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As it becomes clearer that cryptocurrency is here to stay, it also becomes time to investigate the diverse and volatile crypto world and consider new alternatives. There are many more coins out there than the big players like Bitcoin and Ethereum, and many of them either innovate in their design or fill a unique role. Zcash is a great example of a cryptocurrency that does both of these things.
Zcash is more anonymous by design, aiming to be a digital from of cash. It features shielded transactions, and everything about Zcash is designed to maintain privacy and security.
This, like many up-and-coming currencies, is still fairly easy and profitable to mine, and it has an accessible exchange rate to buy into.Install Zcash
The Zcash developers packaged it for Debian and Ubuntu-based distributions, but there’s also a generic binary package available in a tarball. If you’re not on Debian or Ubuntu, drop by the Zcash download page, and grab the latest tarball. Unpack it and you can start using it from there. Otherwise, keep reading for the specific installation instructions.
First, make sure Apt supports installs over HTTPS.
installzcash Configure Zcash
Before you can start mining Zcash, you’re going to need to do a bit of configuration. The first thing you’re going to need is the Zcash parameters. They’re used to generate shielded transactions. This is a fairly long download, so start it up when you have some time to wait.zcash-fetch-params
You’ll need to set up your configuration file. The bulk of this is creating your username and password so you can store Zcash and complete transactions. Create the folder for it, and start with your username.
# Optional for CPU Mining
Start up the Zcash service. You can run it as a daemon in the future with the --daemon flag.Get Your Wallet Address
You’ve gone through all the steps to set up your wallet. Now, it’s time to get the address that you’ll use to complete transactions with it. Thankfully, that functionality is built into the Zcash utility that you’ve already set up. Run the Zcash CLI to establish an address for your wallet.zcash-cli getnewaddress
In the future, you can list your wallet address with:zcash-cli getaddressesbyaccount Choose a Pool
There are a lot of pools out there for Zcash. It’s hard to say which ones are best, especially since these things always change. This list is fairly comprehensive and should help you get started.
Mining with a pool is key. If you mine solo, the chances of making a profit are very slim. Pick a pool, and stick with it. You’ll see the Zcash start to trickle in shortly after you get started.Mine with Your GPU
Sure, you can mine with your CPU, but that’s very inefficient, and the chances of getting much out of it are slim. With a decent GPU, though, you can definitely have more success.
There are a couple of GPU mining solutions, but this guide is going to focus on AMD mining with Claymore. AMD cards are most popular among miners, and Claymore is a simple script to use and run.
You can find the latest change notes and a link to the download on this Bitcointalk thread. Use whichever link you prefer, and grab the latest available version.
After you’re done downloading Claymore, unpack it in a directory where you’d like to run it. Open a terminal in that location. You can start up the miner just by executing the “zecminer64” script there, but without passing it anything, you’re not going to get very far.
Copy the address from your pool of choice, and pass to the script via the -zpool flag. Then, pass in your wallet address with -zwal. Finally, you can set an intensity level between 1 and 9 with the -i flag. This one isn’t strictly necessary, and the script will set it for you based on your card. When you put it all together, you’ll have something like this:
You’re now prepared to get yourself started mining and using Zcash. Like any cryptocurrency, you should always do your research on profitability before investing in hardware and starting to mine. Always keep an eye out for future updates to both the wallet and mining software. It will make a big difference in both efficiency and security.
Nick is a freelance tech. journalist, Linux enthusiast, and a long time PC gamer.
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How to Install Linux Bash on Windows 10 Using Linux Bash on Windows 10 is an easy thing to do
You can use Linux Bash directly on Windows 10 without having to install any third-party apps.
It is built-in and included in the Windows Subsystem for Linux feature.
Read our article to find out how to install Linux Bash on your Windows 10 PC.
Microsoft CEO, Satya Nadella, already confirmed that “Microsoft loves Linux”. The company introduced some benefits for Linux developers using Windows 10.
Developers are now able to install the Linux Bash shell on their computers and work on their Linux projects in Microsoft’s environment.What is Linux Bash?
In case you’re not familiar with the Bash shell, it’s a simple command line tool, that has been used by Linux developers for a long time.
Bash runs on Windows 10 natively, as a part of the Windows Subsystem for Linux. That means you don’t need any emulators or third-party applications to run it.
However, even though the Linux Bash is fully compatible with Windows 10, it is not ‘visible’ by default, as users need to enable it first.
So, if you’re interested in running Linux commands on your Windows 10 machine, we’ve prepared this guide to show you how to install the Linux Bash on your Windows 10 computer.How can I install Linux Bash on Windows 10?
The easiest way to install Linux Bash on Windows 10 is with Command Prompt. You’ll need to run the latest version of x64 Windows 10.
Before anything else, prepare your PC for Linux Bash install, and then download and install it through cmd.
As we already mentioned above, you need to run at least Windows 10 version 1607 to be able to run Bash on your computer, because previous versions of Windows 10 are not compatible with this tool.
Secondly, you need to run a x64 system, as the Linux Bash doesn’t work on x32 versions of Windows 10.
