first offers you to use a lower compression level on the video you upload. This would maintain the best quality but won’t reduce the size as much.

Alternatively, you can choose to scale your video. The option to do so is right below the low compression setting, in the form of a dropdown with all possible dimensions. This would impact your video quality, the significance of the impact would depend on how much you choose to scale it back, but it would reduce the file size considerably.

On the bottom is an option for you to rid the video of any sound. This, as mentioned above, has bearings on the file size. So, if your video is something that isn’t in any need of audio, you can check this setting too. On the window where you can upload your video is a warning that VideoSmaller can only take videos up to 500MB, but this isn’t something to be worried about, because it takes hours and hours of footage off of, say, a smartphone, to rag up 500 megabytes. VideoSmaller also claims to keep your uploaded videos off of its cloud, i.e., any video you upload will be removed from its servers a few hours after your work with it is done. Go here to use this tool.

Batch Rename Files And File Extensions In Windows 11/10

If you have a bunch of files in a folder which you want to name sequentially and convert to the same file type or format, how do you go about doing this? If it is just a few files, you can do it manually, but what if there are, say, 10-20 or even 100 files?

In this post, we will see how to batch rename files and change file extension for all files in a folder quickly & easily in Windows 11/10/8/7. This can be especially useful if you have multiple photographs or images of various names or file extensions, like .jpg, .png, etc., and you would like to rename them to chúng tôi chúng tôi etc. for the sake of convenience.

Change file extension for all files in a folder ren *.* *.jpg

Here we are using a wildcard as we want any file extension to be changed to jpg. When you do this, you will see that all the files in the folder will get an extension of .jpg.

Related: How to rename all File Extensions in a Folder at once in Windows

Batch rename files

Now the next thing you want to do is to rename the files sequentially. To do this, press Ctrl+A to select all the files in that folder.

So, by following this tutorial, you will batch rename all the files sequentially numerically and also change the

Similar to this tool is ContextReplace, which will help you rename multiple files or folders via the context menu.

TIP: In Windows, it’s even easier to rename multiple files or folders. If you want to rename multiple files, tap the TAB button after renaming the first file, and you’ll be moved on to the next in-line file or folder. You can thus immediately rename the following file.

Moreover, Windows also has one more nice feature. Even if the ‘show file extension’ feature is enabled, it does not highlight the file type extension while renaming. So you are safer, as you will not change or delete the extension by mistake while renaming.

These free File Renamer software may interest you.

What is the fastest way to rename files in bulk?

Windows PowerToys offers powerful renaming capabilities, making it the fastest and most efficient way to rename multiple files at once. With the PowerToys renaming feature, users can find and remove characters inside the name of a file while also changing the file name case and the extension if desired. In addition, users have the ability to rename using sequential numbers, allowing for a greater level of customization and improved organization of files and folders.

How do I rename multiple files sequentially in Windows?

Select the files you wish to rename multiple files in File Explorer. Then press F2 on your keyboard to select the last file in the list. You can then type in the desired name for all selected files and press Enter. All files will receive the same name, with successive numbers in parentheses to differentiate them. For example, if you selected three files and wanted to name them all “document”, the files will be renamed to “document (1)”, “document (2)”, and “document (3)” respectively.

File Explorer Search Not Working Properly In Windows 11/10

Windows File Explorer offers a search box that allows you to search for files in the current folder or anywhere on the computer. If you have noticed, Microsoft seems to have changed the behavior of the Explorer search box in Windows 11 or Windows 10. Earlier, one had to start typing, and you would see the options in the drop-down and the items being displayed in the windows. But now you have to type your keyword and then hit Enter for the search results to get populated. Moreover, there are no search suggestions offered in the drop-down.

File Explorer Search Box not returning any results

Windows Search powers this new search experience, and it also displays your OneDrive account online content. While it works, at times, I have found it freezing or not working correctly. At times it may even cause Explorer to crash when searching. If you face issues, here are a few inputs.

File Explorer Search not working properly

These troubleshooting tips can be followed without any fear of deleting files. However, make sure to understand what is the exact nature of your problem. Sometimes you might be looking for the wrong file, or the content is not there in any file and so on. Let’s fix the search issue with these inputs.

