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Diffie–Hellman–Merkle key exchange

If Alice and Bob want to communicate securely but they are worried about Eve spying on them, how can Alice and Bob agree on a key for use with a symmetric cipher like DES without Eve finding out the key? That was the question that preoccupied Martin Hellman along with his colleagues Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle during the mid 1970s. After a couple years of head scratching Martin Hellman had a revelation based on the idea of one-way functions. It works like this:

Alice picks a number and so does Bob. Alice picks 10 and Bob picks 2. They have both previously agreed to use the one-way function Y^X  (mod P) where Y is 7 and P is 13, it can be a publicly agreed formula. So Alice plugs her number into the formula and gets: 7^10 (mod 13) = 4. Bob does the same and gets 7^2 (mod 13) = 10.

At this point Alice send 4 to Bob and Bob sends 10 to Alice. If a third person, Eve, is listening to their exchange then capturing the 4 and the 10 won’t matter, even if she knows the details of the formula 7^X (mod 13). Because trying to guess Alice’s X is hard. There are lots of numbers that result in 4 when plugged into the formula and Eve can’t tell which number it is. For example 7^22 (mod 13) also gives 4. I am using smaller numbers here, but X could be anything.

Now comes the magic. If Alice uses Bob’s 10 as Y and keeps X as 10, the random number she picked, then she gets: 10^10 (mod 13) = 3. Now Bob does the same, Y will be 4 from Alice and X will remain as 2: 4^2 (mod 13) = 3.

Modular arithmetic (mod or %) – This is a mathematical operation that gives the reminder when two integers are divided. So, 11 divided by 5 = 2 remainder 1. In modular arithmetic that would be 11 mod 5 = 1. Modular arithmetic is great for encryption as it the basis of one-way functions, i.e. functions which are easy to calculate in one direction, but hard (impossible) to reverse.

We know that 11 mod 5 = 1, but so is 22 mod 7, and so is 1729 mod 288. This means that knowing the answer, 1, doesn’t help find the original numbers.

At first it might seem that it isn’t an important idea, however as we can see from the Diffie–Hellman–Merkle key exchange and from RSA, it is in fact a very important notion!

So now both Alice and Bob have the number 3 but Alice never told Bob here random number (10) and Bob never told Alice his random number (2). But yet they both now agree on the key (3) for encryption. Obviously the single digit number 3 is a weak key, however this can be done with large numbers.

Here is an example with larger numbers. Y is 2087 and P is 7703. Alice picks 8001 and Bob picks 12566:

Alice: 2087^8001 (mod 7703) = 6256

Bob: 2087^12566 (mod 7703) = 7670

Alice and Bob exchange 6256 and 7670.

Alice: 7670^8001 (mod 7703) = 3852

Bob: 6256^12566 (mod 7703) = 3852

Now Bob and Alice agree on the key 3852 and even if Eve can see all the numbers that are exchanged, she can’t guess the key that Bob and Alice are using. For bigger (stronger) keys you just need to use bigger (longer) numbers.

Asymmetric ciphers

Alice picks two primes p and q. We will use 17 and 19, however in the real world these would be primes with hundreds of digits.

The product of p and q is 323, this is known as N.

Another prime, known as e, is chosen. The same value of e is used for everyone, not only Alice and Bob. We will use 7.

Alice publishes N (and e is already known) so Bob can send her a message.

If Bob wants to send the message, M, which says “Hello” then “H” has an ASCII value of 72. I will show how to encrypt and decrypt “H”.

The algorithm to encrypt the text is M^e (mod N). So 72^7 (mod 323) = 13. i.e. 72^7 = 10030613004288. 10030613004288 / 323 = 31054529425 reminder 13.

Bob sends Alice the number 13.

If Eve is spying on them and knows N (323) , e (7) and knows the 13 that Bob sent, she can’t work out the value for M. All she knows is that something to the power of 7 (mod 323) has a remainder of 13.

