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The file system of a drive is probably one of the last things a user checks, but they are very important for the type of data that you want to handle using the storage system. Fat32 file system is usually used in external storage devices like hard disks and flash drives.

On Windows 10 devices, the newer NTFS file system is used, which comes with increased reliability and security features. If you have an older computer with a fat32 formatted hard drive, here I shall discuss how to convert FAT32 to NTFS easily.

The newer NTFS file system can handle partition sizes of up to 2TB while handling file size is up to 16 TB. There are also local and network security features along with auto repair for fault tolerance. This is the ideal file system for modern-day hard drives with high storage capacities.

Windows 10 allows native file system conversion. If you recently upgraded to Windows 10 on an older system, or have a drive formatted to fat 32 file system, here is how you can change FAT32 to NTFS easily.

If you have a lot of files on your hard disk and do not have enough storage to take a backup of these files, you can use the command line interpreter to change the file systems on your computer. For this you will need an elevated command prompt, and here are the steps you need to follow:

Open a Run dialogue using the shortcut Win + R.

Now, type cmd and press Ctrl + Shift + Enter to launch the command prompt with administrator privileges.

The conversion process should begin immediately. The time taken will vary mostly on the files present on the drive, as the files are preserved upon conversion. However, it is still recommended to take a backup of the important files in case Windows fails to preserve the files.

If there are no files on your storage device, you can use the Format option from the file explorer. This method will not preserve any files, so make sure to take a backup if there are any important files on the drive. Follow these steps for the same:

Connect your storage device to your computer and open the drive in File Explorer.

Select Format from the context menu.

Here change the file system by using the drop-down menu in the Format dialog that opens.

Also, make sure to check the box next to Quick Format.

Once the formatting finishes, the drive is now formatted to the NTFS file system and you can use it to store and transfer your files.

Another method that you can use involves using 3rd party partition management software. There are many such popular applications out there, and we have also reviewed some popular ones. If you are interested in investing in one such software, make sure to read the reviews before making your purchase.

Minitool partitioning Wizard Review

AOMEI Partition Assistant review

So, there you have it. Now you know how to convert FAT32 to NTFS using the methods provided above. Comment below if you found this useful, and to discuss further the same.

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How To Convert String Into Float In Javascript?

We can convert a string into a float using the parseFloat() function or the Number() constructor in JavaScript. Other approaches such as using + operator, eval() and parseInt() methods, can also be used for this. Converting strings to floating point numbers is a typical operation in JavaScript. This is required when working with numbers represented as strings, for as when reading data from an input field or a CSV file. In this article, we will learn these methods in detail.

Conversion Methods

There are several ways to convert a string into a float in JavaScript. The most common methods are the parseFloat() function and the Number() constructor.

The parseFloat() function

The parseFloat function is a tool in JavaScript that helps turn a string into a number with decimals. You give it a word or sentence, and it gives back a number. It’s easy to use and is built into JavaScript.

Syntax

The syntax of the parseFloat() function is as follows −

parseFloat(string) Example

Here is an example of how to use the parseFloat() function −

let string = “3.14”; let float = parseFloat(string); document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = float;

Although the parseFloat() function is handy for converting a string to a float, it has several restrictions. Only the first part of the string that is a valid float is converted by the function. If there are any non-numeric characters after the float in the string, the function will ignore them.

The Number() Constructor

JavaScript includes a built-in function called Number() that offers an alternate way to turn a number represented as a string into a floating-point number. It returns the equivalent floating-point representation for a string that is sent in as an input. The Number() function offers a more flexible way for turning strings into floating-point numbers than the parseFloat() function does, and it can handle type conversions for a wider variety of data types, including integers and other numeric kinds.

Syntax

The syntax of the Number() constructor is as follows −

new Number(string) Example

Here is an example of how to use the Number() constructor −

let string = “3.114”; let float = new Number(string); document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = float;

Although the Number() function is useful for converting a string to a float, it has several restrictions. The function is less performant than the parseFloat() function and should not be used.

Other Methods

There are also other methods for converting a string into a float in JavaScript. These methods include using the + operator, the parseInt() function and the eval() function.

The + operator

The + operator is a simple tool that helps you change a word into a number using float as input. Just give it a word that represents a number, and it will turn it into a type of number called a float. This tool is useful, but it only works with words that are actually numbers. It cannot change words that don’t represent numbers.

