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Introduction to CAP Theorem

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Key Points of CAP Theorem

The three aspects of the CAP theorem are consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance. Let’s first discuss all of these separately then we will join the pieces.

1. Consistency

According to this theorem, all connected nodes of the distributed system see the same value at the same time and partial transactions will not be saved. Suppose there are multiple steps inside a transaction and due to some malfunction some middle operation got corrupted, now if part of the connected nodes read the corrupted value, the data will be inconsistent and misleading. So according to the CAP principle, we will not allow such a transaction. A transaction cannot be executed partially. It will always be ‘All or none’. If something goes wrong in between the execution of a transaction, the whole transaction needs to be rolled back.

2. Availability

According to this, the connected or distributed systems should remain operational all the time. There should be a response for every client request in the system irrespective of a particular node is being available or not. Though in a practical scenario it is purely based on the traffic requirements. The key point of this is every functioning node must return a response for all read and write requests in a reasonable amount of time.

3. Partition Tolerance

According to the partition tolerance policy, if a subpart of the network is compromised, the entire distributed system should not go down. A system that is partition tolerance should recover fast from partial outrage. In practical scenarios partition tolerance cannot be an optional criterion, it should be maintained thoroughly. So adhering CAP theorem became always a choice between high consistency and high availability.

Why CAP Theorem is Important?

We cannot maintain all three principles of the CAP theorem simultaneously. Theoretically, we can maintain only CA, CP, or AP.

Consistency and Availability: These are systems with high consistency and very lesser downtime but the option of partition tolerance is not enforced. For example, network issues can down the entire distributed RDBMS system.

Consistency and Partition Tolerance: These systems adhere to high consistency and partition tolerance but there is a risk of some data being unavailable. Ex. MongoDB.

Availability and Partition Tolerance: These systems adhere to high availability and partition tolerance but there is a risk of reading inconsistent data. Ex. Cassandra.

How CAP Theorem is Different from ACID Properties?

Before we see about the differences, let’s first see about the ACID properties in brief:

1. Atomicity

All changes to data are performed as a single operation. That is, all or none, either all of the operations are performed or one of them is performed. For example, in an application we are transferring funds from one account to another, the atomicity property ensures that, if a debit is made successfully from one account, then the associated credit is also done to the other account.

2. Consistency 3. Isolation

All transactions should be executed in isolation from other transactions. During concurrent transaction execution, intermediate transaction results from parallel executed transactions should be mutually exclusive. Failure of one module should not affect another transaction.

4. Durability

After every successful transaction, the changes made in the database should persist. Even if the system comprises or failed somehow, still the successfully committed or aborted operations should persist. Now we can see that, these terms technically refer to different things. The way in which they are related is that a distributed database system that guarantees the ACID transactions must choose consistency over availability according to the CAP Theorem (i.e it is a CP system).

On the other hand, if a distributed database chooses availability over consistency in accordance with the CAP Theorem (suppose it is an AP system), it cannot tightly follow the properties of the ACID principles.


In this article we have seen the principles of CAP theorem and why this is still important in the current context. We also saw how the CAP theorem differs or is related to another database design principle (ACID). In most practical use cases the principle of partition tolerance needs to be followed always and it becomes a choice between high availability and high consistency.

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How Virtual Desktop In Windows 11 Is Different From Windows 10?

How Virtual Desktop in Windows 11 Is Different From Windows 10? How To Use Virtual Desktop in Windows 11? What is a Virtual Desktop in Windows 11? How Different Is It From Windows 10’s Virtual Desktop?

To improve productivity and to provide a distinct desktop for individual tasks, you can now create separate desktops in Windows 11. You can have an individual set of programs on each virtual desktop and you can even have a separate background for each.

How is Windows 11 Virtual Desktop Different From Windows 10?

You must be wondering that when the Virtual Desktop feature even exists in Windows 10 so how is it any different in Windows 11? Microsoft has revamped the Virtual Desktop in Windows 11. With Windows 11, Microsoft has removed the Windows Timeline and in its place, it has put a much simpler and sleeker Desktops icon.

