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CentOS 8 reached its end of life on December 31, 2023, and there will be no further updates or security fixes released for the operating system. If you are running a CentOS 8 server, it’s time to start thinking about migrating to a new operating system.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to migrate from CentOS 8 to AlmaLinux.What Is AlmaLinux OS?
AlmaLinux OS is a reliable, user-friendly, and powerful operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). AlmaLinux is sponsored by CloudLinux and released under the GNU General Public License. AlmaLinux is very similar to CentOS and is the best option if you are looking to move away from CentOS.Why Use AlmaLinux?
There are many reasons to use AlmaLinux. Some of the benefits include:
A fork of RHEL, so it is compatible with all RHEL software and applications.
Backed by a large and active community.
Provides regular updates and security fixes.
Includes all the features you need in a server operating system.Prerequisites
Before you begin this guide, you should have the following:
CentOS server. You should also be logged in as a user with sudo privileges. CentOS 8 is used as an example, but the steps should be similar for other versions of CentOS.
10GB of free disk space, as the migration process will require space to download the new AlmaLinux files from the Internet and install them.
Sufficient RAM for the migration process (4GB or more is recommended).
Before you can migrate from CentOS to AlmaLinux, you need to make sure that your CentOS server is up to date. You will want to make sure that all of the latest security patches and software updates have been installed to ensure a smooth transition to AlmaLinux.
You can update your server by running the following command:
After the updates have been installed, you will need to reboot your server to ensure that they have been applied properly.
Reboot your server by running the following command:
sudoreboot Checking Your Server’s Hardware Compatibility
Before you can install AlmaLinux, you need to make sure that your server’s hardware is compatible. AlmaLinux requires a 64-bit processor and at least 4 GB of RAM.
Check your server’s processor type by running the following command.
If the command returns “x86_64” as shown, your server’s processor is compatible with AlmaLinux.
You can check your server’s RAM by running the following command, which will return information about your server’s memory usage. Make sure that the “free” value is greater than 4000MB.
Finally, check the release version of your CentOS server.
If the command returns “CentOS” and “8,” as shown in the below output, then your server is running CentOS 8 and is compatible with AlmaLinux.Downloading the AlmaLinux Deployment Script
At this point, you should have a server that is running CentOS 8 and up to date. The next step is to download the AlmaLinux deployment script. There are two ways to migrate from CentOS to AlmaLinux.
You can manually migrate your server, but it requires much more time and effort. You will need to remove all of the existing CentOS packages, keys, and branding, then install AlmaLinux. This can be a difficult process, so it’s recommended that you only use this method if you are an experienced Linux user.
Alternatively, you can use the AlmaLinux deployment bash script that automates most of the migration process. This tutorial will show you how to use the AlmaLinux deployment script.
After the AlmaLinux deployment script has been downloaded, run the ls command to verify that the file exists on your server.
-lachúng tôi will see output similar to the following:
Finally, open the AlmaLinux deployment script in a text editor to review the contents. You should always review the contents of a script that is downloaded from the Internet before you run it on your server. Close the file when you are satisfied.
nanochúng tôi From CentOS to AlmaLinux
Before you run the script, you must make it executable. By default, the AlmaLinux deployment script is not executable – it’s just a text file.
Make the AlmaLinux deployment script executable by running the following command:
chmod+x chúng tôi the following command to run the AlmaLinux deployment script:
The ./ portion of the command tells Linux to look in the current directory for the “almalinux-deploy.sh” script.
The AlmaLinux deployment script will start running and the necessary files for the migration. This process can take some time depending on your server’s Internet connection and specs.
The script cleans up the old RPM database and replaces it with a new one that is compatible with AlmaLinux.
Once the process completes, you will see the following message. As you can see, using the AlmaLinux deployment script is a breeze, and it only takes a few minutes to migrate your server from CentOS to AlmaLinux.Verifying the Migration
With all the hard work done, the final step is to verify the migration by checking the version of AlmaLinux that is running on your server.
To check the version of AlmaLinux, type the following command:
You will see output similar to the following. At the time of writing, AlmaLinux 8.6 is the latest version, so the server is running AlmaLinux and up to date.