Alice knows the values of p and q. To decrypt the message she needs to calculate a number called d where (7 * d) (mod ((p-1) * (q-1))) = 1. That is the maths that RSA discovered. So, (7 * d) (mod (16 * 18) = 1. (7 * d) (mod 288) = 1. Deducing d isn’t easy, however with help from Euclid it can be made easier. In this case d is 247. i.e. (7 * 247) (mod 288) = 1.

To decrypt the message Alice uses, M = C^d (mod N). M = 13^247 (mod 323). M = 72 which is “H” in ASCII.

Since Eve doesn’t know p or q she can’t perform the same operation, in fact neither can Bob!

History

It is also worth mentioning that various mathematicians and cryptographers working at the UK Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) during the 1970s also developed the idea of “non-secret encryption” (i.e. public key cryptography). The idea was conceived by James H. Ellis in 1970 but he could see no way to implement it. However in 1973, Ellis’ colleague Clifford Cocks implemented what today we call RSA and in 1974, Malcolm J. Williamson developed the same key exchange system as Diffie–Hellman.

Due to the demure nature of GCHQ, and the occasional lack of appreciation for the magnitude of their discoveries, their work was not published at the time. In fact when Diffie and Hellman applied for a patent on their key exchange system the management at GCHQ actively stopped any attempts by Clifford Cocks (and his colleagues) from blocking the patent application by citing prior art.

It wasn’t until 1997 that Clifford Cocks was finally able to divulge his work (and that of Ellis) on key exchange and public-key cryptography.

HTTPS:// Wrap-up

The Diffie–Hellman–Merkle key exchange and public key cryptography (like RSA) have solved the key distribution problem and when used with strong symmetric encryption systems like 3DES or AES then two parties, who have not previously met, can use encryption ensuring that everything from password to payment details remain safe and secure.

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## How Does Character Ai Work?

Discover the innovative chatbot web application, chúng tôi that offers endless opportunities for learning and fun. Interact with hundreds of AI bots, create unique characters, and explore different possibilities for free.

Character.AI is an exciting chatbot web application that uses a language model to generate human-like responses and engage in contextual conversations. Users can create unique AI characters and interact with popular fictional characters, world leaders, singers, actors, and more. The beta model was made available to the public in September 2023, and it offers endless possibilities for learning and fun. It was built by previous LaMDA developers Noam Shazeer and Daniel De Freitas. The website offers hundreds of AI bots, whether they are fictional characters to chat with for fun or AI bots that can help users write a story, learn a language, or improve their interviewing skills. Users can even play games using Character. AI.

Also read: How To Bypass chúng tôi NSFW Filter

To use Character AI, simply visit the website.

Choose a character you want to talk to.

Fill in the required information for Quick Creation or Advanced Creation.

Provide a name for the character, which will be used to refer to them in chat and for discovery by other users.

Write a greeting message that the character will use to introduce themselves.

Upload an avatar image with a square aspect ratio, which will appear next to the character during conversations.

After creating the character, you can chat with them and refine their attributes by opening the character settings. The AI’s personality is shaped by descriptions from the character’s perspective, their welcoming message, and dialogues that are turned into examples and adjusted to fit the desired dialect and identity. The AI learns from vast amounts of text data to generate contextually appropriate responses.

Character.AI offers a variety of features that make it a unique and innovative chatbot web application. Here are some of the key features:

Advanced Creation: The Advanced Creation option provides a more in-depth experience, allowing you to customize your character’s personality, responses, and more. You can choose from various voice and language options, design your character’s appearance, and even add custom animations.

Chat with famous personalities: Character AI offers an impressive selection of famous personalities to chat with, including Elon Musk, Pikachu, and God. With the ability to ask questions and engage in conversations, Character AI provides a unique and immersive experience.

Email Verification: After signing up, you must verify your email to access all of Character AI’s features.

Character AI can be used for a variety of purposes, including practicing social situations such as job interviews, learning a new language, improving interviewing skills, and playing games. Users can develop their own chatbots with distinct characteristics and submit them to the community for others to interact with. The platform offers hundreds of AI bots, ranging from fictional characters to chat with for fun to bots that can help with writing a story. The AI-generated characters can also be used for customer service, education, and entertainment purposes. Additionally, it can be used to generate text responses that sound like those of real people and engage in natural conversation.

