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Definition of NumPy isclose

Python provides different functions to the users. To work with arrays, the python library provides a numpy function. Numpy is an acronym for numerical python. Numpy performs logical and mathematical operations of arrays. In python, numpy is faster than the list. This is because numpy arrays can be stored at continuous places. Therefore, processing and manipulating can be done efficiently. Numpy isclose method is used to check whether the two given values are close or not. The result of isclose method returns a Boolean value. It means that if the given values are close then it will return ‘true’ otherwise it will return ‘false’. The isclose method uses relative or absolute tolerance to check to check the closeness of values.

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import numpy as np import math math.isclose(p, q, relative_tol=value, absolute_tol=value )

Explanation: In the above syntax where first we import numpy class and access a numpy class as an np, then we import the math library. Generally, in isclose method, we have used the following parameters.

p = this is the first value of isclose method for closeness. This parameter is compulsory for the method.

q = this is the second value of isclose method. It is used to check the closeness of the values. This is a required parameter.

relative_tol = this is an optional parameter called relative tolerance. Relative tolerance is nothing but the maximum difference which is allowed between values p and q. The default value of relative tolerance lies between 1e-09.

absolute_tol = this is an optional parameter called absolute tolerance. Absolute tolerance compares the values which are near to 0. The value of absolute tolerance should be at least 0.

How isclose Method works in NumPy?

We must install Python on your system.

We must install numpy using the pip command.

We required basic knowledge about Python.

We required basic knowledge about numpy.

We can check the closeness of the values.

Examples of NumPy isclose

Let’s see how we can implement isclose method with different examples.

Example #1

Code:

import numpy as anp import math print("First Value is : n", math.isclose(2.555,2.3566)) print("Second Value is : n",math.isclose(2.555,2.555)) print("Third Value is : n",math.isclose(2.555,2.555000001))

Output:

Explanation

We import numpy functions and use them as anp.

We import math libraries.

We use isclose method to check the closeness of values whose closeness is far. Therefore it will return a false value.

Again we use isclose method for the values which are exactly close. Hence it will return a true value.

Further, we use isclose method for the values which are nearly close. Hence it will return a true value.

In the above example, we try to implement math.isclose function. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Example #2

Code:

#import numpy and math library import numpy as cnp import math #To check closeness of the values print("Result of both value is : n", cnp.isclose([2,5.5], [2,5.5])) print("Result of both value is : n",cnp.isclose([1e9,1e-7], [1.00001e9,1e-8])) print("Result of both value is : n",cnp.isclose([1e6,1e-9], [1.0001e6,1e-8]))

Output:

Explanation

We import numpy functions and use them as cnp.

We import math libraries.

We use isclose method to check the closeness of two values that are the same close, therefore both values will be true

Again we use isclose method for the two different values which are the first value is exactly close and the second is different. Hence it will return a true and false value.

Further, we use isclose method for the two different values which are the first values are not nearly close and the second value is close. Hence it will return a false and true value.

In the above example, we tried to check multiple values which are closed or not by using isclose and math functions. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Example #3

Code:

#import numpy and math library import numpy as cnp import math #To check closeness of the values print("Result of both value is : n",cnp.isclose([2.1, cnp.nan], [2.1, cnp.nan])) print("Result of both value is : n",cnp.isclose([4.1, cnp.nan], [4.1, cnp.nan], equal_nan=True))

Output:

Explanation

We import numpy functions and use them as cnp.

We import math libraries.

We use isclose method to check the closeness of two values which are the first value is close and the second value is missing. Therefore the first value is true and the second value will be false

Similarly, we try to find out closer values by using the same function with different values in which the first value is closer and the second value is missing but here we declared nan equal to true. Therefore both values are true.

In the above example, we have checked if missing values are closer or not by using the same function. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Example #4

Code:

# Import math library import math # check closeness of the two values print("Closeness of two values is : n", math.isclose(7.05, 7.06, abs_tol = 0.1)) print("Closeness of two values is : n",math.isclose(4.666, 4.450, abs_tol = 0.150))

Output:

Explanation

First, we import math libraries and access them as math.

Then we check the closeness of two values when we define absolute tolerance. Here absolute tolerance is exactly close so it returns true.

In the second case, we also check the closeness of two values but here absolute tolerance is different. Therefore it returns false.

