Trending November 2023 # Grasshopper 3D: A Modeling Software Redefining The Design Process # Suggested December 2023 # Top 13 Popular

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HBZ Stadium © Pattern Design

Mohamad Fahmy, Research Gate

Grasshopper 3D logo ©

© Daniel Christev – Youtube

© Pietro Odaglia – Youtube

History of Grasshopper 3D

Robert McNeel © ArchiCAD – Youtube

David Rutten © Twitter

© Mihai CH

Currently, Grasshopper 3D uses VPL to manipulate different components onto a canvas. Grasshopper’s main output is 3D geometry. It also uses numeric, haptic, textual and audiovisual algorithms to create parametric models and generative art. Grasshopper is now part of the standard Rhinoceros 3D toolset with applications ranging from modelling for architecture and fabrication to building analysis in terms of lighting performance and environmental impact.

Grasshopper provides a unique interface to architects which requires no programming or scripting knowledge, where they can unleash their creativity and still create workable designs without the constraints of limited software. Most architecture firms around the world these days use Rhinoceros with the Grasshopper Plugin to create working 3D models to show to their clients.

Creating Parametric Architecture with Grasshopper 3D

© Seth Moczydlowski – YouTube

An escape from Rhino 3D is unavoidable when we talk about Architecture. Although, when we include Grasshopper 3D in the picture, the tool is intuitive in exploring varied design without any programmed script. It employs the mechanism of the lego interface which helps in substituting the usage of programming languages altogether. In term of creating structures, designers can easily construct one by using simple lego blocks in Grasshopper.

The intuitive way in which this plugin can develop a design is helping many designers to experiment with thought-provoking geometries which earlier weren’t possible. The overall language of the plugin is such that architects and design thinkers can address the core designs without the need to have the know-how of the programming system.

User Interface

The user interface of Grasshopper 3D is diverse where there are two components on the main window, namely Canvas and Palettes.

© Lauren Hung – Medium

© Lauren Hung – Medium

Here are some of the important elements in Grasshopper 3D

Examples of Architecture x Grasshopper 3D

Nike’s House of Innovation, New York by CallisonRTKL 

© Nicholas Calcott

Project Type: Recladding and Renovation 

Located in Manhattan, this masonry structure is clad with a slumped and curved glass facade, which was manufactured by a Barcelona based company Cricusa. The glass was custom fabricated for this project, where it was heated, moulded and cooled to the desired form.

The glass facade was made of multiple panels, each modelled on Grasshopper in an associative capacity to the actual structure such that any changes to the building would effectively change the glass panels properties and placement. Five mockups were created by the Spanish company to test its loading, heat absorption and structural capacity.

Which Headquarters, London by KPF Architects 

© Hufton + Crow

Project Type: Conservation and Retrofitting 

Previously a concrete framed office building, these headquarters were renovated into an open floor plan concept by changing the position of the internal core and removing the suspended ceilings. Grasshopper was utilized to seamlessly add a front facade and an additional floor to the terrace, modelled using asymmetric and staggered panel-type roofing.

Furthermore, transparent and translucent panels were utilized in fabricating the outer skin and roof. As illustrated, Grasshopper finds great utility in projects as it makes architectural design significantly more interactive and seamless. It does so by providing the ability to make changes and links to different elements simultaneously without constantly editing the overall design.

Advantages of using Grasshopper 3D

Steampunk Pavilion © Tõnu Tunnel

Here are some reasons why Grasshopper could benefit your architecture design process

Automation: Unlike, other software like AutoCAD where drawing perpendicular lines has to be the task of copy-pasting it several times, Grasshopper eases out this process. Being an automated software you can create a smoother workflow as it allows a faster process for repetitive design elements. You can also save the existing data and use it for some other project as well.

Recurring Tasks: You can create your personalised module for creating various tasks. The modules function as a variable where you can give varied inputs and outputs. Wasting time on repetition is thus, avoided.

Availability of Modules: It helps in accessing the modules created by other designers and use them as a benefit for your project. This helps in creating a collaborative spirit and thus, benefiting all the designers. Designers can openly share their codes, plugins, etc.

Speed: Working within this software takes less time. If you have a basic parametric model ready it can change its variable within a minutes time. This will give you several possibilities in a single minute.