With Character AI, users can create and chat with unique characters, including famous personalities like Elon Musk, Pikachu, and God. Whether you choose the Quick Creation or Advanced Creation option, creating a character is a simple and intuitive process. By verifying your email, you can access all of Character AI’s features and immerse yourself in an interactive and engaging experience.

Can I chat with more than one character at a time? Yes, you can create and chat with multiple characters simultaneously.

Can I change my character’s name or appearance after creation? Yes, you can edit your character’s name and appearance at any time in the “Edit Character” section.

Can I share my character with others? Yes, if you set your character’s visibility to “Unlisted,” you can share the link with others to chat with your character.

Can I teach my character new responses? Yes, using the Advanced Creation option, you can program your character with new responses and even create custom animations.

Is Character AI free to use? Yes, Character AI offers a free plan with limited features. However, signing up or logging in provides access to additional features and characters.

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## How Does Redirect Work In Javascript?

Introduction to JavaScript Redirect

JavaScript redirect is the process of sending requests form one page to another page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. location is the function used in JavaScript to redirect at the specific URL.

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Real Time Scenario:

Pre-requisites:

Basic HTML

Basic JavaScript

How does Redirect Work in JavaScript?

JavaScript redirect is working based on different types of redirect methods. Each redirect has its own specification.

Syntax:

location = "URL";

Description: It will set the new location for the current window.

location.href = "URL";

Description: It will set the new href for the current window.

location.assign("URL");

Description: It will assign the new URL to the current window.

location.replace("URL");

Description: It will replace the current window location with a new location.

location = "URL";

Description: It will just set the current window location itself.

location = "URL";

Description: It will set the topmost window location with a current window location.

Note: The difference between href and replace method is replace() method removes the URL of the current document from the document history, means it is not possible to use the “back” button for navigating to the original document.

Examples of JavaScript Redirect

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Window location URL.

h1 { text-align: center; color: green; } p { font-size: 28px; border: solid 3px blue; color: maroon; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL window.location = url;

Output:

After few milliseconds (1sec) moved to URL:

Example #2

Window Location Redirect with Time Limit.

Code:

h1 { text-align: center; color: brown; } p { font-size: 28px; border: solid 3px red; color: green; } input { text-align: center; color: navy; } button { font-size: 22px; font-weight: bold; color: white; background: lightblue; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL Type URL :<input type=”text” name=”url” function getMyRedirectURL() { var url = document.getElementById(“urlID”).value; document.write(“It will redirect within 3 seconds…..please wait…”);//it will redirect after 3 seconds setTimeout(function() { window.location = url; }, 3000); }

Output:

Example #3

Replace Function URL.

Code:

h1 { text-align: center; color: navy; } p { font-size: 28px; border: double 2px teal; color: lime; } input { text-align: center; color: fuchsia; } .button { text-align: center; } button { font-size: 22px; font-weight: bold; color: white; background: red; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL function getMyReplaceFun() { }

Output:

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## How Does Sprintf Work In Python?

Definition of sprintf in Python

The sprintf is a function to display the output of the given input using a python programming language.

The sprintf is a print function to shows the output of the format strings in the python language.

It is a coding element to assigns the “f get” method and displays string format output.

The sprintf is a print element to contain string – buffer data of the application and display in the string format using python technology.

The sprintf is a function similar to print, vprint for display buffer output hustle-free.

The python programming language is using the sprintf function to declare argument and constructor elements.

It is an output function to displays all data types like string and array elements.

Syntax:

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The sprintf python works with different data types, lengths of the data, and width.

It has used the percentage sign (%) before the type of the data.

The basic syntax of a sprintf shows below.

% [FLAG WIDTH. (DOT) PRECISION] TYPE

The sprintf python is using the “print” keyword to display output.

print("% [flag width . (dot) precision] type" % (value or object))

The sprintf is used precision and type depends on the data type of the variable. This syntax helps to assign a signed decimal number. The length value of a decimal is 2.

%2d

This syntax helps to assign a binary number. The length value of binary is 4.

%4b

This syntax helps to assign a floating number. The length value of a decimal is 2.1.

