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The median is the value that’s exactly in the middle of a dataset when it is ordered. It’s a measure of central tendency that separates the lowest 50% from the highest 50% of values.

The steps for finding the median differ depending on whether you have an odd or an even number of data points. If there are two numbers in the middle of a dataset, their mean is the median.

The median is usually used with quantitative data (where the values are numerical), but you can sometimes also find the median for an ordinal dataset (where the values are ranked categories).

Median calculator

Find the median with an odd-numbered dataset

We’ll walk through steps using a small sample dataset with the weekly pay of 5 people.

Dataset

Weekly pay (USD) 350 800 220 500 130

Step 1: Order the values from low to high.

Ordered dataset

Weekly pay (USD) 130 220 350 500 800

Step 2: Calculate the middle position.

Use the formula

, where n is the number of values in your dataset. Calculating the middle position

Formula Calculation

, where n is the number of values in your dataset.

The median is the value at the 3rd position.

Step 3: Find the value in the middle position.

Finding the median

Weekly pay (USD) 130 220

350

500 800

The median weekly pay is 350 US dollars.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Find the median with an even-numbered dataset

In an even-numbered dataset, there isn’t a single value in the middle of the dataset, so we have to follow a slightly different procedure.

Let’s add another value to the dataset. Now you have 6 values.

Dataset

Weekly pay (USD) 350 800 220 500 130 1150

Step 1: Order the values from low to high.

Ordered dataset

Weekly pay (USD) 130 220 350 500 800 1150

Step 2: Calculate the two middle positions.

The middle positions are found using the formulas

and , where n is the number of values in your dataset. Calculating the middle positions

Formula Calculation

and, where n is the number of values in your dataset.

The middle values are at the 3rd and 4th positions.

Step 3: Find the two middle values.

Middle values

Weekly pay (USD) 130 220

350

500

800 1150

The middle values are 350 and 500.

Step 4: Find the mean of the two middle values.

To find the median, calculate the mean by adding together the middle values and dividing them by two.

Calculating the medianMedian:

The median weekly pay for this dataset is is 425 US dollars.

Find the median with ordinal data

The median is usually used for quantitative data, which means the values in the dataset are numerical. But you can sometimes also identify the median for ordinal data.

Ordinal data is organized into categories with a rank order – for example language ability level (beginner, intermediate, or fluent) or level of agreement (strongly agree, agree, etc.).

The process for finding the median is almost the same.

Odd-numbered dataset

We’ll walk through the steps for an odd-numbered ordinal dataset with 7 values.

You categorize reaction times of participants into 3 groups: slow, medium or fast.

First, order all values in ascending order.

Ordered dataset

Reaction speed Slow Slow Medium Medium Fast Fast Fast

Next, find the middle value using

, where n is the number of values in the dataset. Calculating the middle position

Formula Calculation

, where n is the number of values in the dataset.

The median is the value at the 4th position.

Finding the median

Reaction speed Slow Slow Medium

Medium

Fast Fast Fast

The median reaction speed is Medium.

Can you find the median for an even-numbered ordinal dataset?

The mean cannot be calculated for ordinal data, so the median can’t be found for an even-numbered dataset.

For example, if the two middle values are “slow” and “medium,” you can’t calculate the mean of these values.

In practice, ordinal data is sometimes converted into a numerical format and treated like quantitative data for the sake of convenience. Then the mean of the middle values can be calculated to find the median.

While this is considered acceptable in some contexts, it is not always seen as correct.

When should you use the median?

The median is the most informative measure of central tendency for skewed distributions or distributions with outliers.

In skewed distributions, more values fall on one side of the center than the other, and the mean, median and mode all differ from each other.

In a positively skewed distribution, there’s a cluster of lower scores and a spread out tail on the right.

In a negatively skewed distribution, there’s a cluster of higher scores and a spread out tail on the left.

