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Case Value_1 Code Block when Test_Expression = Value_1 Case Value_2 Code Block when Test_Expression = Value_2 Case Value_3 Code Block when Test_Expression = Value_3 Case Else Code Block when none of the case conditions are met Dim UserInput As Integer UserInput = InputBox(“Please enter a number between 1 and 5”) Select Case UserInput Case 1 MsgBox “You entered 1″ Case 2 MsgBox “You entered 2″ Case 3 MsgBox “You entered 3″ Case 4 MsgBox “You entered 4″ Case 5 MsgBox “You entered 5″ End Select Dim UserInput As Integer UserInput = InputBox(“Please enter a number”) Select Case UserInput Case Is < 100 MsgBox “You entered a number less than 100″ MsgBox “You entered a number more than (or equal to) 100″ End Select Dim UserInput As Integer UserInput = InputBox(“Please enter a number”) Select Case UserInput Case Is < 100 MsgBox “You entered a number less than 100″ Case Else MsgBox “You entered a number more than (or equal to) 100″ End Select Dim UserInput As Integer UserInput = InputBox(“Please enter a number between 1 and 100”) Select Case UserInput Case 1 To 25 MsgBox “You entered a number less than 25″ Case 26 To 50 MsgBox “You entered a number between 26 and 50″ Case 51 To 75 MsgBox “You entered a number between 51 and 75″ Case 75 To 100 MsgBox “You entered a number more than 75″ End Select Dim StudentMarks As Integer Dim FinalGrade As String StudentMarks = InputBox(“Enter Marks”) Select Case StudentMarks Case Is < 33 FinalGrade = “F” Case 33 To 50 FinalGrade = “E” Case 51 To 60 FinalGrade = “D” Case 60 To 70 FinalGrade = “C” Case 70 To 90 FinalGrade = “B” Case 90 To 100 FinalGrade = “A” End Select MsgBox “The Grade is ” & FinalGrade End Sub

The above code asks the user for the marks and based on it, shows a message box with the final grade.

In the above code, I have specified all the conditions – for marks 0 – 100.

Another way to use Select Case is to use a Case Else at the end. This is useful when you have accounted for all the conditions and then specify what to do when none of the conditions is met.

The below code is a variation of the Grade code with a minor change. In the end, it has a Case else statement, which will be executed when none of the above conditions are true.

Sub CheckOddEven() Dim StudentMarks As Integer Dim FinalGrade As String StudentMarks = InputBox("Enter Marks") Select Case StudentMarks Case Is < 33 FinalGrade = "F" Case 33 To 50 FinalGrade = "E" Case 51 To 60 FinalGrade = "D" Case 60 To 70 FinalGrade = "C" Case 70 To 90 FinalGrade = "B" Case Else FinalGrade = "A" End Select MsgBox "The Grade is " & FinalGrade Dim FinalGrade As String Select Case StudentMarks Case Is < 33 FinalGrade = "F" Case 33 To 50 FinalGrade = "E" Case 51 To 60 FinalGrade = "D" Case 60 To 70 FinalGrade = "C" Case 70 To 90 FinalGrade = "B" Case Else FinalGrade = "A" End Select GetGrade = FinalGrade CheckValue = Range("A1").Value Select Case (CheckValue Mod 2) = 0 Case True MsgBox "The number is even" Case False MsgBox "The number is odd" End Select Select Case Weekday(Now) Case 1, 7 MsgBox "Today is a Weekend" Case Else MsgBox "Today is a Weekday" End Select Select Case Weekday(Now) Case 1, 7    Select Case Weekday(Now)    Case 1       MsgBox "Today is Sunday"    Case Else       MsgBox "Today is Saturday"   End Select Case Else MsgBox "Today is a Weekday" End Select Dim Department As String Department = InputBox("Enter Your Department Name") Select Case Department Case "Marketing" MsgBox "Please connect with Bob Raines for Onboarding" Case "Finance" MsgBox "Please connect with Patricia Cruz for Onboarding" Case "HR" MsgBox "Please connect with Oliver Rand for Onboarding" Case "Admin" MsgBox "Please connect with Helen Hume for Onboarding" Case Else MsgBox "Please connect with Tony Randall for Onboarding" End Select End Sub

Hope all the examples above were helpful in understanding the concept and application of Select Case in Excel VBA.