Access the GUI (graphical user interface). This time, you will see the AlmaLinux welcome screen, which completes the migration from CentOS to AlmaLinux. Enter your login information and start using AlmaLinux.
You have successfully migrated your server from CentOS to AlmaLinux using the AlmaLinux deployment script. Having done so, you may want to use these tools to secure your Linux server or make use of SELinux that comes with AlmaLinux.Frequently Asked Questions Is AlmaLinux Safe?
Yes, AlmaLinux is a safe and secure operating system. It is based on CentOS, which is a rock-solid stable platform. AlmaLinux has undergone multiple security audits and is trusted by some of the largest companies in the world.Is AlmaLinux Free?
Yes, AlmaLinux is free to use. You can take a look at the AlmaLinux page for more information.Is AlmaLinux the same as CentOS?
Yes and no. AlmaLinux is based on CentOS and shares many similarities with CentOS. AlmaLinux has its own dedicated team of developers and is not affiliated with Red Hat. However, it’s compatible with all Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) software.
Image credit: Laptop computer displaying logo of CentOS by 123RF. All screenshots by Nicholas Xuan Nguyen.
Nicholas Xuan Nguyen
I am a big fan of Linux and open source software. I have been using Linux for over a decade and I absolutely love it. I am also a big fan of writing. In my spare time, I enjoy reading, playing video games.
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You're reading How To Migrate From Centos To Almalinux
If you’ve just upgraded your PC and want to migrate Windows 10 to a new hard drive, you’ll have to consider your options. This is a job that beginners might struggle with, but it doesn’t have to be—you just need to figure out how you’re going to move your files from A to B and ensure Windows will boot from your new drive.
There are a few ways you can do this. You could create a new system image to migrate from one drive of equal size to another. Alternatively, you could consider cloning your hard drive to copy your installation, especially if your drives are different sizes. Here’s what you’ll need to do to begin the process.
Table of ContentsBefore You Move Windows 10 to a New Hard Drive
Before you consider a transfer of Windows 10 to a new hard drive, you should consider backing up your essential files, independently of any new system image you create.
While this process shouldn’t have an impact on your original drive and files, you may cause data loss if you accidentally overwrite your initial drive in the process. To be sure that your data is safe, you should always perform an independent backup of your files using portable media (such as a USB drive) or online cloud storage.
Once you’ve backed up your essential files, you’ll have two options to consider. The process to move Windows 10 to a new hard drive depends on if you’re moving to a drive of equivalent or larger size or if the drive is smaller, as the process will vary.
However, if you’re moving to a drive that’s smaller than the original, you won’t be able to use this method, as Windows will show an error during the re-imaging process. Instead, you’ll need to transfer Windows 10 to a new hard drive using third-party tools that will allow you to copy the files successfully to the smaller drive.Create a New System Image to Migrate Windows to Drives of Equivalent or Larger Size
If you want to migrate Windows 10 to an equivalently-sized or larger hard drive than the original, the best method is to use Windows’ own system imaging tool. This will allow you to copy your original drive exactly to your new drive.
It’s important to stress that this method only works if you’re using a drive of equivalent or larger size. If it’s smaller, you’ll need to follow the steps below to use a third-party tool instead.
In the older Control Panel window, select the Create a system image option, visible in the left-hand menu. Make sure to connect an external drive (such as an external USB hard drive) at this point, unless you plan on using a network location to store your system image (such as a network attached storage device).
A new Create a system image menu will open and automatically begin scanning for a suitable external drive or network location to store the system image. If you’re using a portable hard drive, select this from the On a hard disk drop-down menu. If you’re using a network storage location, choose the On a network location option, then select a suitable location on your network to store the file. Select Next to continue.
Windows will confirm the partitions on your drive that will be copied to the new system image. Select Start backup to begin.
Allow the system image creation process to finish. Once completed, Windows will ask you if you want to create a new system repair disk. It may be a good idea to do this, especially if you manage to corrupt your MBR or GPT boot files in the process. However, you can select either Yes or No to proceed.