Grasshopper Community: The community includes several architects, designers, etc and you can approach them openly when you need help or have any concerns regarding your ongoing works.

Integrating Other Softwares: You can integrate other software in Grasshopper. This brings in a positive change where you don’t have to keep on moving between various software from time to time.

What Next?

About the Series

The series explores various software’s that are used globally in the 21st century, this modelling software have proven to revolutionize architecture by exploring the unexplored. They are easing out the process by finding new ways of construction through a blend of computational methods to support futurist designs. The series highlights software and tools like Rhino 3D, Grasshopper 3D, Ladybug, Honeybee, Pufferfish, Kangaroo and much more…..

About the ParametricArchitecture

Parametric Architecture is a reputed publishing platform that has taken an innovative approach to reach and inspire our thoughts of a future, where we design to co-exist in functional, productive, and comfortable surroundings. PA is a media company that researches art, architecture, and design that are visualized through computational, parametric, and digital design paradigms. These tools define and distinctly delineate how a system interacts in a coded language that will lead to envisage better environments for a better tomorrow.

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Knife Design Software: 5 Best To Use In 2023

Knife Design Software: 5 Best to Use in 2023




Designing a knife may sound easy enough, but you won’t be able to obtain the result you desire without a solid graphics designing tool.

You will need a

knife design tool

that can handle both 2D and 3D design and can also support further exporting the design as a compatible file format.

The Adobe suite provides a great tool that will help you create the knife design you dreamed of as a pro, so don’t miss it.

We also present

one of the simplest programs you could ever use for 

product design, rendering, and simulation

, so be sure to read our full article below.

Get the right software to support your ideas!

Creative Cloud is all you need to bring your imagination to life. Use all the Adobe apps and combine them for amazing results. Using Creative Cloud you can make, edit, and render in different formats:




3D models & infographics

Many other artworks

Get all apps at a special price!

The best knife design software in the world is capable of making your knife designing task easy. It is a platform where you can seamlessly create your own knife design and get a 3D view of your progress.

This kind of software is equipped with all the tools and means to perfect your craft through the automated process.

This software usually comes in a package, where you can design your home and everything inside, including knives. There are templates to choose from, and the instruction is fairly easy to follow.

You can hone your skills in home design and knife making at the same time. And you get to do that in less amount of time compared to manually crafting your designs.

The best thing is, you don’t need technical experience to use the knife design software. You only need basic computer knowledge, and wisdom to follow instructions.

Topping out our list is a software tool that has become synonymous with the idea of graphics design, especially in the world of professionals.

Adobe Illustrator CC is a vector-based graphics editor that you can use to create pretty much anything you can think of, as long as it is visually-related.

For example, designing something as simple as a knife is not a problem at all for Illustrator, regardless of whether we are talking about 2D or 3D design.

You have all the tools that you may ever need at your disposal, from free-hand drawing tools to shapes based on precise geometric measurements, all within the same UI.

More so, you can expand Illustrator’s functionality thanks to its extensive plug-in support for both official and community-created resources.

Here are some of the perks of using Adobe Illustrator CC:

Complete synergy with several other Adobe products, such as Photoshop or Spark

Professional-level graphics design capabilities limited only by your imagination

The UI is extremely familiar if you’ve ever used an image editor before

A never ending supply of online tutorials thanks to its popularity

You can test it out for free for 7 days

In fact, as far as the UI is concerned, the two programs are nearly identical, so anyone used to Illustrator will instantly know how to use Photoshop and vice-versa.

However, Adobe Photoshop is a raster-based image editor, and it focuses a bit more on the photo editing and doctoring aspects of graphic design.

However, that doesn’t make it any less good at designing knives, since al the basic drawing tools are present here as well.

Besides, anything you create in Photoshop can then be easily exported to Illustrator if you want to use that for the finishing touches

Here are some of the perks of using Adobe Photoshop:

Works well with other programs that work with images, such as Illustrator or Spark

The program has been around for so long that everyone knows the UI

Offers support for graphics tablets and other freehand tools.

Great for designing knives from scratch

You can test it out for free for 7 days

⇒ Get Adobe Photoshop for Free

While the two entries from above support 3D design as well, maybe you’d feel better with a tool that has a long history of being good at it.

Expert tip:

Of course, this program’s extensive toolset makes it suited for the design of incredibly complex machinery, so something as simple as a common kitchen, combat or hunting knife should be easy to pull off.