%2.1f or %2.1F

This syntax helps to assign ASCII values.

%c

This syntax helps to assign unsigned decimal values.

%u

This syntax helps to assign an octal number.

%o

This syntax helps to assign a hexadecimal number.

%x OR %X

This syntax helps to assign scientific notation of a lowercase.

%e

This syntax helps to assign scientific notation of an uppercase.

%E

This syntax helps to return the type of data format.

%%type How does sprintf work in Python?

Download python software from the respective website. Create a page with the dot (.) py extension. The file name is the “function.py” to write a python program. Create a variable with initializing the required data type value.

Varble_name = 34

Use the print keyword for the string format of the sprint python.

print (write sprint format)

Use percentage sign to return value.

print (" text : %d ")

Display length of the variable or value before data type.

print (" text : %2d ")

Display the type of the variable value in the format helping of the sprint. Use parameter of the percentage sign to end of the sprintf function end. Add variable to interconnect return function and application data.

print (" text : %2d " % (Varble_name))

Use direct value in sprint function to display decimal value.

print("decimal number : %2d " % (7))

Use float type with sprintf formatted value in the return function.

print("Float number : %5.2f" % ( 23.11))

Combine the working procedure of the sprintf python to better understanding.

x = 34 print ("decimal number : %2d " % (x)) print ("decimal number : %2d " % (7)) print ("Float number : %5.2f" % ( 23.11)) Examples Example #1 – Basic

Code:

e_var = 34 print ("decimal number: %2d " % (e_var)) print ("decimal number: %2d " % (7)) print ("Float number: %5.2f" % ( 23.11)) print ("Float number: %5.4f" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %5o" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %3o" % (42))

Output:

Example #2 – With different types

Code:

e_var = 341234673 print ("decimal number: %d " % (e_var)) print ("Float number: %f" % (e_var)) print ("Float number: %F" % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %o" % (e_var)) print ("first string value: %s" % (e_var)) print ("second string value: %s" % ("string data")) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x" % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X" % (e_var)) print ("ASCII value: %c" % ("A")) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E" % (e_var)) print ("first value: %g" % (e_var)) print ("second value: %G" % (e_var))

Output:

Example #3 – With positive and negative value e_var = 341234673 f_var = -341234673 print ("decimal number: %d " % (e_var)) print ("decimal number: %d n " % (f_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u" % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal number: %o" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %o n" % (f_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x " % (e_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x n" % (f_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X " % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X n" % (f_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e" % (e_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e n" % (f_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E n" % (f_var)) print ("first value: %g" % (e_var)) print ("second value: %G" % (f_var))

Output:

Example #4 – With different length

Code:

e_var = 341234673 f_var = -341234673 print ("decimal number: %2d " % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %1u n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal number: %2o n" % (e_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %1x " % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %5X n" % (e_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %2e" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %1E n" % (f_var)) print ("Float value: %2.1f" % (e_var)) print ("Float value: %1.2f n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal value: %2o" % (e_var))

Output:

Conclusion

It is easy to return data in any format per application requirement.

It helps to create web applications attractive, understandable, and user-friendly.

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## How Does Substring Work In Typescript

Introduction to TypeScript substring

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Syntax:

The TypeScript substring() method mainly focus on the string characters, and it will be used to specify the indexes, and it returns the new substrings characters in the TypeScript. It can be used to pass the two set of arguments one is starting the characters and the second parameter is the length of the string characters.

var variable name="";  console.log("starting position of the character and end position of the character" + variable name.substr(starting position of the character and end position of the character)); ----some typescript codes based on the user requirements-----

The above code is the basic syntax for using the substr() method in TypeScript based applications.

How does substring Work in TypeScript?

The TypeScript string is one of the class for creating and utilising the string characters in the application. We use substring as one of the default method for split the string characters, and it will have concatenated using the length. This method will accept both numeric and non-numeric characters in the script. The string characters are starting with the beginning position of the specific location through the characters for each character; it will calculate the length.

