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Most Linux desktop distributions come with a desktop environment that gives you an actual graphical interface rather than being limited to using a purely command-line environment as you would be on Linux server distributions. One of the many features that these desktop distributions include by default, is a graphical software update manager. This can really help to make using Linux more accessible to beginners, but it’s a good idea to learn how to use the commands, especially if you’re ever likely to work with Linux servers. On Debian-based Linux distributions such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint, the main command-line tool used to manage software updates is called “apt-get”.

Apt-get is a package manager that compares the version numbers of installed software with that in the list of online repositories to identify which applications have available updates. These updates can then be downloaded and applied. These repositories contain a huge list of software packages that can be searched and then have specified packages installed along with their dependencies.

Tip: Most software packages require other packages to be installed to be able to work. Sometimes these dependencies are already installed, if they’re not then apt-get will install them alongside the specified package automatically.

How to use apt-get

The first thing you need to do with apt-get is to download the latest update list from your configured repositories. To do so type the command “sudo apt-get update”. Doing this will ensure that the software you install or update is the latest available version.

Tip: “sudo” is a prefix used to run commands with root permissions. It should only be used where necessary due to the inherent powers of the root account but is needed for most admin tasks including software installs. When using sudo you will be asked to enter your password to confirm your identity, however, this will be remembered for a few minutes, so you won’t need to enter your password every time.

Next, you need to identify the exact name of the package you want to install. To do so, search through the repositories with the command “apt-cache search [search term]” where “[search term]” is the rough name of the software you wish to install. The search results show the name of the package on the left and a very short description on the right.

Search terms that are too loose may end up returning dozens of results of similarly named and potentially similarly functioning software. Try narrowing down your search term or using multiple terms separated by spaces. If you search for multiple words separated by spaces these terms will be applied cumulatively and only show results that match all terms.

Once you know the name of the package you want to install, type the command “sudo apt-get install [package name]” where “[package name]” is the exact name of the package you want to install. You can specify multiple packages at once by separating the names with spaces.

Once you know the name of the package you want to install, type the command “sudo apt-get install [package name]” where “[package name]” is the exact name of the package you want to install. You can specify multiple packages at once by separating the names with spaces.

If the package requires dependencies to be installed apt-get will show you the list of packages being installed and ask for confirmation. Press the “y” key to confirm the installation or “n” to abort. If the package does not need to install any dependencies, apt-get will assume that you running the command was permission enough to install it and the process will complete automatically.

Once the install is complete, you’re ready to start using your new software.

Once the install is complete, you’re ready to start using your new software.

You're reading How To Install A Program With Apt

How To Program An Arduino With A Raspberry Pi

Running a program on an Arduino is easy, but have you tried doing it with a Pi? The Raspberry Pi is powerful enough to be a standalone computer and is also good enough to program a microcontroller.

Here, we use a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ to make an Arduino Uno blink an LED!

We’ll cut this up into two parts: how to install the Arduino IDE and how to use the IDE on the Raspberry Pi. While it’s possible to program the Arduino through Platformio, doing it this way should be much simpler for someone new.

Why You Want to Use a Raspberry Pi to Program Arduino

Typically, you would want to do it because:

You can’t use a normal PC.

You’re in it for the learning experience.

But there’s more to it than that. In fact, there’s a good tradeoff between using a standalone PC and using your Raspberry Pi!


The Raspberry Pi uses way less power than even a laptop.

You can run it off a power bank when you don’t have electricity.

Saves time when you’re already using it as an IoT terminal.


Overheating might become an issue for the Raspberry Pi if you don’t have ventilation.

As it is, the Raspberry Pi is good enough if you’re making a quick, do-it-in-a-weekend IoT project. Just plug in your sensors, peripherals, and Arduino, then type in your code to see it work along with the rest of your system.

But if you’re still in the “have to figure out how this circuit works” stage, then please use a proper desktop PC. It’s gonna help with the headaches.