More so, the program is great since you have plenty of presets already present, so starting off from scratch with a design is never an actual requirement.

Here are some of the perks of using Autodesk Inventor:

Extremely easy to use compared to other Autodesk tools

A short learning curve

Great for manufacturing parts, and even objects

Works with DWG files that are supported by most CAD software

Animation and annotated exploded views

⇒ Get Autodesk Inventor

Fusion 360 set out to be the best-integrated CAD and design software and judging by how it evolved compared to other CAD tools, it is certainly on the right track.

What makes Autodesk Fusion 360particularly good at designing knives is that since the task itself is quite simple, Autodesk Fusion 360’s intuitive interface will go along just fine.

Of course, this ease-of-access does come as a trade-off for some functionality but considering that you are planning to design knives and not rocket engines, this program will suffice.

Here are some of the perks of using Autodesk Fusion 360:

Projects can be stored on the cloud and accessed from any machine

One of the most well-seen CAD programs

Easy learning curve

Intuitive UI

Free for home users

⇒ Get Autodesk Fusion 360

This entire suite of programs will bring you everything you may ever need in order to design anything, let alone something as simple as a knife.

The CorelDraw Graphics Suite contains the following 7 programs:



Corel Font Manager



AfterShot 3 HDR

⇒ Get the CorelDraw Graphics Suite

Without a doubt, knife design software is greatly helpful for knife craftsmen and serious hobbyists. It is a powerful tool to create unique designs without worrying about making mistakes.

You can easily modify what you need to change through the simple tools included in the software.

The five best knife design software we have chosen for you are the best in the market. We collated them to help you decide the most suitable knife design software for your personal or professional use.

The chosen products we listed are perfect for overall interior design and individual knife designs.

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The 7 Key Ingredients To Create A Successful Hiring Process

blog / Human Resources How to Build a Successful Hiring Process: A Complete Guide

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The hiring process is crucial for all organizations as it has a significant impact on the quality of the workforce and, hence, the success of the business. That is why they look for professionals such as Human Resources (HR), recruitment, or hiring managers to help attract top talent by creating an effective recruitment strategy that identifies and targets the best candidates for any role.

According to a Zippia report, the average salary of an HR manager in the U.S. is $80,442 per year. This substantial figure implies the sustained importance of this function across industries. If you are a professional who is interested in making a career in this field, one of the essential skills for you will be mastery over the hiring process. 

In this article, we will discuss the basics of the hiring process, its relevance, and the key ingredients that help HR professionals navigate it successfully.

What is the Importance of an Effective Hiring Process?

The hiring process is a critical aspect of any organization’s success. It plays a vital role in attracting, selecting, and retaining top talent. Simply put, an effective hiring process can create a wide range of benefits for the organization, while a poorly executed one can result in heavy costs and negative consequences. Let’s break down the importance of the hiring process in the following points:

1. Attracts Top Talent

By creating a well-designed recruitment process and strategy, businesses can identify and target candidates who possess the required skills, experience, and qualifications. The process can help to attract a higher caliber of candidates and improve the overall quality of the workforce.

2. Reduced Employee Turnover

By selecting candidates who are a good fit for the role and the organization’s culture, businesses can create a more engaged and committed workforce. It can lead to reduced turnover, lower recruitment costs, and increased productivity and efficiency.

3. Strong and Efficient Team

The hiring process can help to build a strong team by selecting candidates who possess the necessary skills and experience. They can work collaboratively and achieve common goals, leading to increased productivity, innovation, and customer satisfaction.

4. Enhanced Branding

By creating a positive experience for candidates and demonstrating the organization’s commitment to attracting and retaining top talent, employers can improve their reputation in the job market. The enhanced brand can help to attract a wider pool of candidates and improve the quality of the applicants.

ALSO READ: Is Human Resources a Good Career Option? 

Key Ingredients of an Effective Hiring Process

An effective hiring process is composed of several key ingredients to ensure that the organization recruits the best possible candidate for a role. These include: 

1. Development of a Plan

Before beginning the hiring process, it is essential to develop a plan that outlines the steps involved, timelines, and responsibilities. The plan includes identifying the need for a new employee, creating a job description, determining the recruitment strategy, and establishing the selection criteria.