Syntax

The syntax of the + operator is as follows −

+string Example

Here is an example of how to use the + operator −

let string = “3.4”; let float = +string; document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = float; The parseInt() Function

The parseInt() built-in JavaScript function converts a text to an integer or whole number. The parseInt() method accepts a string as input and outputs an integer value. To convert a string to a floating-point number, use the ParseInt() function and pass a radix (base) of 10 as an additional argument. Let’s look at an example to help us understand.

Syntax

The syntax of the parseInt() function is as follows −

parseInt(string, radix) Example

Here is an example of how to use the parseInt() function to convert a string into a float −

let string = “3.4”; let float = parseInt(string, 10); document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = float; The eval() Function

The eval() method is a JavaScript built-in function that evaluates a string as a JavaScript expression. It accepts a string as an argument and returns a result, just like the parseInt() function. Converting a text to a float is a common use case for eval(). You can accomplish this by passing a string representing a float as an argument to eval (). After that, the function will evaluate the expression and return the float value. Overall, eval() is a useful function for running dynamic code, but it should be used with caution to avoid security concerns.

Syntax

The syntax of the eval() function is as follows −

eval(string) Example

Here is an example of how to use the eval() function to convert a string into a float −

let string = “3.456”; let float = eval(string); document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = float;

Please take a note here that the eval() function is considered to be a dangerous function as it can execute any JavaScript code passed to it, which can be a cause of security risk if used improperly. Therefore, it is not recommended to use the eval() function to convert a string into a float.

Conclusion

How To Convert Pandas Dataframe Into Json In Python?

Pandas is a popular Python library for data manipulation and analysis. A common task in working with Pandas is to convert a DataFrame into a JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format, which is a lightweight data interchange format widely used in web applications. The conversion from pandas DataFrame to JSON can be useful for data sharing, data storage, and data transfer between different programming languages.

In this tutorial, we will discuss how to convert a pandas DataFrame to JSON using built-in Pandas functions, explore different options and parameters for the conversion, and provide examples of how to handle specific scenarios.

Converting Pandas DataFrame into JSON

In Python’s pandas library, we can utilise the DataFrame.to_json() function to transform pandas DataFrames into JSON format. This function offers various customizations that allow us to obtain the desired JSON formats. In the upcoming sections, we will delve into the accepted parameters of this function and examine the customization options in more detail.

Here are some of the important parameters and their possible values that can be used in the DataFrame.to_json() function for converting a pandas DataFrame to JSON −

path_or_buf − The output location where the resulting JSON will be saved. It can be a file path or a buffer object. The default value is None.

orient − The format of the resulting JSON. Possible values are ‘split’, ‘records’, ‘index’, ‘columns’, and ‘values’. The default value is ‘columns’.

date_format − The date format used for date-like columns in the DataFrame. It can be any valid datetime format string. The default value is None.

double_precision − The precision of floating-point numbers in the JSON. It can be an integer value that specifies the number of decimal places to include. The default value is 10.

force_ascii − Whether to encode non-ASCII characters as their Unicode escape sequences. The default value is True.

date_unit − The unit of the timestamp in date-like columns. Possible values are ‘s’ for seconds, ‘ms’ for milliseconds, and ‘us’ for microseconds. The default value is ‘ms’.

Let’s examine a few examples to gain a better understanding of how the DataFrame.to_json() function is used.

Example 1: Basic Usage

Consider the code shown below. In this code, we create a 2×2 NumPy array called array_data, containing four string values. We then convert this array into a pandas DataFrame called df, with column names ‘col1’ and ‘col2’. Finally, we use the to_json() function to convert the DataFrame into a JSON string, which we print to the console using the print() function.

import numpy as np import pandas as pd # create a NumPy array with two rows and two columns array_data = np.array([['1', '2'], ['3', '4']]) # convert the NumPy array into a pandas DataFrame with column names df = pd.DataFrame(array_data, columns=['col1', 'col2']) # convert the DataFrame to a JSON string json_data = df.to_json() # print the resulting JSON string print(json_data) Output

On execution, it will produce the following output:

{"col1":{"0":"1","1":"3"},"col2":{"0":"2","1":"4"}} Example 2: Converting DataFrame to JSON

Now look at an example of how to use these parameters in the DataFrame.to_json() function to convert a pandas DataFrame to JSON.