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The Return Statement In Python

The return statement in python is an extremely useful statement used to return the flow of program from the function to the function caller. The keyword return is used to write the return statement.

Since everything in python is an object the return value can be any object such as – numeric (int, float, double) or collections (list, tuple, dictionary) or user defined functions and classes or packages.

The return statement has the following features –

Return statement cannot be used outside the function.

Any code written after return statement is called dead code as it will never be executed.

Return statement can pass any value implicitly or explicitly, if no value is given then None is returned.


Following is the syntax of return statement in python –

def some_function(parameters): print(some_function) Example

Following is the simple example of return statement –

def welcome(str): return str + " from TutorialsPoint" print(welcome("Good morning")) Output

Following is an output of the above code –

Good morning from TutorialsPoint

The return statement is useful in multiple ways and the below sections discuss the different use case of return statement along with examples.

Use of return statement in Python

Functions are core of any programming language as they allow for code modularity thereby reducing program complexity. Functions can display the result within itself, but it makes the program complex, hence it is best to pass the result from all the functions to a common place.

It is in this scenario that the return statement is useful as it terminates the currently executing function and passes control of the program to the statement that invoked the function.


In the below code the sum_fibonacci function is used to calculate the sum of the first 15 terms in the fibonacci series. After calculating the sum, it prints and returns the sum to the sum_result variable. This is to show that printing inside the function and returning the value give the same output.

# Defining function to calculate sum of Fibonacci series def sum_fibonacci(terms): first_term = 0 second_term = 1 sum_series = 0 # Finding the sum of first 15 terms of Fibonacci series for i in range(0, terms): sum_series = sum_series + first_term next_term = first_term + second_term first_term = second_term second_term = next_term # Printing the sum inside the function print("Sum of Fibonacci series inside the function is = {}".format(sum_series)) # Returning the sum using return statement return sum_series # Invoking the sum_fibonacci function sum_result = sum_fibonacci(15) print("Sum of Fibonacci series outside the function is = {}".format(sum_result)) Output

The output shows that the sum from inside the function using print statement and the sum from outside the function using return statement is equal.

Sum of Fibonacci series inside the function is = 986 Sum of Fibonacci series outside the function is = 986 Returning a function using return statement

In python, functions are first class objects which means that they can be stored in a variable or can be passed as an argument to another function. Since functions are objects, return statement can be used to return a function as a value from another function. Functions that return a function or take a function as an argument are called higher-order functions.


In this example, finding_sum function contains another function – add inside it. The finding_sum function is called first and receives the first number as the parameter. The add function receives the second number as parameter and returns the sum of the two numbers to finding_sum function. The finding_sum function then returns the add function as a value to sum variable.

# Defining function to return sum of two numbers # Function to get the first number def finding_sum(num1): # Function to get the second number def add(num2): return num1 + num2 # return sum of numbers to add function return add # return value present in add function to finding_sum function sum = finding_sum(5) print("The sum of the two numbers is: {}".format(sum(10))) Output

The output of the program gives the sum of the two numbers – 5 and 10.

The sum of the two numbers is: 15 Returning None using return statement

Functions in python always return a value, even if the return statement is not written explicitly. Hence, python does not have procedures, which in other programming languages are functions without a return statement. If a return statement does not return a result or is omitted from a function, then python will implicitly return default value of None.

Explicit calling of return None should only be considered if the program contains multiple return statement to let other programmers know the termination point of the function.