Other important aspects of the hiring plan are determining the salary and benefits package, creating interview questions, conducting background checks, and onboarding the new hire. Thereafter, this plan should be communicated to all the relevant stakeholders.

2. Specifying a Strategy

Furthermore, it is important to consider diversity and inclusion in the recruitment process and ensure that the job description and selection criteria are free from bias. Additionally, establishing a structured interview process and involving multiple interviewers can increase the likelihood of selecting the best candidate.

3. Reviewing

At this stage, the resumes and cover letters of potential candidates are reviewed to ascertain if they meet the required qualifications and experience. These reviews can be conducted manually or with the help of applicant tracking systems.

It is also important to assess each candidate’s overall fit with the company culture and values to determine whether they will thrive in the role and contribute to the team’s success. Proper documentation of the review process can also be useful for legal compliance and future reference.

4. Screening

The screening process involves assessing candidates’ suitability for the role based on their skills, experience, and qualifications. It may include pre-employment testing, such as psychometric tests or skills assessments, to evaluate their abilities. At this stage, it is also important to verify the candidate’s employment history, education, and references to ensure that the information provided is accurate. 

5. Interviewing

The interviewing stage is the most critical part of the hiring process because it allows the organization to assess the candidate’s soft skills, such as communication, teamwork, and problem-solving. It is essential to structure the interview process to ensure that all candidates are evaluated against the same criteria. Additionally, at this point, it is important to gauge the candidate’s motivation, cultural fit, and potential for growth. 

6. Selection

Once the interviewing stage is complete, the organization can select the most suitable candidate for the role. The process involves evaluating the candidate’s qualifications, experience, skills, and cultural fit and comparing them against the established selection criteria.

The organization should also ensure salary negotiations, extending a job offer, and completion of the necessary paperwork, such as employment contracts and background checks, before the new hire’s start date. Moreover, providing a comprehensive onboarding program can also improve retention.

7. Evaluation

The final stage of the hiring process involves evaluating the success of the process itself. It includes reviewing the effectiveness of the recruitment strategy, the quality of the applicant pool, and the retention rate of the selected candidate.

Moreover, analyzing the time and cost associated with the hiring process and assessing the level of satisfaction among the hiring team and the new hire can help identify areas for improvement and streamline future hiring efforts. In addition, regularly evaluating and updating the hiring process can enhance the organization’s ability to attract and retain top talent.

Take Your HR Career to the Next Level

As we have already discussed, an efficient hiring process has become one of the most critical aspects for organizations because it helps hire the right people that fit industrial needs. That is why businesses want to hire HR professionals well-versed in this field who can help navigate the process efficiently and effectively. 

To hone recruiting skills, and build overall expertise as an HR professional, enroll in Emeritus’ online HR courses. Not only will you learn more about the hiring process, but you will also become well-versed with the latest trends and developments in this field. 

By Apsara Raj

Write to us at [email protected]

Elements Of The Modern Hiring Process

Modern hiring processes have changed, and formerly unique strategies are now highly valued tactics to attract the best job applicants.

New hiring priorities consider diversity, remote work, expanded onboarding and other factors. 

Hiring managers should avoid common hiring mistakes, like long processes, too many interviewers and a lack of transparency.

This article is for hiring managers who want to improve their recruitment processes and for job seekers who want to know what to expect during the hiring process. 

The job market is constantly evolving, and hiring practices must adapt to allow organizations to recruit and retain the best talent and thus fuel business growth. Today’s hiring landscape involves terms like “the Great Resignation,” “quiet quitting” and the “Great Reshuffle,” signaling an increase in job vacancies and the need to hire engaged professionals who are willing to invest their talents in an organization. Additionally, shifts to remote work and digital employment platforms are changing how people apply for jobs and engage with career opportunities. 

We’ll explore the latest hiring process trends to show job candidates what they can expect and help recruiters create a successful hiring and onboarding experience that meets candidates’ expectations and the company’s needs.

Elements of the modern hiring process

The process of hiring employees has shifted rapidly and evolved well beyond large teams of faceless panel interviews and “Don’t call us; we’ll call you” employer attitudes. Here are some essential elements of the hiring process that job seekers and employers should understand.