By using the length method, we can calculate the character’s length, and with the help of for loop, we can iterate the values and calculate the character’s length and validate the conditions based on their coder suggestions. Basically, the substring() method is pre-defined, and also it’s an inbuilt function for users to return the subset of the string objects. The argument and the parameters of the substring() method which represents the starting and ending indexes which can be used for to identify the characters and the substring() method which swaps the two set of arguments if the indexStart is greater than the indexEnd position and the string which is still returned position of the variables in the functions.

When we use the string characters index with the help of the indexOf method, the substring method that is not to be used as the really purpose its main job is to return the indexes at the given substring is found on the TypeScript code.

Examples of TypeScript substring

Given below are the examples of TypeScript substring:

Example #1

Code:

var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf oiefb woeqiurfb iweofbc2iwe bic b newoinu"; var vars1 = "wugdv uidchh e237ed b 374trc hegdc jihefu jehdb jehfb jehb jhebi kbjeij heib jbie h"; var vars2 = "oehqf eub jbqe ijbj jb3e obe bou jbe joj3buier jorub jbj jboui e1r jobeur b ijoe iojef"; var vars3 = "dguy i eebc b eihyeuib f c uiycei ubc3  iurf eurv eub irfub o iobr ibr iu ior iou iub"; var vars4 = "oyed uery euir rui hu48 biury848 buy84 bui fj rhuj hrf hu iho4hi or4ui roh4ih rouiro h"; console.log("(2,3): "    + vars.substr(2,3)); console.log("(-3,4): "   + vars.substr(-3,4)); console.log("(3): "      + vars1.substr(3)); console.log("(-16, 3): " + vars2.substr(-16,3)); console.log("(12, 3): "  + vars2.substr(12,3)); console.log("(15, 5): "  + vars3.substr(15,5)); console.log("(17, 12): "  + vars4.substr(17,12));

Output:

In the above example, we used the substr() method in the different sequences. We used a numeric set of characters that is we can fetch and identified only the integer numbers that will be covered using both positive and negative numbers. With the help of the console.log() method, we can print the values in the output console by using the var keyword; we can declare the variable values by using the string quotations. Generally, the var datatype includes numeric and non-numeric characters here; we can cover the numeric value with the specified index positions for each step, and the variable values declared in the user input end.

Example #2

Code:

var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf okjwdkg kewgk jdgkiwye iugeigu buir br"; var vars1 = "wuhsgf jdghj 326875 38 3846 86347484 8634r 39846 468 48465 386 34798 94865 946"; var vars2 = "f wqd qw qwuef3287 j6487 jg857 kjg85 jy4587 ng875 gr8 jgweuf 478 jgeru 74"; var vars3 = " hjqwdf jhgds ieyw jhgu jhger 457 jgevr u5 jbi5t78 njerv 5u jngu5 biu5yn bnn uy5 r"; var vars4 = "wf jhqgwf37 jhg u4t jhuy bvu5y4 bv5n bv457b u45t7 bu54tg biu45y buy55y jhgu b ut bu"; var vars5 = new String( "Have a Nice Day" ); var ind = vars.indexOf( "jg jdsvh jsjv bj b kjbd sdbsksd bs dbs db bd" ); console.log("Your first output result is :" + ind ); console.log("Your second output result is:" + ind1 );

Output:

In the second example, we used indexOf() is one of the default child methods in the substring() method; with the help of this method, we can fetch and retrieve the indexing values and the position of the string characters. Additionally, we used var5 variable values; we can create the string object and store it as the separate memory address and its reference.

Example #3 var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf okjwdkg kewgk jdgkiwye iugeigu buir br"; var output = /My/gi; if (vars.search(output) == -1 ) { console.log("Sorry user it does not contain your values" ); } else { console.log("Thanks user it contains  your values" ); }

Output:

In the final example, we used the search() method for searching the characters, which is declared on the user input variable. We can also search and store the input characters using the other variable with the same data type(var). The search() method is one of the child method in the substring() function of the string classes.

Conclusion

The substring() method is one of the default and frequently used as the string classes in TypeScript. With the help of its child methods like search(), indexOf(), substr() methods, we can achieve this functionality like to calculate the starting and indexing position of the string characters and using loop/conditional statements for evaluating the values.