In the above example, we have implemented isclose function when absolute tolerance is given. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Conclusion

We hope from this article you have understood about the numpy isclose function. From the above article, we have learned the basic syntax numpy isclose function. We have also learned how we can implement them in Python with different examples of isclose function as well as we also learned math functions in python. From this article, we have learned how we can handle numpy isclose and math functions in python.

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## Using The Replace() Method In Python

The replace() method is a built-in function in Python that allows you to replace a specific substring or character in a string with another substring or character. It takes two arguments, the first being the substring or character you want to replace, and the second being the new substring or character you want to replace it with. The replace() method returns a new string with the replaced characters.

Syntax for the Replace Method string.replace(old, new[, count])

Where:

string: The string to be modified.

old: The substring or character to be replaced.

new: The new substring or character to replace the old one.

count (optional): The maximum number of occurrences to replace. If not specified, all occurrences will be replaced.

Examples of Python Replace Method

Let’s look at some examples to understand how the replace() method works in Python.

Example 1: Replace a Character in a String

In this example, we will replace a character in a string with another character.

string = 'Hello World!' new_string = string.replace('o', '0') print(new_string)

Output:

Hell0 W0rld!

In the above example, we replaced all occurrences of the character ‘o’ with ‘0’ in the string ‘Hello World!’.

Example 2: Replace a Substring in a String

In this example, we will replace a substring in a string with another substring.

string = 'Python is a popular programming language' new_string = string.replace('programming', 'scripting') print(new_string)

Output:

Python is a popular scripting language

In the above example, we replaced the substring ‘programming’ with ‘scripting’ in the string ‘Python is a popular programming language’.

Example 3: Replace Multiple Occurrences of a Character

In this example, we will replace multiple occurrences of a character in a string.

string = 'Mississippi' new_string = string.replace('s', 'z') print(new_string)

Output:

Mizzizzippi

In the above example, we replaced all occurrences of the character ‘s’ with ‘z’ in the string ‘Mississippi’.

Example 4: Replace a Character in a String with a Limit

In this example, we will replace a character in a string with a limit on the number of occurrences to replace.

string = 'Hello World!' new_string = string.replace('o', '0', 1) print(new_string)

Output:

Hell0 World!

In the above example, we replaced the first occurrence of the character ‘o’ with ‘0’ in the string ‘Hello World!’.

Example 5: Replace a Substring in a String with a Limit

In this example, we will replace a substring in a string with a limit on the number of occurrences to replace.

string = 'Python is a popular programming language' new_string = string.replace('language', 'tool', 1) print(new_string)

Output:

Python is a popular programming tool

In the above example, we replaced the first occurrence of the substring ‘language’ with ‘tool’ in the string ‘Python is a popular programming language’.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed what the replace() method is, how it works, and how to use it in Python. The replace() method is a powerful function that allows you to replace specific characters or substrings in a string with new characters or substrings. We hope that this guide has helped you understand the replace() method better and how to use it in your Python projects.

Python’s replace() method is an important tool to have in your arsenal as a developer, whether you’re working with text manipulation, data cleaning, or any other string-related tasks. The examples provided in this tutorial demonstrate various use cases and should serve as a solid foundation for utilizing the replace() method effectively in your own Python projects.

## How To Add A Method To Struct Type In Golang?

In Golang, structs are an essential part of the language and are used to define complex data types. Often, you may find yourself in a situation where you need to add a method to a struct to perform some specific action. In this article, we will discuss how to add a method to a struct type in Golang and provide some examples to help you understand the concept.

Defining a Struct in Golang

Before we dive into adding methods to a struct, let’s first understand how to define a struct in Golang. A struct is a composite data type that groups together zero or more values of different types. Here is an example of a simple struct in Golang −

type Person struct { Name string Age int }

In the above example, we define a Person struct that has two fields, Name and Age.

Adding a Method to a Struct in Golang

Adding a method to a struct in Golang is simple. We define the method outside of the struct definition and use the struct as the receiver for the method. The receiver is a parameter that provides access to the fields of the struct.

Here’s an example of how to add a method to the Person struct we defined earlier −

type Person struct { Name string Age int } func (p Person) SayHello() string { return fmt.Sprintf("Hello, my name is %s and I am %d years old", p.Name, p.Age) }

In the above example, we define a method called SayHello() that takes a Person struct as the receiver. The method returns a string that includes the name and age of the person.