How To Create A Virtual Desktop in Windows 11?

How To Switch Virtual Desktops?

2. Choose your desired virtual desktop and switch over from your current desktop.

Alternatively, You Can Even Use Shortcut To Switch Between Virtual Windows

3. You can even use a shortcut to switch between virtual desktops. All you have to do is press Windows and Tab keys simultaneously on your keyboard. When you will do this a Task View interface will open

4. Next, using arrow keys you can choose your desired desktop

5. When you are sure of the desktop you want to choose, press the Enter key

How To Close A Virtual Desktop

Let’s presume that you no more need a virtual desktop or find that several virtual desktops are cluttering your workspace. In that scenario, you can close a desired virtual desktop. To do that –

2. Next, hover over your mouse on a virtual desktop that you want to close. You will instantly see X icon (close button) indicating that you can close the virtual desktop.

But, If I Close A Virtual Desktop Where Will The Foreground Programs Go?

Even if you close a virtual desktop, you don’t have to worry about losing your workflow because when you close the virtual desktop in Windows 11, all the foreground programs will move to the virtual desktop preceding the closed virtual desktop.

How Can I Change The Order of Virtual Desktops In Windows 11 or Have A Separate Background? Wrapping Up Quick Reaction:

About the author

Sarang Bhargava

Google Analytics Filters Bot Traffic From App + Web Properties

In an update to Google Analytics, bot traffic will be automatically filtered out of reports for Web + App properties.

“In App + Web properties, traffic from bots and spiders is automatically excluded. This ensures that your Analytics data, to the extent possible, does not include events from known bots.”

This news was first shared by Charles Farina on Twitter:

New feature: bot filtering just launched for @googleanalytics App + Web properties.

— Charles Farina (@CharlesFarina) June 29, 2023

Google identifies bot traffic using a combination of internal research and the International Spiders and Bots list, which is maintained by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB).

Automatic filtering of bot traffic from Web + App properties is now enabled by default and cannot be turned off.

Google notes that site owners will not be able to see how much bot traffic was excluded.

There’s no mention of why Google is suddenly deciding to crack down on bot traffic for Web + App properties.

Google also didn’t say why site owners won’t be able to see how much bot traffic those properties are receiving.

Filtering bot traffic by default, without letting site owners choose otherwise, is a fairly notable contrast to how bot filtering is handled for other GA properties.

If you have a Web + App property in your Google Analytics account you should make an annotation about the switch to automatic bot filtering.

Bot Filtering in Google Analytics

Bot filtering is available for regular web properties in Google Analytics, but it’s a setting that site owners need to turn on manually.

Site owners can also set up separate views in Google Analytics to compare their data with and without bot traffic.

Google is typically more transparent about bot traffic, while also giving site owners the flexibility to filter it how they wish.

For more information about filtering bot traffic in Google Analytics, see our guide:

What Are Web + App Properties?

Web + App properties in Google Analytics are fairly new, having only been introduced last summer.

They’re specifically for websites that also have have mobile apps. They’re designed to track users’ journeys across the two platforms.

With Web + App properties site owners can measure data across their app and website all in one place. The properties can support up to 50 data streams across apps, websites, and web apps in a single property.

This data can be used, for example, to see how many users started on your app then visited your website to make a purchase.

Site owners can also use Web + App properties to quickly compare how users engage with their app versus their website.

Or, just rely on GA’s automated insights, which use machine learning to identify key trends and anomalies in data.

Before these properties were introduced site owners had to use multiple products in order to measure app and website engagement. Now it can all be done in Google Analytics.

Depending on how many streams of data you have connected to one property, the difference in traffic without bots could be substantial.

So keep that in mind as you analyze month over month data.

Source: Google Analytics Help

Scientists Test Different Gear For Protecting Clams From ‘Crunching’ Rays

For gardeners, rabbits are a common cause of headaches, as they munch on a laundry list of vegetation, from berries and vegetables to perennials and woody plants. Aquaculturists like oyster farmers have the same problem, except not from fuzzy mammals. Marine rays are the main culprit, especially given that more than 80 percent of marine aquaculture consists of some of the rays’ favorite things to “crunch” on: bivalve mollusks.