Because the median only uses one or two values from the middle of a dataset, it’s unaffected by extreme outliers or non-symmetric distributions of scores. In contrast, the positions of the mean and mode can vary in skewed distributions.

For this reason, the median is often reported as a measure of central tendency for variables such as income, because these distributions are usually positively skewed.

The level of measurement of your variable also determines whether you can use the median. The median can only be used on data that can be ordered – that is, from ordinal, interval and ratio levels of measurement.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Bhandari, P. Retrieved July 10, 2023,

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## Find Mean And Median Of An Unsorted Array In Java

In Java, Array is an object. It is a non-primitive data type which stores values of similar data type.

As per the problem statement we have to find mean and median of an unsorted array in Java.

Mean of an array can be derived by calculating the average value of all the elements present inside the array.

Mean= (sum of all elements present in array) / (total number of elements present)

Median of an array represents the middle element present in an odd number sorted array and if the sorted array consists of even number, then median can be found out by calculating the average of middle two numbers.

Let’s explore the article to see how it can be done by using Java programming language.

To show you some instances Instance-1

Given Array= [12, 23, 34, 45, 15].

Mean value of that array= (12 + 23 + 34 + 45 + 15) / (5) = 129 / 5 = 25.8

Sorted array of given array= [12, 15, 24, 34, 45]

As this is an odd numbered array the median is the middle element.

Median = 24

Instance-2

Given Array= [38, 94, 86, 63, 36].

Mean value of that array= (38 + 94 + 86 + 63 + 36) / (5) = 317 / 5 = 63.4

Sorted array of given array= [36, 38, 63, 86, 94]

As this is an odd numbered array the median is the middle element.

Median = 63

Instance-3

Given Array= [54, 67, 23, 95, 24, 60].

Mean value of that array= (54 + 67 + 23 + 95 + 24 + 60) / (6) = 323 / 6 = 53.83

As this is an even numbered array the median is the average value of middle two elements.

Sorted array of given array= [23, 24, 54, 60, 67, 95]

Median = (54 + 60) / 2 = 57

Algorithm

Step 1 − Declare and initialize an array of integer type.

Step 2 − Sort the array in ascending order.

Step 3 − In first user- defined method we find mean value. And in second user- defined method we find the median value.

Step 4 − Call both user-defined method and pass the array and the length value as parameters.

Step 5 − After finding the mean and median values print both the values as output.

Syntax

To get the length of an array (number of elements in that array), there is an inbuilt property of array i.e length

Below refers to the syntax of it −

array.length

where, ‘array’ refers to the array reference.

You can use Arrays.sort() method to sort the array in ascending order.

Arrays.sort(array_name); Multiple Approaches

We have provided the solution in different approaches

By Using Static Input Method

By Using User Input Method

Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.

Approach-1: By Using Static Input Method

In this approach, we declare an array by static input method and pass this array and its length as parameter in our user defined method, then inside the method by using the algorithm we can find the mean and median values.

Example import java.util.*; public class Main { public static void main(String args[]) { int inputArray[] = { 23, 24, 65, 87, 85, 12, 76,21}; int len = inputArray.length; System.out.println("Mean of given array "+ Arrays.toString(inputArray)+ " is = " + mean(inputArray, len)); System.out.println("Median of given array "+ Arrays.toString(inputArray) + " is = " + median(inputArray, len)); } public static double mean(int arr[], int len) { int sum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) sum += arr[i]; return (double)(arr[(len - 1) / 2] + arr[len / 2]) / 2.0; } public static double median(int arr[], int len) { Arrays.sort(arr); if (len % 2 != 0) { return (double)arr[len / 2]; } return (double)(arr[(len - 1) / 2] + arr[len / 2]) / 2.0; } } Output Mean of given array [23, 24, 65, 87, 85, 12, 76, 21] is = 49.125 Median of given array [23, 24, 65, 87, 85, 12, 76, 21] is = 44.5 Approach-2: By Using User Input Method

In this approach, we declare an array by user input method and pass this array and its length as parameter in our user defined method, then inside the method by using the algorithm we can find the mean and median values.