1. The shift to remote work is affecting the hiring process. 

The pandemic moved many employees to remote work plans, bringing telecommuting into the mainstream. This remote-work shift is showing no signs of dissipating. According to a FlexJobs survey, 80% of women and 69% of men said remote work is an important factor when they are considering job offers. Remote employees can avoid the toll of the work commute while enjoying more flexibility to care for their families and achieve a positive work-life balance. 

Employees aren’t the only ones who benefit from remote work. Businesses see higher productivity levels from remote workers, higher employee retention and a more engaged workforce. 

It makes sense that more employers are adding flexible, hybrid and remote work options to their job listings and adjusting their hiring processes to attract the best employees. 


To start implementing flexible work policies that attract top talent, consider compressed workweeks, remote work during the holidays, and telework options for part-time staff.

6. Diversity has become an essential hiring consideration.

The 2023 Recruiting Trends Report revealed that 57% of hiring managers prioritize finding diverse job candidates. Additionally, 59% say diversity, equity and inclusion (DE&I) is a top hiring trend, and 52% plan to hire diverse leadership. 

Today’s businesses are using tech tools to enable a more diverse talent pool. For example, AI-assisted job listing creation and blind resume-reviewing tools aim to eliminate unconscious bias in the hiring process. Additionally, including diverse hiring team members helps companies identify potential biases they might have missed otherwise. 

7. Companies are investing in onboarding to retain new hires.

The hiring process doesn’t end after a hiring manager writes a job offer letter. The next hiring phase is onboarding, a crucial and often overlooked element in retaining talent. 

Poor onboarding can result in lower productivity and morale. In contrast, a strategic and thoughtful first two weeks of work can give a new employee confidence and quickly get them up to speed. 

Hiring managers today are working with HR to create detailed onboarding processes that instill an organization’s mission and values, along with explaining benefits and scheduling meetings and training sessions. Investing in your new hire’s first days will yield dividends for years to come.


Create an employee hiring checklist to standardize onboarding. Include customized steps for various roles, including managers, team members and seasonal employees.

How A Simple Computer Game Simulated The Dizzying U.s. Immigration Process

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Students from the University of Arkansas learned just how complex the U.S. immigration process was. Suranga Weeratunga/Deposit

Brandon Bouchillon is an assistant professor of journalism at the University of Arkansas. This story originally featured on The Conversation.

People fear and mistrust what they don’t know—including people of other racial and ethnic backgrounds. That lack of trust causes social and political divisions in the US and around the world, especially when it comes to immigrants.

Inspired by research in Hungary that found computer games could help players reduce their prejudice toward immigrants, my colleague Patrick Stewart devised a role-playing game as part of an American national government course at the University of Arkansas. I helped to develop survey measures for tracking changes in trust during the game.

Our hope was that by playing the game over the course of a semester, students would come to understand a bit more about what immigrants go through in the US, and as a result, perhaps trust could develop.

We found that it was possible for a role-playing game to help simulate shared experiences with immigrants, even in a group of mostly white, conservative students. This helped trust in immigrants to grow.

Creating an identity

The game, called “Citizenship Quest,” was played in an online learning platform for the fall 2023 and spring 2023 semesters. Most of the students were freshmen and sophomores.

At the beginning of each semester, the students completed a survey about their interest in politics, while also answering questions about how much they trusted immigrants. They completed the same survey at the end of the semester, after the game was over, which allowed us to track changes in immigrant trust over time.

Once we had their initial results, we assigned each student to role-play as a character from Mexico, India or China, origins of the three largest immigrant groups in America. The students got to pick their character’s gender, and a gender-appropriate name was assigned to them on the basis of the most popular names in their character’s country.

Next, the students created fuller back stories for their characters, fleshing out their work history, past residences and even physical characteristics such as hair and eye color.

Learning about paperwork

For the next phase of the game, each student applied for permission to live and work in US on behalf of their character. We had them complete the proper paperwork, including the 18-page I-485 form “Application to Register for Permanent Residence or Adjust Status” and the seven-page I-765 form “Application for Employment Authorization.” They signed their character’s name to the forms as well.

We also asked them to submit a photograph of their hands, to imitate the fingerprinting process.

Finally, we had them simulate applying for U.S. citizenship. This meant filling out the 20-page N-400 form “Application for Naturalization” and submitting another photograph of their hands.