The program below gives a perfect illustration of using return None. In this program the check_prime() function is used to check if a list contains any prime numbers. If the list contains prime numbers, then all the prime numbers present in the list are printed. However, if there are no prime numbers in the list then None is returned, since this program contains multiple return statements, hence None is called explicitly.

def check_prime(list): prime_list = [] for i in list: counter = 0 for j in range(1, i): if i % j == 0: counter = counter + 1 if counter == 1: prime_list.append(i) if len(prime_list): return prime_list else: return None list = [4, 6, 8, 10, 12] print("The prime numbers in the list are: {}".format(check_prime(list))) Output

The output prints None since there are no prime numbers in the list.

The prime numbers in the list are: [4] Returning multiple values using return statement

The return statement in python can also be used to return multiple values from a single function using a ‘,’ to separate the values. This feature can be especially useful when multiple calculations need to be performed on the same dataset without changing the original dataset. The result from the return statement is a tuple of the values.


In this example the built-in functions of the statistics library are used to compute the mean, median and mode which are returned using a single return statement showing how multiple values can be returned from a function.

import statistics as stat # Defining function to perform different statistical calculations def finding_stats(data): return stat.mean(data), stat.median(data), stat.mode(data) # returning multiple values list_numbers = [5, 7, 13, 17, 17, 19, 33, 47, 83, 89] print("The mean, median and mode of the data is: {}".format(finding_stats(list_numbers))) Output

The output gives the mean, median and mode of the dataset with type as tuple.

The mean, median and mode of the data is: (33, 18.0, 17)

Vba Variables, Data Types And Dim

VBA Variables, Data Types and Dim

Declaring variables using the various data types in VBA

Written by

CFI Team

Published August 8, 2023

Updated June 27, 2023

Declaring VBA Variables using Dim

This guide breaks down VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. Typically, the very first step after naming your macro is declaring your variables. Variables are names for different pieces of the data that the macro will be working with. However, this sometimes proves difficult since it’s hard to plan ahead how many variables will be used in the macro. Eventually, when the macro is written, the user may add or remove certain variables. This will become more apparent further into this guide to writing VBA macros.

The very top of each macro after the sub name is a section called the declarations. Here, the user lists and names all the different variables he or she will use, and declares their data types. This is done by using the “Dim” statement. The “Dim” statement is followed by the name of the variable, and sometimes the statement “as [datatype]”. For example, if we wanted to create a variable for a Stock Price, we could write “Dim stockPrice as double”. This creates a variable called the stockPrice, which takes on the data type double. A double data type is one of the data types that allows for decimals, as opposed to the integer data type.

It’s not necessary to always declare the data type. Sometimes, it’s sufficient to declare the name, and VBA can infer the data type when the variable is used in the code later on. However, it’s generally safer to declare the data type you expect to use.

Each declaration will take its own line. It’s helpful to group variables of the same data type together.

Variable Data Types

There are quite a few VBA data types, but for the general purposes of financial modeling not all of them are used.

Below is a list of common VBA variables (known as data types) used in macros and their purposes:

Integer: Used to store number values that won’t take on decimal form.

Single: Used to store number values that may take on decimal form. Can also contain integers.

Double: A longer form of the single variable. Takes up more space, but needed for larger numbers.

Date: Stores date values.

String: Stores text. Can contain numbers, but will store them as a text (calculations cannot be performed on numbers stored as a string)

Boolean: Used to store binary results (True/False, 1/0)

Again, there are other data types, but these are the most commonly used for creating macros.

Storing a Value in a Variable

After a variable has been created, storing a value in it is simple.

Variable name = Variable value

String variable name = “Variable value”

(When using strings, you have to surround the text in quotation marks. This is not true for number or binary values)

Each named variable can only hold one value at a time.