The Things You’ll Need

A Raspberry Pi with Raspberrry Pi OS and USB ports

An Arduino

One USB Type-A to USB Type-B connector

Computer peripherals (monitor, keyboard, and mouse)

250Ω resistor (optional)

Small LED bulb (any color, optional)

Breadboard and jumper wires (optional)

Installing the Arduino IDE

Pick “Linux ARM 32 bits.”

This should open a new window. You can change the file name at the top and the download location at the left. The “Save” button is at the bottom-right corner.

Archiver will open your file, but it’ll take a little while to finish reading it. There’s a circle down toward the lower left that blinks red and green. Wait for it to finish before doing anything else. You may as well grab a glass of water at this point.

Programming with the Arduino IDE

Run the Arduino IDE from the Pi logo. You’ll find a green window where you can write your code.

The Arduino IDE looks the same way on the Raspberry Pi as it does on a regular Windows PC.

Copy and paste the following code:

void setup





put your setup code here, to run once: Serial.begin




; pinMode






void loop





put your main code here, to run repeatedly: digitalWrite




; delay




; Serial.println


"LED on"


; digitalWrite




; delay




; Serial.println


"LED off"




The code makes the LED turn on and print “LED on” on the Serial Monitor for 0.5 seconds, then does the opposite, turning the LED off and printing “LED off” for the same amount of time.

Connect the cables. The Arduino Uno uses a USB Type-A to USB Type-B connector. The square-ish side goes to the Arduino, while the rectangle side goes to the Raspberry Pi.

Left to right: USB Type-A and USB Type-B

Upon uploading, the TX and RX LEDs will blink rapidly, then run your program, which makes the L LED turn on or off every 0.5 seconds.

To make things a little easier to see, you can try connecting an LED bulb and a 250Ω resistor between D13 and GND. Do this on a breadboard to make it easier and make sure to disconnect the Arduino from the Raspberry Pi before doing anything with the pins.

If you did it right, the LED bulb should light up and dim at regular 0.5-second intervals.

After 0.5 seconds, the LED turns from being lit up to dimming.

Arduino Etiquette

With that done, you should be able to start making anything with the Raspberry Pi and Arduino. To backtrack a bit, if you’re going to do this often, you need to learn a bit about making things easier with the Arduino.

Always remember the phrase: pins off, code up, power out.

Pins Off

Let’s start by taking all the wires off the pins. If you take along time on a new project, chances are you mat have already forgotten your pin designations. You might, for instance, wire up an output pin on “HIGH” together with another output pin on “LOW.” That’s one easy way to break a GPIO pin on a microcontroller chip!

Code Up

Code up is simple: upload your code. Always keep in mind that the Arduino is always powered up while it’s connected to the USB port.

Power Out

Lastly, when you’re going to update your circuits, always turn off the power by removing the Arduino from all power sources. The last thing you’d want to happen is putting the wrong wire in the wrong place at the worst moment to make smoke pop out of whatever you’re doing. Remember, short circuits can ruin your project instantly.

Frequently Asked Questions Can you also program the Arduino Uno on Raspberry Pi?

Any board, as long as it’s supported by the Arduino IDE, would work with Raspberry Pi. It’s basically the same as coding on a normal PC with a Linux distribution.

Which Raspberry Pi boards will this method work with?

The ability to program Arduino should work with all of the Raspberry Pi microprocessor boards except the Zero, which doesn’t have built-in USB ports. This also won’t work on the Nano, which can’t run Raspberry Pi OS.

Can I run multiple Arduino boards on the Raspberry Pi at the same time?

Yes, you can, but there’s a catch: the Raspberry Pi’s USB output is limited to about 1.2A of current. If you’re using multiple servos, then having them all move around at the same time may cause some boards to restart after experiencing a sudden power dip.

Terenz Jomar Dela Cruz

Terenz is a hobbyist roboticist trying to build the most awesome robot the world has ever seen. He could have done that already if he wasn’t so busy burning through LEDs as a second hobby.