To call the method, we create a new Person struct and invoke the method using dot notation −

func main() { p := Person{Name: "John", Age: 30} fmt.Println(p.SayHello()) } Example package main import "fmt" type Person struct { Name string Age int } func (p Person) SayHello() string { return fmt.Sprintf("Hello, my name is %s and I am %d years old", p.Name, p.Age) } func main() { p := Person{Name: "John", Age: 30} fmt.Println(p.SayHello()) } Output Hello, my name is John and I am 30 years old

Here’s another example of adding a method to a struct in Golang −

Example package main import "fmt" type Rectangle struct { Width float64 Height float64 } func (r Rectangle) Area() float64 { return r.Width * r.Height } func main() { r := Rectangle{Width: 5, Height: 10} fmt.Println("Rectangle Area:", r.Area()) } Output Rectangle Area: 50 Conclusion

In this article, we discussed how to add a method to a struct type in Golang. We learned that adding a method is as simple as defining a function with the struct as the receiver. We also provided an example to illustrate the concept. By using these techniques, you can add methods to structs in Golang to perform specific actions on your data types.

## How Does Redirect Work In Javascript?

Introduction to JavaScript Redirect

JavaScript redirect is the process of sending requests form one page to another page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. location is the function used in JavaScript to redirect at the specific URL.

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Real Time Scenario:

Pre-requisites:

Basic HTML

Basic JavaScript

How does Redirect Work in JavaScript?

JavaScript redirect is working based on different types of redirect methods. Each redirect has its own specification.

Syntax:

location = "URL";

Description: It will set the new location for the current window.

location.href = "URL";

Description: It will set the new href for the current window.

location.assign("URL");

Description: It will assign the new URL to the current window.

location.replace("URL");

Description: It will replace the current window location with a new location.

location = "URL";

Description: It will just set the current window location itself.

location = "URL";

Description: It will set the topmost window location with a current window location.

Note: The difference between href and replace method is replace() method removes the URL of the current document from the document history, means it is not possible to use the “back” button for navigating to the original document.

Examples of JavaScript Redirect

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Window location URL.

h1 { text-align: center; color: green; } p { font-size: 28px; border: solid 3px blue; color: maroon; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL window.location = url;

Output:

After few milliseconds (1sec) moved to URL:

Example #2

Window Location Redirect with Time Limit.

Code:

h1 { text-align: center; color: brown; } p { font-size: 28px; border: solid 3px red; color: green; } input { text-align: center; color: navy; } button { font-size: 22px; font-weight: bold; color: white; background: lightblue; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL Type URL :<input type=”text” name=”url” function getMyRedirectURL() { var url = document.getElementById(“urlID”).value; document.write(“It will redirect within 3 seconds…..please wait…”);//it will redirect after 3 seconds setTimeout(function() { window.location = url; }, 3000); }

Output:

Example #3

Replace Function URL.

Code:

h1 { text-align: center; color: navy; } p { font-size: 28px; border: double 2px teal; color: lime; } input { text-align: center; color: fuchsia; } .button { text-align: center; } button { font-size: 22px; font-weight: bold; color: white; background: red; } page to other page through accessing the corresponding URL (Unified Resource Locator). Redirecting URL is also used for sending the user from one URL to another URL. Window.location is the function used in website, while I am reading, I have some doubts with specific topics. Instead of providing everything there itself, we can simply summarize the topic and in between doubtable points can be provide with URL function getMyReplaceFun() { }

Output:

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## How Does Sprintf Work In Python?

Definition of sprintf in Python

The sprintf is a function to display the output of the given input using a python programming language.

The sprintf is a print function to shows the output of the format strings in the python language.

It is a coding element to assigns the “f get” method and displays string format output.

The sprintf is a print element to contain string – buffer data of the application and display in the string format using python technology.

The sprintf is a function similar to print, vprint for display buffer output hustle-free.

The python programming language is using the sprintf function to declare argument and constructor elements.

It is an output function to displays all data types like string and array elements.

Syntax:

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The sprintf python works with different data types, lengths of the data, and width.

It has used the percentage sign (%) before the type of the data.

The basic syntax of a sprintf shows below.

% [FLAG WIDTH. (DOT) PRECISION] TYPE

The sprintf python is using the “print” keyword to display output.

print("% [flag width . (dot) precision] type" % (value or object))

The sprintf is used precision and type depends on the data type of the variable. This syntax helps to assign a signed decimal number. The length value of a decimal is 2.