After creating the new system image, you’re ready to use it on your new drive. At this stage, connect your new hard drive to your PC and remove the existing hard drive. You could also leave your existing hard drive in place and format it, allowing you to repurpose it as a secondary storage drive.Use a System Image to Move Windows to a New Hard Drive
With a new system image of your existing drive ready, you can use the image to create a complete copy of your Windows installation on a new hard drive. As we’ve mentioned previously, you can only do this if the new drive is the same size or larger than the previous system drive.
To begin, insert your Windows installation media using a portable USB memory stick or DVD. Once inserted, boot your PC and ensure that your BIOS or UEFI settings prioritize that drive over any other drives. Once the Windows installation menu appears, select Next, then select Repair your computer in the bottom left corner.
Windows should automatically detect the system image on your external hard drive in the Re-image your computer menu. If it doesn’t, select the Select a system image option to locate it manually. Otherwise, leave the Use the latest available system image (recommended) option selected, then select Next to continue.
Using the new system image, your new hard drive will be formatted with the same partitions as the previous drive. If you want to exclude any partitions first, select Exclude disks and uncheck them. Otherwise, select Next to continue.
If you’ve copied your files to a new drive of the same size, you won’t need to do anything else at this stage—Windows will boot as normal, and you can resume using your PC. If you’ve cloned your drive to a larger sized drive, however, you may need to take additional steps to utilize the additional space.Resize the System Partition After Using a System Image
A system image clones your drive entirely, recreating all available partitions on the previous drive to the exact sizes as the original partitions. If you’ve used a system image to move Windows to a larger hard drive, you’ll need to resize the system partition (C:) to utilize all of the available space on the new drive.
In the Extend Volume Wizard menu, select Next, then ensure that the amount of additional space (equivalent to the figure in the Maximum available space in MB box) is selected in the Select the amount of space in MB box. Select Next to continue.
Confirm that the details are correct, then select Finish to complete the process.
After a few moments, your system partition will be expanded to include the additional space on your drive, ensuring that all available drive space is usable.Transfer Windows 10 to a Different Sized Hard Drive Using Third-Party Software
Using a new system image to clone your hard drive is still the best way to migrate Windows 10 to a new hard drive. Unfortunately, as this process doesn’t work if you’re moving from a larger to smaller drive, you’ll need to use third-party software to copy Windows instead.
Various tools exist for this method, but one good (and free) option is to use Macrium Reflect Free. The free version of Macrium Reflect allows you to clone your Windows installation from a larger to a smaller drive, resizing the partition table in the process. You can also use this to clone Windows to a larger driver if you’d prefer.
Before you follow these steps, make sure that both your existing hard drive and new hard drive are connected to your PC and are detectable in Windows.
To begin, download and install the Home Use version of Macrium Reflect Free from the Macrium Reflect website. Once installed, run the software and make sure that the checkbox next to the disk containing your system partition (C:) is selected. Once selected, select the Clone this disk option below it.
In the Clone menu, select your new (smaller) drive by selecting the Select a disk to clone to option in the Destination section.
With the new disk selected, you’ll need to delete any existing partitions on the drive by first selecting them in the Destination category, then selecting the Delete Existing partition option to remove them.
With any existing partitions on your new drive removed, drag and drop each of the partitions on your drive (excluding the system C: partition) from the Source category to the Destination category. Leaving your system partition (C:) last, drag and drop that partition onto the Destination category.
Macrium Reflect will automatically resize your system partition to use up the remaining space on your new drive if your new drive is smaller than the original. If you’d like to change the size of your C: partition (or you’re using a larger drive, so wish to resize it to use up the additional space), select it in the Destination category first, then select the Cloned Partition Properties option.
In the Partition Properties menu, resize your partition using the Partition Size box. If you’re using a larger drive, make sure that the Free Space box reaches 0 MB to ensure you’re utilizing all available space. Select OK to confirm the change.
Select Finish to confirm your cloning options.
Leave the options intact in the Backup Save Options menu that appears next, then select OK to confirm.
Macrium will need permission to delete existing partitions and begin the cloning process. Select the available checkbox in the Confirm Overwrite menu, then select Continue to proceed. Allow some time for the cloning process to finish.