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The Ultimate Guide To Apt And Apt

For many people entering into Debian/Ubuntu-based Linux distros for the firest time, package management may seem convoluted. Some tutorials tell you to use “apt,” others “apt-get,” and some really old or specific ones use “aptitude.” It’s high time to get down to the absolute minutiae and explain the “why, where, what, and how” of the strange and somewhat divided world in this little corner of the Linux universe.

If you are new to Linux, you may want to check out these useful Bash commands before heading to the terminal.

Defining Apt-Get, Apt, Aptitude, and DPKG

Regardless of all the small details that distinguish them, apt, apt-get, and aptitude are all just different calling cards for Debian’s package management system that interacts with online repositories. As if there weren’t enough of these already, there’s also one more package management tool in Debian or Ubuntu-based systems you might have heard of that deals with on-disk installations: dpkg.

DPKG is a tool that runs in the background every time you install a .deb package. Apt, Apt-get and Aptitude all use dpkg to install packages.

What’s Aptitude? What Is APT?

Known as the Advanced Packaging Tool, APT is Debian’s solution to mainstreaming the process of removing, installing, searching for, and managing the various applications you install in the operating system. Every distro based on it uses APT, though not all implementations of APT are equal. We’ll get to this in a bit.

For now, it’s important to note that APT as a package manager is not the apt command. It instead encompasses a variety of APT-related commands like apt-get, apt-mark, and apt-cache.

Think of Aptitude as the interactive command center of all your package management and APT as the Swiss-army knife that lets you quickly perform simpler tasks related to installing, removing, and updating your packages and repositories.

What Distros Use APT?

If your distro is described as “Debian-based,” it uses the APT tool in one way or another. This includes but isn’t limited to:



Linux Mint

MX Linux


Kali Linux



Raspberry Pi OS

Elementary OS

There are many, many more distributions based on Debian, so if you’re using something that isn’t listed here, check whether the apt-get command works by simply typing it in your terminal. If your terminal returns a confused message about the command not existing, then you’re definitely not running anything touched by Debian or Ubuntu developers.

Apt-get vs. Apt

In many online tutorials involving the installation of a package, you’ll see apt-get and apt being used interchangeably as commands on Debian-based systems. When it comes to installing and removing stuff, there is indeed no difference which command you use. Just don’t confuse this for the two being versions of the other.

Remember how I said apt-get is simply one of a few other commands in the Advanced Packaging Tool? For someone who’s new to APT, it can be a little disorienting to have to memorize which commands are valid for apt-get, apt-mark, and apt-cache. For example, did you know that the command to search for a package is apt-cache search?

What if all three of these commands’ most useful functions for day-to-day life were more uniform?

This is exactly what the apt command does by itself. These three letters, when typed into your terminal, act as a “wrapper” for the APT ecosystem, simplifying the process for people who spend much of their time scribbling at their terminals.

When searching for a package, apt search should mostly return the same results as apt-cache search.

Instead of typing apt-cache search, apt-mark hold, and apt-get remove in your terminal, you can instead use apt search, apt hold, and apt remove.

APT is an ecosystem where both apt-get install and apt install are both valid options but behave a little differently. The simple apt is an application that wraps around the old-school APT commands to provide a simpler structure that’s more intuitive to users who don’t want to memorize a bunch of different commands to perform different tasks with their package managers.

In some distros like Ubuntu, the apt command is a separate application that will sometimes just execute one of the older commands with specific options enabled (like a progress bar when installing), making it appear more feature-rich to newer users who don’t want to complicate themselves with several obscure flags in the package manager.

Other distros like Linux Mint achieve the same thing by making a simple Python wrapper. To the end user, both will appear identical.

A Word on APT Flags

If you paid close attention to the images showing the outputs of both search commands, they show slightly different information, as the apt command grabs information about the status of the application in your system in addition to whatever apt-cache search puts out.

Now is probably a good time to explain what that “i” meant next to the package name in the output of apt search. It’s a flag placed by aptitude, the front-end of the Debian package tool.