Consider the code shown below. In this example, we set the path_or_buf parameter to ‘output.json’ to save the JSON data to a file named ‘output.json’. We set the orient parameter to ‘records’ to format the JSON as a list of records.

We also set the date_format parameter to ‘iso’ to use the ISO date format for date-like columns, and the double_precision parameter to 2 to include two decimal places for floating-point numbers. Finally, we set force_ascii to False to preserve non-ASCII characters, and date_unit to ‘ms’ to use milliseconds as the unit for timestamps.

import pandas as pd # create a sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame({ 'Name': ['John', 'Jane', 'Bob'], 'Age': [30, 25, 40], 'Salary': [50000.0, 60000.0, 70000.0], 'Join_date': ['2024-01-01', '2024-06-15', '2024-11-30'] }) # convert the DataFrame to JSON json_data = df.to_json( path_or_buf='output.json', orient='records', date_format='iso', double_precision=2, force_ascii=False, date_unit='ms' ) # print the resulting JSON print(json_data) Output:

On execution, it will create a new file named “output.json” and the contents of the file is shown below:

[ { "Name": "John", "Age": 30, "Salary": 50000.0, "Join_date": "2024-01-01" }, { "Name": "Jane", "Age": 25, "Salary": 60000.0, "Join_date": "2024-06-15" }, { "Name": "Bob", "Age": 40, "Salary": 70000.0, "Join_date": "2024-11-30" } ] Conclusion

In conclusion, converting a pandas DataFrame to JSON format in Python is a straightforward process that can be accomplished using the to_json() method provided by the pandas library.

This method allows for a variety of customizations, such as specifying the JSON output format, date formatting, and precision. It also provides the ability to write the resulting JSON string to a file, making it easy to share data with other systems. With a basic understanding of the to_json() method and its parameters, you can easily convert your pandas DataFrames to JSON format for use in a wide range of applications

How To Copy Files Faster In Windows 10

The faster you can copy files on your Microsoft Windows 10 computer, the better. You may already be happy with the speed of your computer copies files, but wouldn’t you want to try a method that can improve the current copying speed?

The good news is that there are a few methods you can try and speed up the copying process. Some are easier than others, but they all have the same goal in mind; to help you copy files faster.

Basic File Copying Keyboard Methods

Some primary keyboard shortcuts to copy include:

Ctrl + X – These keys will cut a file and moves it to the clipboard for future pasting.

Ctrl + C – Copies any file without cutting it.

Type Ctrl + V – Shortcut to paste the text you’ve copied.

Ctrl + Shift + N – To create a new folder. You’re going to need to paste your text somewhere.

Alt + Left/Right – Helps you move back and forth among the folders.

Copy Windows Files Faster by Changing USB Ports

Sometimes by doing things such as changing USB ports can help improve the speed the files are copied. This should be one of the first things you try when the copying speed is slower than usual.

Outdated drivers can also slow things down when copying files. To update your computer’s drivers, you’ll need to visit the computer manufacturer website. You should be able to find the drivers in the support section, if not, you can always contact customer support for more information.

Get More File Copying Power With Robocopy

Robocopy is a feature that Windows has built-in, so there is no need to download any third-party software. This feature will speed up the file copying process, but you will need to use the Command Prompt.

If you’re not familiar with the Windows Command Prompt, you may want to try other methods.

When the Command Prompt is open type robocopy /? After pressing Enter, you should see copying options. With these shortcuts, copying files on your computer will be a lot faster.

You also have the option of using Windows Powershell but as an administrator.

An example of how you could use Robocopy to copy files from one place to another would be the following. Let’s say that you want to copy files from your user profile to a folder you’ve named Backup.

The basic formula to use Robocopy is to type Robocopy origin–destination and then the command. To properly copy those files you would need to enter the following command: Robocopy C:UsersJudy F:TheBackup / E.

Change to an SSD

If you’re not sure if you have an SSD or an HDD, you can tell by how old your computer is. Desktop PCs will have a high chance of having an HDD (hard disk drive) that is slower than modern SSD (solid-state drive).

SSDs will deliver better performance (faster copying speeds) and will last longer. SSDs will also help you save energy and will help keep your computer cooler.