All paperwork was uploaded to us through the course website—not to actual immigration authorities. And of course, we didn’t ask them to pay the $2,445 in federal fees associated with filing those forms.

Economic progress

The game used a scoring system that functioned sort of like a currency, so we called it “coin.” All the players started with a modest sum, and they could earn more coin by completing weekly assignments such as chapter quizzes on time. The game included random positive events as well, like having their character receive a new letter of reference or being profiled in the local newspaper as a volunteer. These added to the player’s coin.

Players could also earn coin by either buying or preparing food from their character’s country and writing 150 words about their experience with the food and what they thought of it. They took a picture of the food as well, with at least one of their hands being clearly visible in the shot—as a means of reinforcing their personal connections to characters.

At the end of the game, students took the U.S. citizenship exam, before retaking the survey about trust in immigrants. Their ability to complete the paperwork, do well on the citizenship exam, and accumulate coin became part of their overall grade in the course.

Trusting over time

We found that students came to trust more in immigrants in general, and in immigrant groups they role-played as more specifically, by playing the game.

On the other hand, a Latina student mentioned that she had obtained citizenship herself in the past year, and said she “loved the thought process” at work behind the game. She pointed out that the game was still “much easier” than the real thing, but we were heartened to hear her recognize and appreciate its value.

In the end, we find evidence that role-playing as immigrants applying for citizenship is related to trusting them. Games can be used to acquaint citizens with the trials and tribulations immigrants go through, as a set of shared experiences upon which to build connections and trust in the future.

Beginners Guide To Topic Modeling In Python


Analytics Industry is all about obtaining the “Information” from the data. With the growing amount of data in recent years, that too mostly unstructured, it’s difficult to obtain the relevant and desired information. But, technology has developed some powerful methods which can be used to mine through the data and fetch the information that we are looking for.

One such technique in the field of text mining is Topic Modelling. As the name suggests, it is a process to automatically identify topics present in a text object and to derive hidden patterns exhibited by a text corpus. Thus, assisting better decision making.

What is Topic Modeling?

Topic modeling, an essential tool in statistics and natural language processing, encompasses a statistical model designed to reveal the abstract “topics” present in a set of documents. It serves as a powerful text-mining technique, enabling the discovery of concealed semantic structures within a body of text. By employing topic modeling, researchers can gain insights into the underlying themes and concepts embedded in the documents under investigation.

Topic Modelling is different from rule-based text mining approaches that use regular expressions or dictionary based keyword searching techniques. It is an unsupervised approach used for finding and observing the bunch of words (called “topics”) in large clusters of texts.

Topics can be defined as “a repeating pattern of co-occurring terms in a corpus”. A good topic model should result in – “health”, “doctor”, “patient”, “hospital” for a topic – Healthcare, and “farm”, “crops”, “wheat” for a topic – “Farming”.

Topic Models are very useful for the purpose for document clustering, organizing large blocks of textual data, information retrieval from unstructured text and feature selection. For Example – New York Times are using topic models to boost their user – article recommendation engines. Various professionals are using topic models for recruitment industries where they aim to extract latent features of job descriptions and map them to right candidates. They are being used to organize large datasets of emails, customer reviews, and user social media profiles.

So, if you aren’t sure about the complete process of topic modeling, this guide would introduce you to various concepts followed by its implementation in python.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation for Topic Modeling

There are many approaches for obtaining topics from a text such as – Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency. NonNegative Matrix Factorization techniques. Latent Dirichlet Allocation is the most popular topic modeling technique and in this article, we will discuss the same.

LDA assumes documents are produced from a mixture of topics. Those topics then generate words based on their probability distribution. Given a dataset of documents, LDA backtracks and tries to figure out what topics would create those documents in the first place.

LDA is a matrix factorization technique. In vector space, any corpus (collection of documents) can be represented as a document-term matrix. The following matrix shows a corpus of N documents D1, D2, D3 … Dn and vocabulary size of M words W1,W2 .. Wn. The value of i,j cell gives the frequency count of word Wj in Document Di.

Notice that these two matrices already provides topic word and document topic distributions, However, these distribution needs to be improved, which is the main aim of LDA. LDA makes use of sampling techniques in order to improve these matrices.

It Iterates through each word “w” for each document “d” and tries to adjust the current topic – word assignment with a new assignment. A new topic “k” is assigned to word “w” with a probability P which is a product of two probabilities p1 and p2.