Search Behaviour change

Search Box Stuck or Not Responding in Explorer

Search does not display any result

Restart the Windows Search Service

Run Search & Indexing Troubleshooter

Restart File Explorer

Some of the tips need admin permission, especially when we are restarting a service.

1] Search Behaviour change

Here is the list of recent changes made to File Explorer in Windows 11/10. So if the problem is because of behavior change, then you should know that it is not a bug.

No Instant Search Result in File Explorer

In the earlier version of File Explorer, the results were displayed as soon as you started typing. It has changed. Now when you type, a couple of search results are displayed right below the search bar, but only when you hit Enter, the complete result is displayed. In short, the instant search result has been removed. However, when you press the enter key, it shows the search result like the previous style.

OneDrive Integration with File Explorer

The results that are displayed include files and folders from OneDrive online and offline files. Here is an essential thing about the OneDrive search. They can find online files, i.e., the one which is not downloaded on the computer, only if you chose the “Files on Demand” option in OneDrive.

Files on Demand bring the metadata of the files on the computer. So when you search, the search program uses that metadata to find the data and display as part of the result.

Directly open Files from Search Result 2] Search Box Stuck or Not Responding in Explorer

Type something and hit Enter to start the search

Now go back using the back button

However, as soon as you press the down key/up key or type anything, it will start working again.

So if that’s what is happening with you, then it’s just the missing cursor, which should be fixed through a minor update.

That said, since we are noticing many people having a similar issue, it can’t be denied because of the way it is working for me. If you are facing stuck or not responding issues in Windows File Explorer Search, it is best to restart Explorer by following the method I have shown in the last point.

See this post if the Windows Search bar is missing.

3] Search does not display any result

Even after you hit Enter, there is no result; you may have to rebuild the search index. Before going ahead, make sure to search for recognizable file names which are on the computer, and if that doesn’t work, it will be best to rebuild the index.

These days we have started saving our files on cloud services like OneDrive, Google Drive, and Dropbox to name a few. If you are saving files there, and the folders are not included in the index, then it will not be able to search for them. We have written a detailed guide on this, so make sure to read our post on Windows File Explorer stuck on ‘Working on it…’ message. You may have to optimize the folder for General Items as well.

4] Restart the Windows Search Service

Like everything else, Windows creates a service for search as well. If the service has stopped or disabled to start with Windows boot, then it can be problematic.

Open the Services window by typing chúng tôi in the Run prompt and press the Enter key.

Locate a service with the name Windows Search.

Also, change it to Automatic Delayed, if it is disabled.

However, if the service repeatedly starts and then stops, then you need to delete all files with BLF and REGTRANS-MS extension in this directory.

5] Run Search & Indexing Troubleshooter

In Windows 10:

Open Windows Settings (Win + I)

Locate Search & Indexing troubleshooter

The troubleshooter checks at several points that might be clogging the experience of search, and fixes it. Try searching after it’s completed to see if the issue has been fixed.

6] Restart File Explorer

If the File Explorer is misbehaving, then it’s best to restart it to know if that was the problem.

Then under apps, locate Windows Explorer.

Momentarily everything will disappear and then come back. Once it is back, try searching again and check if File Explorer Search is working properly.

These tips should help you resolve the issue with Search and File explorer. You can even make Windows find the content inside of a file and do deep searches. Follow our guide, and it will help you master the search in Windows.

File Explorer crashes when searching for files

If File Explorer crashes when searching for files then you may need to check Check installed Add-ons, Run System File Checker, Update Video drivers. Troubleshoot in Clean Boot State. etc. This post offers suggestions to fix Explorer crashes or freezes.

UPDATE: Microsoft has released a Cumulative Update to fix this issue.

How do I fix Search in File Explorer?

To fix the search in File Explorer on Windows 11/10, you need to do a few things, as mentioned here. For instance, you need to change the search behavior, restart the Windows Explorer process in the Task Manager, use the corresponding troubleshooter, etc. However, you can also restart the Windows Search service from the Services panel on Windows 11/10.

Why does search not work in File Explorer?

Numerous reasons could be responsible for this error. From a corrupted system file to a certain change in the search behavior, anything can be accountable for this error in Windows 11/10. However, if you get this problem on your computer, you can follow the steps mentioned above in this article.

If nothing works, it is not the end of the world. Check out our list of some of the free Windows Search alternative software which works as well or better than Windows Search. If you start using them, you might not use Windows Search at all.

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