Below is a list of flags you’ll see in your terminal and what they mean:

A – automatically installed, perhaps as part of a larger meta-package or the installation of the operating system itself.

B – the package is flagged as broken and must be reinstalled.

H – half-installed. The package needs to finish installing.

c – the package was removed, but its “ghost” lingers on in the form of configuration files. You can solve this by using apt-get purge or apt purge, followed by the name of the package with this flag.

p – package purged or was never installed.

v – the package is installed and is generically used by others to provide a function. For example, Firefox provides browsing capabilities that can be used by other applications, making it a virtual package.

i – this package is installed in your system.

h – there’s a hold on this package, preventing it from being updated to newer versions.

Not All APT Implementations Are Equal!

Before going any further into the topic of package management, it’s extremely important to note that the apt command may have more available arguments in one distro than it does in another. For example, Ubuntu lacks “hold” while Mint has it.

To fully take in what I’m saying here, we need to have a look at the Ubuntu and Mint listings for what arguments you can pass in apt and see the sheer chasm between the two.

The below image shows Ubuntu on my newly minted (pun intended) test-bed for tutorials.

The following image shows Linux Mint.

By far, Mint has the most fleshed-out wrapper of all Debian-based distributions I’ve seen up until now. This isn’t surprising when you realize it was tailor-made by the community that maintains Mint to cater both to starters who just want to install their apps in peace with a short command and to the turbo-geeks who want to tune everything just the way they want with millimeter precision.

The Ultimate Guide to APT Commands

There’s no better way to understand the power of the APT package system than sinking your teeth into some important commands. The list will consist of APT commands followed by the apt simplification, where it’s applicable, in parentheses. If the simplification does not work in your particular distro, it’s either because yours hasn’t included it for some reason or you’re not running Mint’s behemoth of a wrapper. In that case, you can safely fall back on the vanilla command without losing too much.

Add a Repository

add-apt-repository – adds a new repository to your list of software sources from a package maintainer.

For example, if I want to add Lutris’s current repository for Mint 20, I can type either sudo add-apt-repository or sudo apt add-repository, followed by ppa:lutris-team/lutris. Each repository is unique, and most application developers that don’t have packages found in the official ones for your distro will include instructions that will point you to their own.

Clean & Autoremove

apt clean & apt autoremove – often used together, these two commands sweep out the dust in your system in the form of lingering install scripts and installation media you no longer need (clean), as well as automatically freeing your storage of packages that no one uses or depends on (autoremove).

Example: sudo apt autoremove && sudo apt clean will hoover all the unnecessary applications and cache files from your main drive in one single line in your terminal.

If you just want to remove a file, you can use the rm command instead or the dd command if you want to free up the disk usage space.


apt changelog – spot the latest changes in a package.

Example: apt changelog brave-browser will tell me what the latest version of the Brave browser includes compared to its last revision.


apt contains – found only in Linux Mint and maybe a few other Ubuntu-derived distros, this command is what you use when you encounter a “file not found” kind of error in a program. With some luck, apt contains will find that file for you in some far-flung folder from an application you installed!

Example: apt contains chúng tôi will look for the application that contains the shell script for gettext. If you have gettext-base installed in your Mint distro, you should find the app that has it immediately!

Install & Reinstall

apt install – as the name implies, it installs a package. Passing the --reinstall flag will immediately reinstall your package.

Example of installing: sudo apt install firefox. Example of a Firefox reinstallation: sudo apt reinstall firefox. A more simple variant through the apt wrapper is sudo apt reinstall firefox.

If you prefer a graphical application to help you install applications, you can check out Synaptic Package Manger.

Remove (Uninstall)

apt remove – Another frequently used tool in the terminal cave-diver’s arsenal. This command will uninstall anything that was installed either by the APT ecosystem or the DPKG package manager.

Example: sudo apt remove grub-customizer.