Once completed, your existing hard drive containing your Windows installation and all other files will be cloned to your new drive. You can shut down your PC and remove your previous hard drive at this stage, or use Disk Management to format and repurpose it instead.Final Steps
Whether you’re using a Windows 10 system image to move to a new drive of the same size, or using third-party software like Macrium Reflect to clone it instead, you’ll be ready to boot up and use your new drive without any further steps. You may need to resize your system partition if the drive is bigger than the original, however.
LastPass is a password manager that comes as a browser extension, app, and also includes plugins. This freemium tool comes in very handy when it comes to keeping all your essential passwords safe.
But, there’s a common question – if this tool is sufficient on its own, why export our passwords?
That’s because ever since March 2023, you can only use the password manager tool on one device if you’re on the free plan. This means that you can’t store and sync your passwords on both two devices, like your phone and your PC. So, this is where exporting passwords comes into the picture.
You can find detailed steps on how to export passwords from LastPass in our article below. These methods are helpful when you want a record of your password data, or you want to switch to another platform to save passwords.How to Export Passwords from LastPass?
One easy way to export passwords from LastPass is to export your passwords from the browser extension in a CSV file. You can follow these steps to do so:
Note: Your password info in a CSV file is unencrypted, meaning your data will be at risk. So, we recommend making sure you’re connected to a secure and private network and not using a public hotspot.
You can now take your exported file and import it to another password manager.Import Passwords from LastPass to Chrome
If you want to try a free LastPass password manager alternative, Chrome Password Manager is a decent option. Chrome keeps all your passwords generally safe and auto-fills them whenever you need to log in to any website. Since you now have the exported CSV file, you can easily import it to Chrome in the following quick steps:
Unlike LastPass, Chrome will sync the changes to the Chrome app for mobile as well. So, you can access your passwords on your phone as well.
Note: Since your CSV file is vulnerable and anyone can access it, we recommend deleting the file as soon as you’ve imported it to another platform.Move Passwords from LastPass to iCloud Keychain
If you’re a Mac user, you can move your passwords from LastPass to a relatively robust password manager, like the iCloud Keychain. Since iCloud Keychain syncs your passwords across your Apple devices, you can simply import passwords to Safari.
But first, it’s important to enable iCloud Keychain on both your Mac and iPhone. Here’s how you can do it:
Go to Settings and tap on your Apple profile.
Select iCloud and then tap on Keychain.
Slide the toggle to turn it on.
Now, you can move on to import the same CSV file to Safari by following these steps:
Another way you can import your passwords to Safari easily is by importing data from another browser, like Chrome or Firefox. Especially if you’ve already imported passwords to Chrome following the methods above, you can now import them to Safari in these ways:Import Passwords to Another Password Manager
If you want to try out other third-party apps to manage your passwords, you can try apps, like 1Password or Bitwarden. It’s helpful to remember that these apps can charge different fees. If you’re willing to invest to keep your passwords safe, here’s an example on importing passwords from LastPass to 1Password:
Now, we recommend deleting the LastPass CSV export file quickly to prevent anyone from accessing it. Along with that, it’s best to also delete it again from the Recycle bin or Trash.Export LastPass Vault Data for My Identities
You can seamlessly export your LastPass vault data for all identities in these steps.
Your LastPass identity data will now start downloading as a CSV file.How to Keep Your Passwords More Secure?
Regardless of how many password manager tools there are, there’s no guarantee that your passwords will always remain 100% safe. So, it’s a good idea to utilize some tricks from your end to keep your passwords more secure.
Use a strong password with different characters.
Don’t re-use the same password for another website.
Don’t write down your passwords in a file that’s not protected.
Don’t email your passwords.
Keep changing your passwords regularly.
Create a two-factor authentication process.
Log out from devices that you don’t use anymore.
You might already know that you can print to PDF directly from your desktop’s Chrome browser. It’s a great way to save important web pages in a universal format, such as online receipts. Or you might just want to permanently save an article you’ve found to use when you’re offline.