Example import java.util.*; public class Main { public static void main(String args[]) { Scanner sc=new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter the number of elements: "); int len=sc.nextInt(); int[] inputArray = new int[len]; System.out.println("Enter the elements: "); for(int i=0; i < len; i++) { inputArray[i]=sc.nextInt(); } System.out.println("Mean of given array "+ Arrays.toString(inputArray) + " is = " + mean(inputArray, len)); System.out.println("Median of given array "+ Arrays.toString(inputArray) + " is = " + median(inputArray, len)); } public static double mean(int arr[], int len) { int sum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) sum += arr[i]; return (double)sum / (double)len; } public static double median(int arr[], int len) { Arrays.sort(arr); if (len % 2 != 0){ return (double)arr[len / 2]; } System.out.println(arr[(len - 1)]); System.out.println(arr[(len - 1)]); return (double)(arr[(len - 1) / 2] + arr[len / 2]) / 2.0; } } Output Enter the number of elements: 8 Enter the elements: 2 5 3 7 1 6 8 4 Mean of given array [2, 5, 3, 7, 1, 6, 8, 4] is = 4.5 Median of given array [2, 5, 3, 7, 1, 6, 8, 4] is = 4.5

In this article, we explored how to find mean and median of an array in an unsorted array by using Java programming language.

## How To Find The Seed Of A Minecraft Server

The seed of a Minecraft server is the world upon which all else is built. Suppose you’ve ever stepped onto someone else’s server and found fascinating landscapes and easily-accessible biomes.

In that case, you know that creating a world with the same base as another player’s can be desirable. However, it isn’t always a simple matter to find the ID of a seed. The ease depends on who’s running the server.

Minecraft seeds are case-sensitive. You must follow the exact structure, including positive or negative numbers and lowercase or capital letters. If the seed is a word or a phrase.

Minecraft seeds don’t automatically include structures. Turning on the “Generate Structure” option on the “Create New World” page where you input seed is the only way to create villages, temples, and other similar places.

Keep in mind that Minecraft seeds aren’t the same for different editions of the game. If you’re playing the Bedrock edition but want to copy a seed from Java, it likely won’t work.

Minecraft uses an algorithm called Perlin noise to generate the worlds for the game. Since the developers update the algorithm between versions, chunks from the old seed don’t match those on the new seeds. This is why seeds are often incompatible between versions.

Finding the Minecraft seed of a server, you’re playing on depends on what level of access you have. For example, you might not be able to use the seed command on a server you don’t have admin rights.

The simplest way to find the seed of a Minecraft server is to use the command box.

Load into the Minecraft world with the seed you want to copy.

Press “/” to open the console. The / should remain in the text line once it’s opened.

Type “seed” without quotes. This should be immediately after the forward-slash. If the forward-slash doesn’t appear, type “/seed” without quotes.

Press Enter.

Copy down the seed code that appears in the chat window.

You must have admin rights to be able to complete these steps.

There is no command to find a seed in the Bedrock Edition of Minecraft. Instead, you have to use a specific menu to find it.

Save the seed before deleting the world unless you want to go through the process again.

To get the seed of a Minecraft multiplayer server, you have two options. The first is to ask for it from one of the admins. The second is to become an admin yourself and use the commands or procedures for the version of the game you’re on.

Sometimes, your server admin with administrator rights cannot access the server and give you the seed. If this is the case, someone needs to log into the server settings and give someone else admin powers over the server. That person can then give you the seed. It is the only way to get the seed without express guidance from someone with those powers.

If you’ve tried to get the seed from people with admin powers and aren’t having luck, some use a mod to download the world and then get the seed. Since the world can be saved to your computer and opened while you have complete control, this might enable you to get the seed.