Update, Upgrade & Hold

apt update – this command does not update the applications in your system. It simply refreshes the APT cache so that your system can compare the versions available in your repositories with what’s currently installed on your system. It’s checking for updates but not performing them.

apt upgrade – this will download updates to your packages that your system found if they are available. You generally don’t have to close anything that’s running to perform this.

apt hold/unhold/showhold – This series of commands manages your held applications. Holding a package tells your operating system not to update it in the future. With hold and unhold, you can initiate or cancel an update hold on an application. The showhold argument will list what you currently have on hold. If you can’t use this in your installed system, try apt-mark showhold instead!

Example: sudo apt hold pulseaudio. A word to the wise: holding updates on packages that others depend on may damage your system in the long term if you’re not certain what you’re doing.

Search & Show

apt search/show – This lovely pair of commands bonds well together. Use the first to find a package, then use show followed by the package’s full name to find out more details about it.

Example: sudo apt search gimp.

If you wish to read more on the intricacies of APT for your particular distro that may not have been covered here, their manuals are in the terminal. Just type man before the command without any further arguments, and press Enter.

Tip: you can also search the web from the terminal.

The Dreaded APT “command not found” Issue

If you can’t install anything on your terminal because APT just went poof and disappeared, this isn’t the end of the world. With a little bit of elbow grease, you’ll have your favorite package manager up and running.

First, if this is a new system, just double-check that it’s supposed to be using APT as a package manager. Fedora uses DNF/yum, Arch uses Pacman, Solus uses EOPKG, openSUSE uses zypper, and Mandriva uses urpmi. If your distro is not listed anywhere, you’ll have to look up its documentation on package management, usually found on the site where you got the distro in the first place.

Once you’re sure you’re in a Debian-based system and APT is indeed missing, it’s time to move on to the next step.

To walk you through this with a little extra stake in the matter, I am crippling my Ubuntu system and will not allow myself the easy escape of reinstalling the OS!

The result is now either a “command not found” error or an inability to process the command.

It’s time to go and find the appropriate APT package for our system and install it. Since we don’t have APT to work with, we can’t automatically download the dependencies either.

In my case, upon attempting to install the latest version of APT, the dependencies were all there but were not recent enough.

You discover these things when you type dpkg -i /path/to/your/apt/deb/file. Obviously, you need to replace that phony path I typed with whatever path corresponds to the .deb file you downloaded from the website.

Instead of version 2.3.11, I chose to go for version 2.0.6, which is what is typically installed in Mint at the time of writing.

After fiddling around with versions here and there, you’re going to eventually stumble upon one that works with your current setup. This is what happened to me. After typing sudo dpkg -i followed by this older package, it installed smoothly.

Generally, APT’s most dire dependencies are things your system wouldn’t be missing. However, since you’re missing APT, anything’s possible. In any case, if you find that you lack one of the dependencies listed after looking with dpkg -I as discussed earlier, have a look through the parent folders in the linked repository. They should be in their corresponding alphabetically-sorted folders.

Frequently Asked Questions Are there unsafe APT commands?

Generally, if you type anything APT-related in your terminal, you should be aware of what that command is about to do. Before major updates, especially those where you install a new kernel, make a full backup of your system just to be safe.

All that aside, the commands you have to really be careful with are apt hold and apt full-upgrade/dist-upgrade. Holding may break your system until you lift your holds, especially if you’re doing it to dependencies of other applications. They may fall too far behind and not perform the functions those applications expect them to.

full-upgrade and dist-upgrade are only useful when your distro releases a new long-term version that you’d like to migrate to, but they will also potentially remove installed packages that you were accustomed to using. You’re generally in much safer territory by performing a normal apt upgrade, then doing an apt autoremove to clear out the packages truly gathering dust.

Is Apt better than Apt-get?

I know this is a tired statement, but it really does depend on what you’re doing. Are your fingers getting rug burn from typing so many commands? You may want to use apt as a shortcut if you don’t need something specific that apt-get would be more suitable for. In many ways, apt not only streamlines the package management process but also provides extra information as we saw earlier when comparing apt-get search to apt search.