For every topic, two probabilities p1 and p2 are calculated. P1 – p(topic t / document d) = the proportion of words in document d that are currently assigned to topic t. P2 – p(word w / topic t) = the proportion of assignments to topic t over all documents that come from this word w.

The current topic – word assignment is updated with a new topic with the probability, product of p1 and p2 . In this step, the model assumes that all the existing word – topic assignments except the current word are correct. This is essentially the probability that topic t generated word w, so it makes sense to adjust the current word’s topic with new probability.

After a number of iterations, a steady state is achieved where the document topic and topic term distributions are fairly good. This is the convergence point of LDA.

Parameters of LDA

Alpha and Beta Hyperparameters – alpha represents document-topic density and Beta represents topic-word density. Higher the value of alpha, documents are composed of more topics and lower the value of alpha, documents contain fewer topics. On the other hand, higher the beta, topics are composed of a large number of words in the corpus, and with the lower value of beta, they are composed of few words.

Number of Topics – Number of topics to be extracted from the corpus. Researchers have developed approaches to obtain an optimal number of topics by using Kullback Leibler Divergence Score. I will not discuss this in detail, as it is too mathematical. For understanding, one can refer to this[1] original paper on the use of KL divergence.

Number of Topic Terms – Number of terms composed in a single topic. It is generally decided according to the requirement. If the problem statement talks about extracting themes or concepts, it is recommended to choose a higher number, if problem statement talks about extracting features or terms, a low number is recommended.

Number of Iterations / passes – Maximum number of iterations allowed to LDA algorithm for convergence.

You can learn topic modeling in depth  here.

Running in python Preparing Documents

Here are the sample documents combining together to form a corpus.

Cleaning and Preprocessing

Cleaning is an important step before any text mining task, in this step, we will remove the punctuations, stopwords and normalize the corpus.

Preparing Document-Term Matrix Running LDA Model



Each line is a topic with individual topic terms and weights. Topic1 can be termed as Bad Health, and Topic3 can be termed as Family.

Tips to improve results of topic modeling

The results of topic models are completely dependent on the features (terms) present in the corpus. The corpus is represented as document term matrix, which in general is very sparse in nature. Reducing the dimensionality of the matrix can improve the results of topic modelling. Based on my practical experience, there are few approaches which do the trick.

1. Frequency Filter – Arrange every term according to its frequency. Terms with higher frequencies are more likely to appear in the results as compared ones with low frequency. The low frequency terms are essentially weak features of the corpus, hence it is a good practice to get rid of all those weak features. An exploratory analysis of terms and their frequency can help to decide what frequency value should be considered as the threshold.

Note: If you want to learn Topic Modeling in detail and also do a project using it, then we have a video based course on NLP, covering Topic Modeling and its implementation in Python.

Topic Modelling for Feature Selection

Sometimes LDA can also be used as feature selection technique. Take an example of text classification problem where the training data contain category wise documents. If LDA is running on sets of category wise documents. Followed by removing common topic terms across the results of different categories will give the best features for a category.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Why topic modeling is used?

A. Topic modeling is used to uncover hidden patterns and thematic structures within a collection of documents. It aids in understanding the main themes and concepts present in the text corpus without relying on pre-defined tags or training data. By extracting topics, researchers can gain insights, summarize large volumes of text, classify documents, and facilitate various tasks in text mining and natural language processing.

Q2. Which technique is used in topic modeling?

A. The technique commonly used in topic modeling is Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). LDA is a generative probabilistic model that assigns words to topics and topics to documents, allowing the discovery of latent topics within a text corpus. It is a widely adopted method for topic modeling in natural language processing.

Q3. Is topic modelling a clustering technique?

A. While topic modeling involves the identification of clusters or groups of similar words within a body of text, it is not strictly considered a clustering technique in the traditional sense. Topic modeling aims to discover the underlying thematic structures or topics within a text corpus, which goes beyond the notion of clustering based solely on word similarity. It uses statistical models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), to assign words to topics and topics to documents, providing a way to explore the latent semantic relationships in the data.


With this, we come to this end of tutorial on Topic Modeling. I hope this will help you to improve your knowledge to work on text data. To reap maximum benefits out of this tutorial, I’d suggest you practice the codes side by side and check the results.

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