There are a few ways to install it, but the best one is probably using MultiMC, a popular Minecraft launcher.

Having MultiMC on your computer helps you do more than just manage mods. It’s also a good backup for when the launcher is down or broken.

Once you have MultiMC installed, you can use it to run World Downloader Mod.

Once you have it installed, you can navigate to a server and use World Downloader to save it on your computer, open it, and find the seed. It won’t always work because some servers have protections against this type of mod.

You will have to open chests and containers to save them. Villager trades require opening the view menu if you want them. Command blocks also need to be opened, but only someone with access rights can do so.

While this may not get you the exact seed you want, it will copy all the areas that you traveled to and give you a full map of what’s in the overworld, above and below.

There is no good way to find the seed of a server without being an operator. The best thing you can do is message the mods and other people with access and ask for the seed.

## How To Find The Most Viewed Videos On Youtube

The amount of content on YouTube can keep you busy for hours. That’s not to say that all the content on YouTube is worth watching. Even among the most popular videos on YouTube there are those that will feel like a waste of time.

However, if you’re looking to start your own YouTube channel, you might want to check the competition first. Learn how to find the most viewed videos on YouTube by channel, using keywords, or using special YouTube charts.

How to Find the Most Viewed Videos on YouTube by Category

Whether you’re searching for the most popular videos on YouTube for the sake of entertainment or as a part of your research, the easiest way to find them is to search by category or using keywords. To find the most viewed videos on YouTube by category, follow the steps below.

You’ll see the list of videos automatically sorted by Relevance. That means that YouTube will sort the search results according to your viewing preferences, not according to the video’s view count.

To change that, select Filter to open search filters.

Under Sort by, select View count.

Now the videos on top of the list are the most viewed videos on YouTube in your chosen category.

How to Search the Most Viewed Videos by Channel

If you’re spending a lot of time on YouTube, you probably have one or two of your favourite channels, like those channels that you think everyone should subscribe to. YouTube allows you to see any channel’s most viewed videos using Filters as well. To search the most viewed videos by channel, follow the steps below.

Open YouTube and find the channel that you want to see the most popular videos of.

Select Videos from the channel’s menu. You’ll see the list of the videos sorted by Upload Date.

The videos that you see in the beginning of the list are the most viewed videos on the channel.

How to Find the Most Viewed Videos of All Time on YouTube

If you want to see the most viewed videos on YouTube all-time, unfortunately, there isn’t any way to do this on YouTube itself. To see this type of data, you need to take a look sites that track YouTube views like Statista or Wikipedia. You’ll get a list of the videos with the most views ever on YouTube, updated often, but not in real time:

The Popular on YouTube is a channel that gathers the latest viral videos, most viewed trailers, popular music clips and comedy snaps that people are currently watching.

You can browse the videos by categories, like Popular Right Now, The Daily “Aww”, Today’s Funniest Clips and more. You can see by the number of views on each video as this channel only showcases the most viewed YouTube videos of all time.

YouTube Music Charts is a good place for searching for the most popular music videos in the U.S. on YouTube. You can search by the categories, like Top Songs, or Top Artists, or simply work your way through the top 100 music videos that are ranked according to their popularity on YouTube.

YouTube Trends is a blog that covers all of the current and previous trends on the platform. You can find the most viewed gaming videos there, as well as the all-time most viewed music videos, and a list of Trending Videos that is constantly updated by the YouTube team.

How to See Your Most Viewed Videos

For those users who already have their own channel on YouTube and their own YouTube studio, learning what are the most viewed videos on their own channel is essential for future growth. To see your own most viewed videos on YouTube, follow the steps below.

You’ll then see the list of your uploaded videos on YouTube with the most viewed ones at the top of the list. You can also find other useful information in the Analytics section, such as the number of views, the average view duration, and total watch time in minutes.