However, if you’re not on Mint with its gargantuan argument list for apt that almost entirely renders apt-get superfluous, you may have to use apt-get to do some more niche tasks.

What's the difference between a repository and an app store?

To the day-to-day user, the differences are insignificant. Where they begin to part ways is in software “fungibility.” Linux has a very fluid software market, where users are presented with a sometimes-overwhelming amount of choices. Smartphone app stores are pretty much set in stone, and it’s hard to imagine users seeking alternatives.

At the same time, in theory, the personal package archives (PPAs) that people enjoy using in Ubuntu can be compromised and lead to the proliferation of malicious software by bad actors.

If there’s one thing to take away from this, it’s that decentralization comes with some responsibility on the part of the user. Make sure that the repositories you add to your distro are from sources you can trust and projects that have stood for a long time.

Image credit: All images by author.

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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Galaxy S Iii Just The Latest With Apt

Galaxy S III just the latest with apt-X Bluetooth audio

There’s a trend going on right this second in the streaming audio world and Samsung’s Galaxy S III has just gotten on board – high definition Bluetooth-sent audio with aptX. This technology has been working for a while now on such products as Apple’s Snow Leopard, Lion, the Motorola DROID RAZR, and Samsung’s own Galaxy Tab 7.0, but up until now here with this newest range of smartphones has the scale tipped. Both the Galaxy S III and the hero range HTC One with the X, S, and V, will soon bring about a revolution in Bluetooth streaming media with aptX (aka apt-X) – let’s see why!

Before aptX, there was Standard Bluetooth Codec, also known as SBC. This technology has quite a bit of weakness built-in simply because it was made public and spread across the earth before it was really perfected. What the teams working with aptX technology have done is to bring the tonal quality a whole lot closer to CD-quality and certainly have made its reliability for quality much-improved over SBC. Have a peek at an extremely easy to visualize chart made by one of the groups working with aptX on the speaker end of the equation, Cambridge Audio, to see the difference in delivery.

What you’re seeing here is RED for SBC and GREEN for aptX. The scale shows distortion which occurs when 32 pure equidistant tones are fed into both of these technologies. What you’re seeing here is SBC having a whole heck of a lot more distortion (bad) than aptX which stays relatively well balanced throughout the test.

What this means for you, the Samsung Galaxy S III or HTC One device owner is that you’ll be able to rock out over Bluetooth without worrying about distortion as you have in the past – time to break out the bluetooth earbuds, headphones, and speakers – though good luck finding them on the market! Check out the Sennheiser PX 210 BT apt-X headphones for an example of “true hi-fi quality.” And check the timeline for a couple more!

Update: we’ve now got a full list of aptX enabled products – have a look!

aptX enabled products available April 2012

HTC Products



HTC One V Smartphone

HTC Car StereoClip (Aux) Bluetooth Adaptor

Creative Products

Creative Inspire S2 Wireless Bluetooth Stereo Speaker

Creative ZiiSound D5 Bluetooth Wireless Speaker

Creative Products

Creative T12 Wireless 2.0 Wireless PC Speakers

Creative D200 Wireless Bluetooth Speaker

Creative T6 Wireless Bluetooth Speaker

WP-300 Stereo Bluetooth Headphones

Creative ZiiO 10″ Android Tablet

Creative ZiiO 7″ Android Tablet

Creative BT-D5 iPhone/iPod/iPad transmitter

Creative BT-D1 USB transmitter

Creative WP-450 Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Creative WP-350 Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Creative ZiiSound D5x Bluetooth Modular Speaker

Creative ZiiSound D3x Bluetooth Modular Speaker

Creative Zen XFi-3 Bluetooth MP3 Player

Sennheiser Products

Sennheiser PX 210 BT Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Sennheiser PX 310 BT Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Sennheiser PXC 360 BT Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Sennheiser PX 360 BT Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Sennheiser BTD300i Wireless stereo transmitter for iPhone/iPod