Free File Copy Software

There are also various software utilities you can try out and for free. For example, there’s TeraCopy. TeraCopy is a free Windows software that is designed to skip any problematic files and will always try to work on the fastest channel.

Conclusion

How To Calibrate A Controller In Windows 10

The good thing about modern gaming PCs is that most of your favorite controllers are now plug-and-play. Just plug it into a USB port or connect it via Bluetooth, and you should be away. (If you need some extra help, see our guides on how to connect a PS4 controller and Xbox controller to Windows 10.)

But you may want to do some fine-tuning, making sure the analog sticks work without drift and have the right levels of sensitivity and deadzones. There are a couple stages to this: using the Windows calibration tool, then fine-tuning your controller in Steam. Here we show you how to calibrate your controller in Windows 10.

While the Windows calibration tool works for controllers, the users that most benefit from it are joystick users. You may need to play around in Steam to get your controller really working the way you want.

After that, go back to the main Controller Settings screen and again go to “Calibrate” for your controller. This time, don’t select “Lock Out Joystick Navigation” and adjust the Left Stick and Right Stick Deadzones until you’re comfortable with them.

Once you’ve checked the relevant Configuration Support box, open a game in Big Picture, press the PS, Xbox or equivalent button (or Alt + Tab on your keyboard), then Controller Configuration.

And with that, you should have everything you need to calibrate your controller in Windows 10 and fine-tune it per game. For more gaming-related guides, see our GPU buying guide for 2023, as well as our list of the best SideQuest games you can get for your Oculus Quest or Quest 2.

Robert Zak

Content Manager at Make Tech Easier. Enjoys Android, Windows, and tinkering with retro console emulation to breaking point.

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How To Enable Dark Mode In Windows 10

How to Enable Dark Mode in Windows 10 Dark Mode prevents eye strain

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Some prefer to use the Dark mode in Windows 10 to avoid eye fatigue from a bright screen.

Switching from Light mode is extremely easy to do by using the Personalization settings.

However, your Windows copy has to be activated in order to make the change.

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To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

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Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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If the ordinary look of Windows 10’s user interface already has you bored, you can change the theme and refresh it.

Since the release of the Anniversary Update, Microsoft made the option to switch to the Dark mode available to all users.

The Dark theme will apply to all elements of Windows 10 but based on our experience, you’ll mostly see it in the Settings app.

What is Dark mode and should you be using it?

Whether it’s called Dark mode, Dark theme, Night mode, or Black mode, it is a display setting that comes in the majority of apps, systems, and devices including smartphones, tablets, desktops, and laptops.

The whole idea behind this concept is to reduce the light emitted by the screens of these devices thus protecting your eyes.

However, the subject is still up for discussion because although some experts believe it’s healthier to read text against a dark background other studies have shown the contrary.

Returning to the Dark mode in Windows 10, you should know that switching to this color scheme is only going to affect the system and the native apps, not all the third-party ones.

How can I Enable Dark Mode in Windows 10?

2. Open Personalization from the list of available options.

4. It will take a few seconds but the system will change all the windows to Dark mode.

5. You can also choose the Custom color theme, to be able to switch to Dark mode only for the Windows system or the apps.

6. If you are not satisfied with the result, come back to this menu and select the Light or Custom color to start over.

If you are looking to find a way to easily enable Dark Mode on Windows 10, you can do it through the Personalization tab in Settings. The OS’s built-in settings can help you tweak your screen color to your liking in just a few steps.

The ability to choose between Dark and Light modes has been present on Windows 10 Mobile (and even Windows Phone 8.1) long before it was applied to Windows 10.

When it comes to PCs, Microsoft Edge already had this option way before it was added to the system overall, but something prevented Microsoft from delivering the Dark mode to the rest of the system until now.

Use Dark mode in any app of your choice

As we have mentioned above, most of the third-party apps have a Dark mode setting on their own so if turning it on on Windows 10 didn’t change their appearance, here’s what to do:

As you have noticed, Chrome doesn’t have a default setting for Dark theme or mode so you need to select a different theme from the store.

However, in most apps, you will find the dark color scheme in their Colors, Display, or Appearance section from their Settings menu.

If you’ve switched to the new OS, we also have a complete guide on how to activate Dark Mode on your Windows 11 PC.

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