Stay on Top of YouTube Trends At All Times

One way to keep all of YouTube’s popular content at hand is by saving it all to your own YouTube playlist. You can create separate lists for different categories of videos, or keep them all together in one big chart. If you want to always have access to these videos, learn to download complete YouTube playlists.

## How To Find Saved Wi

Can’t remember the password of the Wi-Fi network your Chromebook is connected to? You can easily find Chromebook Wi-Fi passwords through the Google Chrome web browser.

Google Chrome encrypts and saves the details (name and password) of all Wi-Fi networks your Chromebook joins. This tutorial will show you how to find Wi-Fi passwords on your Chromebook.

Type

chrome://sync-internals

in the address bar and press

Enter

.

Open the

Search

tab, type

wifi

in the search box, and press

Enter

Use online hex decoder tools like Base64 or JavaInUse to decrypt the network name/SSID.

Paste copied text in the hex decoder tool to decrypt/see the network name/SSID. The next step is to decrypt the network passcode or password.

Return to the Wi-Fi network’s page on Chrome’s “Sync internals” menu and copy the text in the “passphrase” row.

Paste the copied text in the online hex decoder tool to see the Wi-Fi network’s password.

Check Chromebook Wi-Fi Password in Developer Mode

An alternate method of checking Wi-Fi passwords in Chrome OS requires enabling Developer Mode and running multiple commands in the Chrome Shell terminal.

Although this method worked for some Chromebook users, some commands wouldn’t run on our test device. We suspect that finding Wi-Fi passwords in Developer Mode works on Chromebooks running specific/older Chrome OS versions. You could try the method and check if it works on your Chromebook.

Note: Enabling Developer Mode will powerwash (read: factory reset) your Chromebook—that’ll uninstall all apps and delete local data. We recommend backing up important files to Google Drive or an external storage device before enabling Developer Mode. Also, activating Developer Mode may cause hardware malfunctions/issues and void your Chromebook’s warranty.

Connect your Chromebook to a power source or ensure it holds at least 50% battery charge before you proceed. Follow the steps below to boot your Chromebook into Developer Mode.

Select the time in the bottom-right corner of the screen to open your Chromebook’s system tray. You can also use the

Alt

+

Shift

+

N

keyboard shortcut to open the system tray.

Select the

Power icon

to shut down your Chromebook. Wait 10-15 seconds for your Chromebook to shut down before proceeding to the next step.

Press and hold the

Esc

+

Refresh

+

Power

buttons simultaneously.

Release all three buttons when your Chromebook displays a recovery screen with the “Please insert a recovery USB stick or SD card” message.

Press

Ctrl

+

D

to enable Developer Mode.

Afterward, press

Enter

to turn off OS verification.

Disabling OS verification activates Developer Mode, allowing your Chromebook to boot non-Google operating systems. Wait while your Chromebook transitions into Developer Mode—the operation takes 5-10 minutes.

Press

Ctrl

+

D

on the “OS verification is OFF” screen to boot your Chromebook.

Alternatively, wait 10-20 seconds, and your Chromebook will automatically boot into Developer Mode after making a loud beep.

Now that your Chromebook is in Developer Mode, proceed to the next step to find passwords to previously connected Wi-Fi networks.

Press

Ctrl

+

Alt

+

T

to launch the Chrome Shell command-line interface/terminal.

Type or paste shell in the terminal and press

Enter

.

Afterward, type/paste sudo su in the following line and press

Enter

.

Type cd home/root and press

Enter

.

Type ls, press

Enter

, and copy the code string in the next line.

Next, type or paste more shill/shill.profile and press

Enter

.

Locate a Wi-Fi network and copy the characters after the colon on the “Passphrase=rot47:” row.

The characters are the encrypted password for the Wi-Fi network. Run the command in the next step to decrypt the network password.

You should see the password to the Wi-Fi network on the next line.