Sennheiser BTD 300 Audio Wireless stereo transmitter for portable audio devices

Sennheiser BTD 300 USB Wireless stereo transmitter for PC and laptop

BTD 500 USB Dongle

MM 400 X Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

MM 450 X Travel Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Products from Apple

Apple Mac Mini Desktop computer

Apple Macbook Air Laptop computer

Apple Macbook Laptop computer

Apple Mac OS X Snow Leopard Operating System

Apple Mac OS X Lion Operating System

Products from Jaybird

Jaybird Sportsband SB2 Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Jaybird iSport Bluetooth adaptor for iPhone/iPod

Jaybird Sportsband SB2 Universal Bluetooth adaptor

Products from Altec Lansing

Altec Lansing inMotion Air Bluetooth Stereo Speaker

Products from Chord Electronics

Chordette Gem Bluetooth Audio Receiver

Chordette Peach DAC with Bluetooth

Chordette Maxx Amplifier

Products from QED

QED Uplay Bluetooth Audio Receiver

Products from Conran

Conran iPod Dock iPod Dock with Bluetooth

Products from Samsung

Samsung Galaxy 7.0 Plus Android Tablet

Samsung Galaxy 7.7 Plus Android Tablet

Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1 Android Tablet

HS6000 Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Samsung DAE-570 Audio Dock

Samsung DAE-550 Audio Dock

Products from Motorola

Motorola Razr Smartphone

Motorola SF600

Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Products from Logitec

LBT-MPSP100 Bluetooth Speaker

LBT-TVOH02A Bluetooth Headphones and dongle

Products from iTech


Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

Products from Nokia

Nokia Play 360 Bluetooth Speaker

Nokia Wireless Music Receiver Bluetooth Speaker

Products from Soundmatters

foxL v2 Plantinum Portable Bluetooth Speaker

Products from NuForce

BT-860 Bluetooth Stereo Headphones

NAD VISO 1 iPod Dock


DC50 (DoCoMo) & JA07 Softbank Mobile Smartphone


Houseparty Rise iPod Dock

Houseparty iPod Dock


StreamCast Module USB Dongle


113 DAC

Cambridge Audio

BT-100 Audio Receiver Bluetooth receiver


Braven 650 portable speaker

How To Install Microsoft Office On A Chromebook

Earlier on, we noted in our Chromebook vs Laptop comparison that Chrome OS is improving and making its way to become a desktop-class operating system. That said, users hold back from permanently moving to a Chromebook because it does not support many of their favorite apps, especially the Office programs. Sure, there are Android and web versions of MS Office available on Chromebooks, but they don’t cut it for pro users. So if you want to run the full-fledged version of Microsoft Office then you have come to the right place. Here, we detail a complete guide on how to install Microsoft Office on a Chromebook. So without further delay, let’s go through the guide.

Run Microsoft Office on a Chromebook

Here, you can get an overview of how we are going to install MS Office on a Chromebook. I would suggest you stick to the guide so you don’t get any errors during the installation process. On that note, let’s begin.

Download Microsoft Office on Your Chromebook

Before anything, let me tell you that Microsoft Office 2007 works the best on Chromebooks. You can try the latest versions but you might face some installation errors.  So if you have a copy of MS Office 2007 in a CD or your old PC then transfer it to the Chromebook. In case, you don’t have it stored then you will have to get it for cheap from eBay or Amazon. Make sure to buy MS Office from a trusted seller.

Install Microsoft Office on Your Chromebook

1. Now that you have got a copy of MS Office 2007 let us proceed with the installation. You need to enable Linux and set up Wine 5.0 on your Chromebook (just follow the first part). For your information, Wine is a compatibility layer that allows Windows apps to run on a Chromebook through the Linux container.

2. Once you have done that, move the MS Office folder to the Linux files section in the Files app. Make sure to rename the folder to something short. For instance, I have renamed it to just office.

3. Now, open the Linux Terminal and run the below command to move to the office folder.

cd office

4. You are now inside the office directory. Here, execute the below command to start the MS Office installation process on your Chromebook.

wine setup.exe

5. It will open the installer window. If you are prompted with a serial key dialog then you will have to find it on your CD or inside the folder. Once you enter the serial key, the installation process will begin.