%2d

This syntax helps to assign a binary number. The length value of binary is 4.

%4b

This syntax helps to assign a floating number. The length value of a decimal is 2.1.

%2.1f or %2.1F

This syntax helps to assign ASCII values.

%c

This syntax helps to assign unsigned decimal values.

%u

This syntax helps to assign an octal number.

%o

This syntax helps to assign a hexadecimal number.

%x OR %X

This syntax helps to assign scientific notation of a lowercase.

%e

This syntax helps to assign scientific notation of an uppercase.

%E

This syntax helps to return the type of data format.

%%type How does sprintf work in Python?

Download python software from the respective website. Create a page with the dot (.) py extension. The file name is the “function.py” to write a python program. Create a variable with initializing the required data type value.

Varble_name = 34

Use the print keyword for the string format of the sprint python.

print (write sprint format)

Use percentage sign to return value.

print (" text : %d ")

Display length of the variable or value before data type.

print (" text : %2d ")

Display the type of the variable value in the format helping of the sprint. Use parameter of the percentage sign to end of the sprintf function end. Add variable to interconnect return function and application data.

print (" text : %2d " % (Varble_name))

Use direct value in sprint function to display decimal value.

print("decimal number : %2d " % (7))

Use float type with sprintf formatted value in the return function.

print("Float number : %5.2f" % ( 23.11))

Combine the working procedure of the sprintf python to better understanding.

x = 34 print ("decimal number : %2d " % (x)) print ("decimal number : %2d " % (7)) print ("Float number : %5.2f" % ( 23.11)) Examples Example #1 – Basic

Code:

e_var = 34 print ("decimal number: %2d " % (e_var)) print ("decimal number: %2d " % (7)) print ("Float number: %5.2f" % ( 23.11)) print ("Float number: %5.4f" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %5o" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %3o" % (42))

Output:

Example #2 – With different types

Code:

e_var = 341234673 print ("decimal number: %d " % (e_var)) print ("Float number: %f" % (e_var)) print ("Float number: %F" % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %o" % (e_var)) print ("first string value: %s" % (e_var)) print ("second string value: %s" % ("string data")) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x" % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X" % (e_var)) print ("ASCII value: %c" % ("A")) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E" % (e_var)) print ("first value: %g" % (e_var)) print ("second value: %G" % (e_var))

Output:

Example #3 – With positive and negative value e_var = 341234673 f_var = -341234673 print ("decimal number: %d " % (e_var)) print ("decimal number: %d n " % (f_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u" % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %u n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal number: %o" % (e_var)) print ("Octal number: %o n" % (f_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x " % (e_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %x n" % (f_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X " % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %X n" % (f_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e" % (e_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %e n" % (f_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %E n" % (f_var)) print ("first value: %g" % (e_var)) print ("second value: %G" % (f_var))

Output:

Example #4 – With different length

Code:

e_var = 341234673 f_var = -341234673 print ("decimal number: %2d " % (e_var)) print ("unsigned decimal number: %1u n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal number: %2o n" % (e_var)) print ("first hexadecimal value: %1x " % (e_var)) print ("second hexadecimal value: %5X n" % (e_var)) print ("lowercase scientific notation: %2e" % (e_var)) print ("uppercase scientific notation: %1E n" % (f_var)) print ("Float value: %2.1f" % (e_var)) print ("Float value: %1.2f n" % (f_var)) print ("Octal value: %2o" % (e_var))

Output:

Conclusion

It is easy to return data in any format per application requirement.

It helps to create web applications attractive, understandable, and user-friendly.

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## How Does Substring Work In Typescript

Introduction to TypeScript substring

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Syntax:

The TypeScript substring() method mainly focus on the string characters, and it will be used to specify the indexes, and it returns the new substrings characters in the TypeScript. It can be used to pass the two set of arguments one is starting the characters and the second parameter is the length of the string characters.

var variable name="";  console.log("starting position of the character and end position of the character" + variable name.substr(starting position of the character and end position of the character)); ----some typescript codes based on the user requirements-----

The above code is the basic syntax for using the substr() method in TypeScript based applications.

How does substring Work in TypeScript?

The TypeScript string is one of the class for creating and utilising the string characters in the application. We use substring as one of the default method for split the string characters, and it will have concatenated using the length. This method will accept both numeric and non-numeric characters in the script. The string characters are starting with the beginning position of the specific location through the characters for each character; it will calculate the length.