[Related: Listen to the soothing sounds of a snacking stingray.]

When culturing hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), the bivalves must be placed at the bottom of a marine environment where they then grow to a sellable size. Clammers use mesh netting, plastic, or wire covers to protect their clam lease, similar to using a wire fence to try to keep rabbits out of a vegetable garden. However, the effectiveness of using these methods for highly mobile marine predators like rays hadn’t fully been tested until very recently. 

In a study published March 7 in the journal Aquaculture Environment Interactions, a team from Florida Atlantic University’s (FAU) Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute and the Mote Marine Laboratory studied how the whitespotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) interacted with clams enclosed in anti-predator materials. These rays are a formidable opponent with strong jaws, crushing fused teeth, and nimble pectoral fins. 

In a large outdoor tank, the team used aerial and underwater videos to assess the rays’ responses to various anti-predator materials. One plot of clams were placed inside polyester mesh bags that also had a latex net coating, another under a high density polyethylene (HDPE) netting, and a third under chicken wire cover netting. The control plot of clams were unprotected. 

After the completion of each trial, the team noted the number of crunched clams and how frequently the rays visited the various randomized patches. While the undersea hunters were capable of consuming clams through bags, the anti-predator treatments reduced clam mortality four- to tenfold compared to control plots where the clams were unprotected. The double-layered treatments (bags with cover netting) had the lowest clam mortality.

“Based on our findings, many of the current anti-predator grow-out strategies used in the hard clam shellfish aquaculture industry appear capable of reducing predation by large predators like whitespotted eagle rays,” said study co-author Matt Ajemian, director of the Fisheries Ecology and Conservation Lab at FAU, in a statement. “In par­ticular, bag treatments with cover nettings achieved the highest clam survival rates, although it is important to note that this did not appear to completely deter rays from interacting with the gear.”

[Related: Tiger sharks helped scientists map a vast underwater meadow in the Bahamas.]

The observations suggest that the rays appear to be capable of interacting with the aquaculture gear for longer periods of time, which potentially diverts them from other natural feeding habitats such as sand and mud flats.

“These habitat associations could expose these sensitive animals to other risks, although we are just beginning to understand them and admittedly have a lot more to learn,” said co-author Brianna Cahill, a research technician at Stony Brook University, in a statement. “Contrary to what we expected, rays did not prefer control plots (mimicking natural conditions) over treatment plots with anti-predator gear. This suggests a real possibility that these rays are interacting with shellfish aquaculture gear in the wild, as suggested by our clamming industry partners.”

The researchers also observed the rays interact with the treatments on the deterrents, including using their lower dental plate to dig through the sediment at the bottom of the tank to access the clams in the unprotected control plots and to move the gear.  

More testing could reveal whether chicken wire, a common deterrent in Florida, is actually beneficial. Earlier studies suggest that the electric field of the metal could be detected by rays and sharks and might overstimulate them, protecting the farmed shellfish. 

“Given the frequency of interactions we observed with chicken wire in our experiment, we question whether chicken wire is a deterrent, an attractant, or neutral, as it may not have a powerful enough signal to influ­ence the rays,” said Ajemian. “Still, we have more questions than we started with, and look forward to investigating this further with other species and deterrent types.”

Chemical Properties Of Carbon Compounds


In chemistry, carbon is considered a very surprising and different element. The symbol of this element is C and the atomic number is 6. This element is known as a non-metallic tetravalent element. This element has a valence of 4 that makes the element enable to enter into covalent bonding with the other properties, based on these attributes of carbon, the present tutorial will discuss the properties of carbon and its chemical properties of it as well.

Carbon Properties: Definition

Images Coming soon

Figure 1: Carbon atom

In chemistry, it has been believed that the element carbon has an unusual capacity that enables the elements to create a bond with the atoms of other carbon. This reaction helps the atoms to generate more complex molecules. These characteristics of the molecules of carbon properties are termed Catenation (Kokorina et al. 2023).The complex molecules have been formed on the basis of the size of the atom that is too small to form such molecules. In the outer shell of every atom, there are four valence electrons have been found. These electrons are considered responsible for generating the formation of chemical bonds with other atoms and molecules.