7. Just to test things out, you can run the below command to check whether MS Office is working properly on your Chromebook. Make sure to change yourusername to your actual one. You can find your username in the highlighted portion of the Terminal window.

wine "/home/


/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Office/Office12/WINWORD.EXE"

10. If the scaling is too low then open Terminal and run winecfg. It will open the Wine configuration window. Here, move to the “Graphics” tab and increase the screen resolution to 140dpi.

Fix the Shortcuts

wine "/home/


/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Office/Office12/WINWORD.EXE"

5. You can repeat the above step for other programs too like Excel, PowerPoint, etc. and fix the shortcuts. Here are the commands you need to replace within the Text file for various shortcuts.


wine "/home/


/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Office/Office12/POWERPNT.EXE"


wine "/home/


/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Office/Office12/EXCEL.EXE"


wine "/home/


/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Office/Office12/ONENOTE.EXE" Enjoy MS Word, Excel, and Other Office Apps on a Chromebook

So that is how you can install Microsoft Office on a Chromebook. On my i5-powered Chromebook, the Office experience has been flawless, especially while using the 2007 version of the MS Office. You just need to follow the instructions step-by-step and you will be able to run all your favorite Office apps on your Chromebook.

Windows 11: How To Install A Virtual Machine

These can be safely ignored most of the time, but what if you’re trying a new app and it asks to make changes to your device? Or perhaps you’re following a tutorial that involves editing the Registry, risking irreversible damage to your PC if things go wrong. 

Equally, you might be curious about a different operating system, but don’t want to go through the hassle of buying a separate device you may never use.  

In all these scenarios, a solution is available for all Windows 11 users: virtual machines. 

What is a virtual machine?

If you think of each laptop or PC as a physical machine, a virtual machine achieves the same effect using software. It allows you to run a full version of any operating system that’s completely separate from your main computer. 

On Windows 11, you might be reluctant to make big changes and potentially not being able to go back to how things were. Using a virtual machine, that’s not a problem. 

But Windows 11 isn’t an upgrade over its predecessor in all areas. Creating a Windows 10 virtual machine lets you dip in and out whenever you like.  

Or maybe you’re curious as to how other operating systems work these days. Provided you can get your hands on an ISO file of macOS, Chrome OS, Linux or Ubuntu, all can be installed as virtual machines.  

You can create as many of these as you like, but you probably won’t want to run them all simultaneously. Virtual machines typically require a lot of your computer’s resources, so use one at a time unless you have lots of spare RAM capacity. 

How to create a virtual machine in Windows 11

The first stage involves downloading the operating system you’d like to create a virtual machine for. For the purposes of this tutorial, it’s a Windows 11 ISO file from the Microsoft website. An equivalent file is also available for Windows 10, but you’ll have to go elsewhere for other operating systems. 

Once complete, make sure the ISO file can be easily located within File Explorer. Then, you’ll need to pair it with software that can run virtual machines. On Windows 11 Home, that’s only available via a third-party app. We’re using VMware’s Workstation Player, but other software will also work: 

Head to the VMware website and download Workstation Player for Windows. It’s free for personal use 

Anyron Copeman / Foundry

Once complete, open the file and allow it to make changes, before restarting your device 

Follow the instructions to complete installation, using recommended settings and not entering a licence key 

Enter at least 64 as the ‘Maximum disk size (GB)’ and select ‘Store virtual disk as a single file’ before hitting ‘Next’

Follow the setup process as normal, choosing ‘I don’t have a product key’ 

If you see a message saying, ‘This PC can’t run Windows 11’, hit Shift + F10 on your keyboard 

Anyron Copeman / Foundry

Close the window and go back one step on the setup 

It will refresh once complete, then follow the setup process as normal 

That’s it! You’ll now have a fully functioning Windows 11 virtual machine that works independently of your main PC. 

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