Example of Declaring Variable Data types with Dim

Here is a break down of how to use Dim in VBA:

Declaring a company name variable: “Dim companyName as String”

Setting the company name variable:

companyName = “Tesla”

companyName = “Wells Fargo”

companyName = “No company name is available”

Declaring a variable to store net income: “Dim netIncome as Single” (or Double, depending on the scale)

Setting the net income variable:

netIncome = -5,000

netIncome = 0

netIncome = 1,000,000.64

Declaring a binary variable to store growth: “Dim isGrowthPositive as Boolean”

Setting the growth variable:

isGrowthPositive = True

isGrowthPositive = False

isGrowthPositive = 1 (same as True)

As you can see in the above example, these variables (and some extra variables to show grouping best practices) have been declared. Values have also been stored in the main variables. However, if this macro were to be run, it would simply store these values in the variables, and not use them in any way. To continue learning how to use variables, you need to know the VBA methods available to each one.

Additional Resources

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. To keep learning and progressing your Excel skills we highly recommend these additional CFI resources:

How To Use Checkbox Inside Select Option Using Javascript?

Create a custom select menu Syntax

Users can follow the syntax below to manage the checkboxes of a custom dropdown menu using JavaScript.

function showOptions() { if (showCheckBoxes) { showCheckBoxes = false; } else { showCheckBoxes = true; } } function getOptions() { var selectedOptions = document.querySelectorAll('input[type=checkbox]:checked') }

In the above syntax, we show the options of custom dropdown based on the value of the showCheckBoxes variable. Also, we can iterate through the array of selectedOptions array to get all checked checkboxes one by one.


Step 1 − Create a div containing the menu text.

Step 2 − Now, use the custom HTML, and make options using the checkbox input type.

Step 4 − In JavaScript, declare the showCheckBoxes variable, and initialize it with the true Boolean value. We will show the options of custom dropdown based on the showCheckBoxes variable.

Step 6 − Now, define a getOptions() function. In the getOptions() function, access all checked checkboxes and print the value of all selected checkboxes by iterating through the selectedOptions array using the for-loop.

Example 1

In the example below, we have created the custom select menu as explained in the above algorithm. Users can select multiple options by checking the multiple checkboxes.

.dropdown { width: 12rem;       height: 1.5rem;       font-size: 1.3rem;       padding: 0.6 0.5rem;       background-color: aqua;       cursor: pointer;       border-radius: 10px;       border: 2px solid yellow; }     #options {       margin: 0.5rem 0;       width: 12rem;       background-color: lightgrey;       display: none;       flex-direction: column;       border-radius: 12px;     }     label {       padding: 0.2rem;     }     label:hover {       background-color: aqua;     }     button {       font-size: 1rem;       border-radius: 10px;       padding: 0.5rem;       background-color: yellow;       border: 2px solid green;       margin: 1rem 0; } show all options       First Option       Second Option       Third Option       Fourth Option       Fifth Option let output = document.getElementById(‘output’);     var showCheckBoxes = true;

    function showOptions() {       var options =         document.getElementById(“options”);

      if (showCheckBoxes) { = “flex”;         showCheckBoxes = !showCheckBoxes;       } else { = “none”;         showCheckBoxes = !showCheckBoxes;       }     }     function getOptions() {       var selectedOptions = document.querySelectorAll(‘input[type=checkbox]:checked’)       for (var i = 0; i < selectedOptions.length; i++) {         output.innerHTML += selectedOptions[i].value + ” , “;         console.log(selectedOptions[i])       }     }

In this tutorial, users learned to create a custom select menu using the html, CSS, and JavaScript. Also, users can use some CSS libraries like Bootstrap to create a select menu with checkboxes.

How To Use Sas Libname With Statement?

Introduction to SAS Libname

The SAS libname is associated with the named as the associates or disassociates the SAS library with by using the shortcut keys like libref that include the characteristics of the SAS library concatenate with the SAS libraries including the SAS catalogs that moved to the SAS Global Statements with the temporary name associated with the physical name of the SAS data library to read or write the data sets.