Combustion of Carbon Compounds

In accordance with the diction of chemistry, the process of burning is usually referred to as the process of combustion. When a carbon compound is burnt in the air, it produces, water, heat, light and carbon dioxide. In some cases, vapours have been used after being burnt in the air as the reaction can be represented as Hydrocarbon + Oxygen = Heat energy (Aftanaziv et al. 2023).

For an instance of such a reaction, Alkanes can be taken as the burning of such compounds generates lots of heat and for this particular reason; this is considered a good fuel. The equation of such reactions can be ${C+O_2rightarrow CO_2+heat:and:light}$

Oxidation of Carbon Compounds

In the particular reaction where it has been observed that a hydrogen atom is lost, on the contrary, an addition of an oxygen atom happens; the reaction will be termed Oxidation. However, it can be observed that not every reaction adds oxygen by losing a hydrogen atom (Harvard, 2023).

The reaction, where such a phenomenon has been observed is represented as ${2Cu+O_2rightarrow 2CuO}$ This specific reaction suggests that the chemical reaction has been conducted between copper and oxygen which generates a new element called copper oxide.

Addition of Carbon Compounds

In the Addition of Carbon Compounds, the reaction takes place between an atom of unsaturated hydrocarbon and hydrogen that can generate a singular product (Jegatheesan & Rajasekaran, 2023). This type of reaction is generally taking place in the presence of the catalysts of palladium or nickel.

Images Coming soon

Figure 2: Effect of catalyst

Catalysts are referred to as the particular substance that is responsible for the reaction to occur or proceed at a rate that is not similar to the rate for which the reaction itself can be affected (Sciencedirect, 2023). Based on the above figure, it can be stated that the presence of a metal catalyst, like rhodium, palladium, platinum and many more, the reaction boosts the rate of the reaction in a drastic manner.

Substitution of Carbon Compounds

This specific type of reaction within the carbon compounded is found in such kinds of reactions where the involvement of a less reactive element is observed with the more reactive element. This reaction is mostly observed in the reactions of hydrocarbons that are hydrocarbons. These reactions are usually considered single displacement reactions (Sciencedirect, 2023). This reaction can be represented as a chemical reaction. The chemical representation of such kind of reaction can be represented as ${CH_4(g)+Cl_2(g)=CH_3Cl(g)+HCl(g)}$ This reaction represents the chemical reaction that is observed between methane and chlorine. The electrons of methane are considered less reactive in comparison to the more reactive element chlorine. Based on these aspects, it can be stated that the atoms of chlorine have the ability to create a displacement of hydrogen atoms of the atomic formulation of the saturated hydrocarbons. In this particular process, the element that will be generated in a frequent manner is Higher homologue.


The present tutorial has included an explanation of the carbon compounds and the several chemical properties that are generally applied for different chemical reactions. The tutorial has further included an explanation regarding the process named Combustion of Carbon Compounds. The other chemical compounds that have been explained in accordance with the reactions are found while addition of oxygen, is commonly known as oxidisation and the Substitution of Carbon Compounds. The explanation of Addition of Carbon Compounds has included the reactions that are mostly seen between unsaturated hydrocarbon and hydrogen where a single product can be generated.


Q1. Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo an addition reaction with C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C2H2 and CH4?

According to chemistry, the addition reaction takes place in unsaturated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the reaction can take place with the elements like ${C_2H_2}$ and ${C_3H_6}$ because both the compounds have a double bond between the bond of carbon compounds.

Q2. Why are the compounds of carbon applied as fuels?

The main reason for applying the carbon compounds as fuels are that the carbon can produce a clean flame and after the reaction, dioxide and water are produced. Moreover, no smoke is evolved during the combustion but the heat and light are evolved.

Q3. What is the type of Covalent Bond?