Find Wi-Fi Passwords on Other Devices

Try using Android Wi-Fi password reveal apps if you can’t check Wi-Fi passwords via Google Chrome or Developer Mode. Finding Wi-Fi passwords in Windows and macOS is more straightforward. If your Windows or Mac computers use the same Wi-Fi network(s) as your Chromebook, check the network’s password on your other device(s) instead.

## How To Find The Surface Area Of Hemisphere In Java?

A hemisphere refers to the exact half of a sphere. Means if we divide a sphere in two equal parts then we will get two hemispheres. Hemisphere is a three-dimensional geometrical shape which has one flat face.

There are many practical examples of hemispheres. The earth divided into 2 equal parts results 2 hemispheres i.e. Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere.

The area occupied by the outer surface of a three-dimensional object is called the surface area.

Formula to calculate surface area of hemisphere −

Mathematically it can be represented as

\$\$mathrm{Surface :Area := :2pi:r^2}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Surface :Area := :2pi:r^2}\$\$

Mathematically it can be represented as

Volume = 2 * pi * r * r

Where, ‘r’ refers to the radius of the hemisphere

In this article we will see how we can find the surface area of the hemisphere by using Java programming language.

To show you some instances Instance-1

Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 4.5.

Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere.

surface area = 127.234

Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 127.234

Instance-2

Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 3.5

Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere

surface area = 76.96

Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 76.96

Instance-3

Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 5

Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere

surface area = 157.07

Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 157.07

Syntax

In Java we have a predefined constant in Math class of chúng tôi package i.e. chúng tôi which gives us the pie value which is approximately equal to 3.14159265359.

Following is the syntax for that

Math.PI

To get the power of any number raised to the power of another number in Java we have inbuilt java.lang.Math.pow() method.

Following is the syntax to get power of 2 by using the method −

double power = chúng tôi (inputValue,2) Algorithm

Step 1 − Get the radius of the hemisphere either by initialization or by user input.

Step 2 − Find the surface area of the hemisphere by using the surface area formula.

Step 3 − Print the result.

Multiple Approaches

We have provided the solution in different approaches.

By Using Static Input

By Using User Input

By Using User Defined Method

Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.

Approach-1: By Using Static Input

In this approach, the radius value of the hemisphere will be initialized in the program. Then by using the algorithm we will find the surface area.

Example

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

double

=

10

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Given radius of hemisphere : “

+

)

;

double

surfaceArea

=

2

*

Math

.

PI

*

*

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Surface area of hemisphere is : “

+

surfaceArea

)

;

}

}

Output Given radius of hemisphere : 10.0 Surface area of hemisphere is : 628.3185307179587 Approach-2: By Using User Input Value

In this approach, the user will be asked to take the input of the radius value of the cone. Then by using the surface area formula of the cone, find the surface area. Here we will make use of the Java inbuilt pow() method.

Example

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

double

=

6

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Given radius of hemisphere : “

+

)

;

double

surfaceArea

=

2

*

Math

.

PI

*

Math

.

pow

(

,

2

)

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Surface area of hemisphere is : “

+

surfaceArea

)

;

}

}

Output Given radius of hemisphere : 6.0 Surface area of hemisphere is : 226.1946710584651 Approach-3: By Using User Defined Method

In this approach, the radius value of the hemisphere will be initialized in the program. Then we call a user defined method to find the volume by passing the radius value of the hemisphere as a parameter. Then inside the method by using the surface area formula, find the surface area of the hemisphere.

Example

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

double

=

5.5

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Given radius of hemisphere : “

+

)

;

findSurfaceArea

(

)

;

}

public

static

void

findSurfaceArea

(

double

)

{

double

surfaceArea

=

2

*

Math

.

PI

*

Math

.

pow

(

,

2

)

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Surface area of Hemisphere is : “

+

surfaceArea

)

;

}

}

Output Given radius of hemisphere : 5.5 Surface area of Hemisphere is : 190.0663555421825

In this article, we explored how to find the surface area of a hemisphere in Java by using different approaches.

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