By using the length method, we can calculate the character’s length, and with the help of for loop, we can iterate the values and calculate the character’s length and validate the conditions based on their coder suggestions. Basically, the substring() method is pre-defined, and also it’s an inbuilt function for users to return the subset of the string objects. The argument and the parameters of the substring() method which represents the starting and ending indexes which can be used for to identify the characters and the substring() method which swaps the two set of arguments if the indexStart is greater than the indexEnd position and the string which is still returned position of the variables in the functions.

When we use the string characters index with the help of the indexOf method, the substring method that is not to be used as the really purpose its main job is to return the indexes at the given substring is found on the TypeScript code.

Examples of TypeScript substring

Given below are the examples of TypeScript substring:

Example #1

Code:

var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf oiefb woeqiurfb iweofbc2iwe bic b newoinu"; var vars1 = "wugdv uidchh e237ed b 374trc hegdc jihefu jehdb jehfb jehb jhebi kbjeij heib jbie h"; var vars2 = "oehqf eub jbqe ijbj jb3e obe bou jbe joj3buier jorub jbj jboui e1r jobeur b ijoe iojef"; var vars3 = "dguy i eebc b eihyeuib f c uiycei ubc3  iurf eurv eub irfub o iobr ibr iu ior iou iub"; var vars4 = "oyed uery euir rui hu48 biury848 buy84 bui fj rhuj hrf hu iho4hi or4ui roh4ih rouiro h"; console.log("(2,3): "    + vars.substr(2,3)); console.log("(-3,4): "   + vars.substr(-3,4)); console.log("(3): "      + vars1.substr(3)); console.log("(-16, 3): " + vars2.substr(-16,3)); console.log("(12, 3): "  + vars2.substr(12,3)); console.log("(15, 5): "  + vars3.substr(15,5)); console.log("(17, 12): "  + vars4.substr(17,12));

Output:

In the above example, we used the substr() method in the different sequences. We used a numeric set of characters that is we can fetch and identified only the integer numbers that will be covered using both positive and negative numbers. With the help of the console.log() method, we can print the values in the output console by using the var keyword; we can declare the variable values by using the string quotations. Generally, the var datatype includes numeric and non-numeric characters here; we can cover the numeric value with the specified index positions for each step, and the variable values declared in the user input end.

Example #2

Code:

var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf okjwdkg kewgk jdgkiwye iugeigu buir br"; var vars1 = "wuhsgf jdghj 326875 38 3846 86347484 8634r 39846 468 48465 386 34798 94865 946"; var vars2 = "f wqd qw qwuef3287 j6487 jg857 kjg85 jy4587 ng875 gr8 jgweuf 478 jgeru 74"; var vars3 = " hjqwdf jhgds ieyw jhgu jhger 457 jgevr u5 jbi5t78 njerv 5u jngu5 biu5yn bnn uy5 r"; var vars4 = "wf jhqgwf37 jhg u4t jhuy bvu5y4 bv5n bv457b u45t7 bu54tg biu45y buy55y jhgu b ut bu"; var vars5 = new String( "Have a Nice Day" ); var ind = vars.indexOf( "jg jdsvh jsjv bj b kjbd sdbsksd bs dbs db bd" ); console.log("Your first output result is :" + ind ); console.log("Your second output result is:" + ind1 );

Output:

In the second example, we used indexOf() is one of the default child methods in the substring() method; with the help of this method, we can fetch and retrieve the indexing values and the position of the string characters. Additionally, we used var5 variable values; we can create the string object and store it as the separate memory address and its reference.

Example #3 var vars = "Welcome to My Domain Have a Nice Day iehf okjwdkg kewgk jdgkiwye iugeigu buir br"; var output = /My/gi; if (vars.search(output) == -1 ) { console.log("Sorry user it does not contain your values" ); } else { console.log("Thanks user it contains  your values" ); }

Output:

In the final example, we used the search() method for searching the characters, which is declared on the user input variable. We can also search and store the input characters using the other variable with the same data type(var). The search() method is one of the child method in the substring() function of the string classes.

Conclusion

The substring() method is one of the default and frequently used as the string classes in TypeScript. With the help of its child methods like search(), indexOf(), substr() methods, we can achieve this functionality like to calculate the starting and indexing position of the string characters and using loop/conditional statements for evaluating the values.

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