The single covalent bond refers to the molecular bond where a single pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. The reaction between two pairs of electrons and two atoms is referred to as a Double Covalent Bond. At times when three pairs of electrons are shredded between two molecules of an atom, the reaction is called a Triple Covalent Bond.

References Journals

Jegatheesan, A., & Rajasekaran, E. (2023, November). Characterization of Organic Compound Doped Inorganic Ammonium Phosphate: Crystal Formation and Opto-Electrical Properties. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 2070, No. 1, p. 012004). IOP


Difference Between Acid Test Ratio And Current Ratio

The management of any kind of company is not an easy task. Although the majority of businesses place a higher priority on their assets as a yardstick of success, liquidity is also quite crucial. You might be wondering, “What exactly is liquidity?” This refers to the rate at which an organization may turn its assets into cash. Lack of liquidity is never a good indicator for a business, regardless of how lucrative the company may be. For instance, in the event that anything goes wrong and the company is in need of some assistance, one of the first things that creditors will need to know is the company’s liquidity, in addition to other aspects such as profitability.

Thankfully, it is not rocket science to determine the liquidity status of a corporation. The acid test ratio and the current ratio are both examples of methodologies that may be utilized in the process of measuring liquidity. Let’s check how these two ratios are calculated, as well as the discrepancies that exist between them.

What is Acid Test Ratio?

When determining a company’s liquidity, the acid test ratio, which is also known as the quick ratio, does not take inventory into account. This is due to the fact that inventory is less liquid compared to other current assets, particularly for companies operating in the retail and industrial sectors of the economy. The majority of the time, businesses in this category have considerable inventories, which are the most valuable components of their current assets. Only highly liquid assets that may be converted to cash in less than ninety days or less are considered for use in calculating this ratio.

In this calculation, cash and cash equivalents accounts receivable, and marketable securities are all taken into consideration. Accounts payable, short-term debts, and other obligations, in addition to accrued liabilities, are included in the definition of current liabilities that are used in the calculation of the acid test ratio.

To determine the acid test ratio, take the difference between current assets and inventories and divide that number by current liabilities. When compared to the current ratio, the acid test ratio presents a more favorable picture of the company’s liquidity status.

Companies that have an acid test ratio that is less than one are seen to be in a stronger financial situation than those that have a ratio that is less than one. This is in comparison to companies that have a ratio that is less than one.

What is Current Ratio?

The current ratio, which may also be referred to as the working capital ratio, is a measurement of the capacity of a company to pay down its short-term commitments using its current assets. The ratio displays, on the balance sheet of a corporation, the value of the assets that may be converted into cash within a period of one year.

Receivables, cash and cash equivalents, prepaid costs, marketable securities, and inventory are all examples of current assets that might be utilized. The terms account payable, short-term debt, and accrued obligations are included in the definition of current liabilities.

The current ratio is determined by dividing the value of the current assets by the value of the current liabilities. viCompanies that have a current ratio that is lower than one have a lower level of current assets in comparison to their current liabilities. This is analogous to the acid test ratio. Because of this, it is more likely that the firm will not be able to meet its short-term commitments, which implies that creditors will view the company as a danger to their investment. Businesses that have a current ratio that is more than one are regarded as being more liquid, and they have a greater opportunity to secure financing in the event that it is required.

Difference between Acid Test Ratio and Current Ratio

The following table highlights the major differences between Acid Test Ratio and Current Ratio −


Acid test ratio

Current ratio


The acid test ratio is a way of measuring a firm’s liquidity by looking at the company’s current assets and ignoring the inventory of the measure of the liquidity of a corporation that makes use of the company’s is appropriate for use by businesses that keep a substantial quantity of applicable to all different by deducting inventory from current assets, then dividing the result by assets by the number of current liabilities to arrive ratios, the acid test ratio is considered determining a company’s liquidity, the current ratio is current assets and ignoring its inventory of the company. To determine it, start by taking current assets and removing inventory from the total, then divide that number by current liabilities.

The current ratio is a measure of the liquidity of a corporation that makes use of the company’s current assets. To determine it, divide the number of current assets by the amount of current liabilities.

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