Chrome for Android offers the same functionality, though it works a little differently. As far as saving web pages, this isn’t the same as saving content for offline reading. Once printed, you won’t even need Chrome to view it. However, you’ll need an app that supports PDF files, such as Adobe Reader, which is free.Why Print to PDF?
With so many different ways to share web pages and save content for offline reading, this may all seem pointless. However, this is useful if there’s a page you want to keep. Even if the page is taken down, you still have a copy.
It also works better than a screenshot if the page you’re printing is longer than your screen. Instead of multiple images to keep track of, you have one file with everything in order.Chrome Sharing
To print to PDF using Chrome on an Android device, you can’t print directly from Chrome. Instead, you use the Chrome sharing feature to start the process.
Open the page you want to print. Tap the Chrome menu at the top right to expand the menu options. Tap Share.
You’ll see a variety of sharing options appear on the bottom half of your screen. Pull the options window up to see all the options available to you.
The options you see will vary based on the apps you installed. For instance, I can share links to Facebook and Pinterest because I have those apps installed.Print to PDF
If you want to print to PDF, tap the Print option. You’ll see a preview of the printed web page. At the very top, tap the drop-down menu that says “Select a printer.”
Choose Save as PDF. If you have Wi-Fi printers, you’ll likely see those listed as options, too. However, you’ll want the PDF option to save it locally versus actually printing it.
Tap the teal PDF icon at the top-right corner of the preview image. This takes you to your default download folder on your device. At the bottom of the screen, tap the Save button. You can rename the file before saving it by tapping the existing file name and entering a new one.Finding Your File
Instead, you’ll have to use Android’s File Manager app, which is the default file manager. If you have another file manager app, you can use it instead.
The easiest way to find your file is to open the Download folder. If you have more than one, tap the folder with the download icon on it. Your file should be the most recent on the list.
Tap the file to open it using your app of choice. You may have multiple options available. Use whichever one works best for you. I personally use Adobe Acrobat most often unless I’ve downloaded a free ebook. In that case I use Amazon Kindle.
If no options appear or you get an error, you may need to download a PDF reader first. Once installed, repeat the above process to open your PDF file.
While you may not use this often, it’s a quick and free way to save pages from Chrome as PDF files that you can save or share.
Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.
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How to Transition from Aperture to Lightroom on Mac Lightroom has a dedicated plug-in that makes the process very easy
Migrating from Aperture to Lightroom on Mac isn’t a challenging task, especially with the dedicated plugin.
transition Aperture to Lightroom,
you will need the latest Photoshop Lightroom version.
Certain Aperture features aren’t compatible with Lightroom, so they won’t be ported.
However, all your metadata and organization data will be imported.
As you might know, Aperture doesn’t work in the latest version of Mac OS. For that reason, users had to switch to a different application for photo management software.
Many users switched to Lightroom, and in this article, we’ll show you how to migrate from Aperture to Lightroom.
For the procedure to go as smoothly as planned, make sure that you’re using the latest Photoshop Lightroom version.
You plan to migrate full-size JPEG previews of your edited images and all your metadata – flags, star ratings, keywords, GPS data, faces, info panel, hidden files, and Aperture color labels included.
Therefore, it isn’t the ideal time to take any chances. Just visit the official Adobe page and hit the Download button with no hesitation.
Adobe Lightroom will bring your photos to the next level with great customization features!
Free trialVisit websiteHow can I migrate from Aperture to Lightroom? 1. Use the Lightroom plug-in
1. Launch Lightroom.
2. Choose File.
3. Select Plug-in Extras.
4. Choose to Import from Aperture Library.
7. Bear in mind that the process to migrate from Aperture to Lightroom could take a while depending on the number of data that you have, so be patient.
Migrating from Aperture to Lightroom used to be a complicated process, especially since you had to do it manually, but Lightroom developers decided to streamline it.
They developed a special automated tool that helps you transfer your photos. By using this tool you’ll import your images as well as metadata to Lightroom with ease, as described above.
It’s worth mentioning that all your metadata will be imported. Organization data is also transferred, including Aperture Stacking, project hierarchies, iPhoto events, folders, and albums.