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## How Does Classtag Work In Scala?

Definition of Scala Classtag

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Syntax:

As now we know is it the approach to determine and handle the element at the runtime so we have different approaches for that. Let’s have a look at its syntax as per the Scala doc see below;

def method_name[T]: return_type { }

In the above lines of syntax, we have to give the name of the method followed by the return type. This method will return any type of element.

How does ClassTag Work in Scala?

As now we know that classtag is used to handle the element whose types are unknown at the runtime. If we do not handle this properly then we can get many exceptions while programming, for example, classCastException, etc. We have ‘Any’ type in Scala, that can hold any element type inside it. for example, it can be Integer, String. float, and many more. So let’s see one scenario where we have a map that can take up ‘Any’ as the value, but we have to handle it properly otherwise, the code will not work because, at the compile time, we do not know what kind of element it is holding, at runtime only we will get to know.

Let’s have a scenario where we need to handle our array data properly in order to avoid any exceptions while handling the data; see below;

Map[String, Any]: This map is holding key-value pair as String and Any. We can easily handle the key ‘String’ here because the element type is known at compile time only. But if we look at the ‘Any’ value of the map, then we cannot guess what it will hold. It can be anything, so we will see some approaches where we will see how to handle this situation using ClassTag[T] in Scala. See below;

We have three different approaches to this. We will discuss each of them in detail with all the scenarios and exceptions we can get while doing this let’s discuss each of them in detail see below;

To check the instance of the element.

To assign them to any specific type

Use of classtag in scala

1. To Check the Instance of The Element var result = map("12").asInstanceOf[Int];

In the above lines of code, we have our map in which the value comes out to be ’12’, which can be easily cast to int without any error or exception. This will run fine until the value is coming out to be an integer here. But the problem will occur when the value is string here. Let’s take one code snippet see below;

var result = map("Hello").asInstanceOf[Int];

In the above lines of code, we are trying to cast a string then we will get classCastException here. So we are not able to handle this properly, and this line of code is erroneous. We can resolve this by using the classtag in Scala. This can only be determined at runtime only.

2. To Assign Them to Any Specific Type

In this approach, what we are trying to do is we are directly assigning the value to a variable without typecast, but we will going to get the error at compile time only. Let’s see one code snippet where we can understand it better. See below;

var result: Int = map("Hello");

In the above line of code, we are assigning values to solve this problem. We can use an instance of the method here available in Scala, but this is also not the correct approach to solve this because we have already seen we might get some different values while typecasting it, so better to take a better approach to solve this. Here we can use ClassTag[T] available in Scala.

3. Use of ClassTag in Scala def getThevaleFromMap[T]():Option[t]{ } Examples of Scala ClassTag

In this example, we are converting the map values by using ClassTag[T] approach, this is a simple program for beginners to understand it better.

Example

Code:

object Main extends App{ def getConvertedvalues[T](myKey: String, mymap: Map[String, Any]): Option[T] = { println("Here we are calculationg values : ") mymap.get(myKey) match { } } var result1: Option[String] = getConvertedvalues[String]("String1", mymap1) println("Result is after following classtag is  :::") println(result1) println("**********************************************************************") var result2: Option[String] = getConvertedvalues[String]("String2", mymap1) println("Result is after following classtag is  :::") println(result1) println("**********************************************************************") var result3: Option[Int] = getConvertedvalues[Int]("String3", mymap1) println("Result is after following classtag is  :::") println(result1) println("**********************************************************************") var result4: Option[Int] = getConvertedvalues[Int]("String4", mymap1) println("Result is after following classtag is  :::") println(result1) println("**********************************************************************") var result5: Option[Int] = getConvertedvalues[Int]("String5", mymap1) println("Result is after following classtag is  :::") println(result1) println("**********************************************************************") }

Output:

Conclusion

By using classtag we can handle the element of list and map or collection we can say at runtime when we are not aware of the element type at the compile time; this approach or the use of classtag can prevent to occur various errors or exceptions in the program like Incompatible type, classCastException and many more makes our program more scalable and reduce the number of lines of code that being return for other return types.

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