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What is SAS Libname? How to Use SAS Libname?

SAS library is to define the Libname statement for assigning the libref with the global statement on the Interactive SAS session, which remains assigned until they cancel or change the libref. It is a collection of one or more number of SAS files recognized by the SAS libraries that are more referenced and storage units.

At the beginning SAS session, the SAS will automatically create the two libraries that can access the work as the temporary library and other SAS users are the permanent library. The SAS dataset is the table view of the rows and columns according to the variables path list is locked down state, which aggregates the data storage location on the SAS file Storage. Suppose any SAS name is assigned to a new libref and disassociated to the libref from the SAS library to list the attributes previously assigned to the library specification with a combination of the two datas to the SAS session. In addition, it has a built-in temporary library called the Work library to store the place placed in the current session for losing datasets created and stored in the work library for closing the SAS session.

The data step will start with the data work using the Stats Rule on the work library. It is beneficial to manipulate the dataset in multiple steps with necessary actions. Data sets with interim steps for the work library to help the stored data sets with nervous manipulating the original file from the dataset into the work library and can manipulate it.

Steps to use SAS libname

1. After login the SAS OnDemand for Academics Dashboard website.

3. Choose SAS Studio on the Applications UI.

4. Navigate to the SAS Studio Application and choose the Libraries.

7. Libraries have all the required datas and classes.

Using Libraries in SAS

Depending on the library name, the SAS file will be created, such as the SAS data set, and it will be stored in either temporary or permanent data libraries. It will create a SAS file and will use the library name to work with the specified library name in all the files that will be temporary SAS libraries. Libref is the data label and alias for temporarily assigned folder location on the full path name, including drive and folders to the form, which is recognized by the SAS system. It exists only during the user session, which is created already on the logical concept that describes the physical location stored with the file. Follow the rules for SAS users on the language reference with a dictionary for more information on SAS data libraries.

Access the new library dialog box using the GUI librefs with the new library toolbar icon from the LIBASSIGN command using the explorer window whenever it will use all of the GUI options from the New Library dialog box to specify the librefs and multiple folders engines if the second explorer window is on the right side of the libassign command box of the SAS workspace. The hard-coded file path has two pieces of data information, namely the file location along with the name and type of the data. SAS library statement starts with the LIBNAME keyword followed by the library name. Libref is one of the engines. Finally, the location of the files running with the global and RUN statements and deleting the SAS library automatically if the SAS session starts the statement. It will delete the libref using the required syntax with the Clear keyword.


Libname first clear; SAS Libname Statement

The SAS associates or disassociates from the SAS library with a libref for the shortcut statement, which clears all the librefs and characteristics lists of the SAS library. It allows SAS libraries to concatenate the SAS catalogs that moved to the SAS Global statements. The user will enable the interactive SAS session with libref and assign the statement which remains assigned to change the SAS session. It will mainly follow the same rules, like four types of rules, not more than the eight characters required; the first set of characters should be the letter, followed by the subsequent set of characters along with letters, numbers, and underscore symbols.



libname June2 sqlsvr noprompt="uid=siva; pwd=raman; dsn=sqlservr;" stringdates=yes; proc print data=June2.testemployees; where city='MAS'; run;



SAS libref is one of the main libraries from the user SAS session, and it will be used automatically from the SAS session or with the Libname keyword statement. It refers to the specified set of keywords in data formats like excel, XML, and SPSS. If we delete the libref only, we cannot delete the datas from the SAS code.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to SAS Libname. Here we discuss the introduction and how to use SAS libname with the statement. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Recover Damaged Excel Files With Recovery Toolbox For Excel

This is a sponsored article and was made possible by Recovery Toolbox. The actual contents and opinions are the sole views of the author who maintains editorial independence, even when a post is sponsored.