However, certain Aperture features aren’t compatible with Lightroom, so they won’t be transferred. These include image adjustments, smart albums, color labels, stacks, PSD files, and your creations.2. Export the photos by dragging them to Adobe Lightroom
Most likely, you succeeded in migrating your photos to Adobe Lightroom by using the elegant procedure described above.
However, in case you can’t do that for some reason, there is also the option of exporting the photos by simply dragging them and then integrating them in Adobe Lightroom.
To do that, you just drag the photos from the Browser to the desktop or a designated location in the Finder.
Of course, you can proceed in the same way with other elements like folders, albums, or projects from the Library Inspector.
When you’re actually dragging a photo you will export its JPEG preview stance. And if the actual photo doesn’t have a JPEG preview, you won’t be able to drag it.
For instance, if you drag more photos at the same time, only the ones with JPEG previews will be dragged out.3. Export the photos using the Export command
Note: If you will perform this for a large number of files, the process will take longer. However, you can check the Show alert when finished box to get a notification when the process is over.
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The installation process of windows 11 from USB is very simple, but some of the Windows 11 requirements, such as Secure Boot capable UEFI with GPT partition flavor, TPM 2.0, CPU, etc., have left many users stumped.
First things first, you’ll need a Windows 11 ISO. You’ll use this ISO to create a bootable USB and install Windows 11. CD-ROMs are rarely used these days, but if your PC has one, you can also apply the steps in this article to install Windows 11 using a DVD.
You can use Diskpart if you’re trying to install Windows 11 on your current PC. But if you’re not familiar with diskpart, it’s easy to mess up. Or perhaps you’re creating a bootable USB for future use on other PCs. In such cases, the Media Creation Tool or Rufus would be better options.
Here are the steps to create a bootable USB using Disk Management:
Connect an 8 GB or higher capacity USB to your PC.
Press Win + X and select Disk Management.
Copy the Windows 11 ISO to the USB.
On GPT drives, the Mark Partition as Active option will be grayed out. In this case, you should use diskpart instead, as detailed below.
Press Win + R, type cmd, and press CTRL + Shift + Enter.
Copy the Windows 11 ISO to the USB.
Here are the steps to create a bootable USB using the Media Creation Tool:
Download the Media Creation Tool.
Here are the steps to create a bootable USB using Rufus:
Download a recent stable version of Rufus and launch it.
Insert the USB and select it in Rufus.
Press the SELECT button and browse the Windows 11 ISO.
Next, select the partition scheme (GPT) and target system (UEFI non CSM).
After the bootable media is created, you can use it to install Windows 11 without any problems.
Windows 11 requires your PC to be running UEFI firmware with GPT partitioning. So, first, check if you’re currently using the MBR partitioning style on your system drive with the following steps:
Press Win + R, type diskmgmt.msc, and press Enter.
If required, you can use either of the methods listed below to convert it to GPT.
You can use the mbr2gpt.exe tool with the following steps:
Back up the contents of the system drive.
Press Win + R, type cmd, and press CTRL + Shift + Enter.
Unlike the mbr2gpt tool, the diskpart method requires you to delete all the data on the drive. So only use this method in case of empty drives or ones whose contents are backed up elsewhere.
Type select disk 7, replace 7 with the system disk number, and press Enter.
The final part of the puzzle is to simply use the bootable media to install Windows 11. Ideally, you should back up any personal files from the system partition (usually C:) so that you can format it later for a clean installation.
Connect the USB to your PC, reboot your PC and press the BIOS key as shown on the screen (F2, F10, F12, Del, or similar).
Situational: Look for the Boot Mode or similar option. Change it to UEFI if it isn’t already so.
Press the key shown on the screen (usually F10) to save the changes and exit.
Upon rebooting, you should boot from the USB and arrive at the Windows installation wizard.
Situational: In case you face the This PC can’t run Windows 11 error at this stage, we recommend referring to Bypass Windows 11 Requirements for detailed instructions on resolving this issue.
Configure the language, and other preferences and press Install Now.
Select the Windows 11 version to install and press Next.
Accept the license agreement and press Next.
After a few restarts, you’ll be prompted to configure the Device Name, privacy, and other preferences. Once that’s done, the Windows 11 installation is complete.
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