The good news is when Excel detects a corrupted workbook, it automatically switches to file recovery mode in an attempt to repair the file. And even if it doesn’t, you can still initiate the recovery process manually. However, if the degree of damages was extreme, the built-in Excel repair tool might not be able to repair the file.

In such cases, the only way to repair and recover data from such damaged Excel files would be to use a third-party repair tool. We had the opportunity to test Recovery Toolbox for Excel to see whether it can recover data from damaged Excel files.

What Is Recovery Toolbox for Excel?

Recovery Toolbox for Excel is a software utility that helps repair and restore damaged and corrupt Excel files. This tool helps minimize your hassles when dealing with corrupt Excel files.

Program Features

Here’s a list of the salient features that make Recovery Toolbox for Excel stand out from the competition.

Recovers all types of Excel files: .xls, .xlt, .xlsx, .xlsm, .xltx, .xltm, and .xlam extension

Repairs and recovers .xls files of Microsoft Office 98, 2000, 2003, and XP

Recovers .xlsx files of Microsoft Office 2007, 2010, 2013, 2023

Repairs all types of formulas, including functions and name references

Recovers worksheets, fonts, table styles, and workbook cells data

Restores cells and border colors

Repairs and restores cell formatting values (number format, font, text orientation, fill pattern and more)

Directly exports recovered data to a new Excel document

Recovery Toolbox for Excel works with all versions of Windows – Windows 98//XP/Vista/7/8/10 or Windows Server 2003/2008/2012/2023 and above.

How It Works

To determine how effective Recovery Toolbox for Excel is at recovering data, we’re going to test it on a severely damaged .xls Excel file. To get started, we’re going to first download and install the software, then try to recover data from the damaged Excel document.

Download and Installation

Recovering Data from a Corrupted Excel Workbook

If Excel can’t open a damaged file, it will display a pop-up error message that either the file is corrupted or not from a trusted source. This is the error message I got from the damaged file I was trying to open with Excel.

The following steps how how to use Recovery Toolbox for Excel to try to repair and recover the lost data.

The program will automatically start the recovery process. It will then display a preview of all the recovered items.

That’s a preview of the contents of the corrupt file that Excel couldn’t read. You can see the formatting was  applied and how the file will look once the recovery process is complete.

The software will display the recovery results, and you’ll even be able to see the number of items repaired, cells processed, and the time taken to complete the recovery.

After file repair is complete, you will be able to open the recovered file with Excel. Here’s how the new (recovered) file looks when opened with Excel.

As you can see, the software was able to recover the formulas in that Excel file.


The company offers three pricing plans:

Personal License – This license is for personal use only and costs $27 for a lifetime license.

Business License – This plan is for corporations or for legal use in an enterprise. A business license costs $45.

Site License – You can buy a Site License for $60. This license allows you to use the software on several computers – up to 100 electronic devices. The devices can be in one building or distributed between several buildings.

There is also a free (trial) version, but it only gives you a preview of the recovered data. That means you’ll not be able to export the data to a new Excel workbook or save it to an XLSX file. To unlock all the features, you’ll need a license.

Pros and Cons

Here are the pros and cons we found with the software.


Easy to use with a clean user interface

Comprehensive – repairs and restores formulas, table styles, fonts, text orientation, number formats, and more

Very fast

Competitively priced


Does not recover inserted pictures

Cannot recover data from password protected files

Final Thoughts

Combining a sophisticated recovery algorithm with a simple and easy to use interface, Recovery Toolbox for Excel offers great value when you need to recover damaged Excel files. Having used this software, I’d recommend it to anyone looking for an excellent Excel repair and recovery tool.

Alternatively, you can use their Online Excel Repair Service if you want to repair a damaged Excel file without having to download and install additional software.

Kenneth Kimari

Kenn is a tech enthusiast by passion, Windows blogger by choice, and a massive coffee imbiber. He likes watching sci-fi movies in his free time and tearing gadgets apart so he can fix them.

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