If you can meet all these prerequisites, you can now freely install the Linux Bash on your Windows 10 computer. But before you actually install Bash on your computer, you need to prepare it. And here’s how to do that:
1. Press the Windows + I keys on your keyboard to open the Windows 10 Settings app.
3. Under Use developer features, select the Developer mode option.
5. Restart your computer.
6. Once your computer reboots, open Control Panel.
9. Once the components are installed on your computer, restart it once again, to complete the process.
10. Once you’ve prepared your computer for the Linux Bash, you can finally enable this feature.
11. In the command prompt, type y and press Enter. This command will automatically download and install Bash from the Windows Store.
12. After that, you need to create a new default UNIX user account. This account doesn’t have to be the same as your Windows account.
Enter the username in the required field and press Enter. You can’t use the username “admin”.
13. Close the chúng tôi command prompt.
14. Once you’ve done all this, Bash will be installed on your computer, and you’ll be able to run it from the Start Menu, or Desktop, just like any other app.
We must tell you that you won’t be able to perform all actions and access all features of Bash for Windows 10. Unlike the original Bash for Linux, the Windows Subsystem for Linux can’t run graphical apps. Developers can only use it as a text-based tool.
This is not the final version of Bash on Windows 10, as Microsoft still work on future improvements. We should see even more features, and options in Bash on Windows 10 with the upcoming system updates or Windows 10 builds.
If you’re a fan of Bash, then this is great news and you can now enjoy its features on Windows 10 with more on the way.
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IRC is a great way to chat with people all around the world. It’s been around forever and unlike the newer social media services, it isn’t controlled by any one company.
As awesome as IRC is, there are a couple of drawbacks. First, if an Internet connection goes down, your connection will be lost. It’s also difficult to move your settings from computer to computer.
Fortunately, if you’re not afraid of the Linux command line and with a few programs, you can keep your IRC connection going almost as long as you like.
There are two ways to do this: either using a home server or signing up for shell account. Shell accounts are public servers that let you log in to a remote Linux or other operating system command line remotely. They’re popular for IRC users who want to keep IRC sessions going for a long time.
Setting up a session on a home server is easy enough. Since you’ll be using text-based software, you don’t need a really powerful machine. If you’ve got an old computer lying around, you can use that.
There are a number of text-based IRC clients around, but the favorite seems to be Irssi. If you’ve got a Debian or Ubuntu system running, just type this command:
The other program you’ll want to install is either GNU Screen or tmux. Both of these programs are terminal multiplexers, which means that they let you run more than one program at a time in a single terminal window, similar to tabbed browsing for the command line.
GNU Screen has been around since 1987, and it’s been very useful for both IRC users and system administrators working on remote systems, especially over Wi-Fi connections. It’s been somewhat difficult to use. Recently, a challenger in the field has emerged in the form of tmux, developed by the OpenBSD team. Although tmux is developed as part of OpenBSD, it’s also available as a standalone system that works across platforms. Most Linux distros have both programs in their repositories. If you’re on Debian/Ubuntu, here’s how to get them:
To install GNU Screen:
To install tmux:
If you’re just starting out, I’d recommend using tmux, as it’s a lot easier to use. You’ll SSH into either your home server or your shell server, and issue this command:tmux
This isn’t going to be a complete tutorial on tmux. If you want more info, you can always check out the documentation. You’ll get a shell that you can use as you would normally. You can start your IRC client and chat away.
You can detach in tmux using the command “Ctrl-B”. (The prefix can be changed in a configuration file.) If your connection is interrupted or you detach from your session, you can reattach by issuing this command at the shell:tmux attach
You’ll have an eternal IRC session you can connect to from any machine with an SSH client, including your favorite tablets and smartphones. You can move from device to device without a hitch.
If you’re using a shell server, however, it might not let you detach and leave processes running unless you pay for the privilege.
There’s more to tmux than meets the eye, and you can do amazing things with them if you take the time to learn. This tutorial should be enough to get you started.
Image credit: Joshk/Wikipedia
David Delony is a writer for Make Tech Easier
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Linux doesn’t have the registry hell of Windows. For most users, that’s a major benefit: one less incredibly-delicate, constantly-modified central database to be concerned over. The downside is that uninstallation of software and utilities requires either a helpful installer utility or careful combing through of your user files. Many programs do have uninstallation routines or utilities, especially those installed through package managers like apt-get, but others require a manual removal of leftover files after uninstalling the software.
As long-time users of Linux know, there’s not much need to “warn” the operating system about removing files. Everything on the hard drive is a file of equal merit. As a result, removing a “program” is really just removing a collection of files that work together. Ideally, an uninstaller would take care of those for you, but not every program is so well-managed.Uninstalling Programs with a Package Manager
Whenever possible, remove the application package using the package manager you used to install it. For example, if you installed the application in Ubuntu Software or Gnome Software, you can uninstall the software from the same place.
You can also look at the INSTALL or README files for the packages you have installed. You can find these with the primary binaries of the package.Using Synaptic
Synaptic is a GUI package manager for Debian-based Linux applications. It has more capable removal tools available than the default package management applications.
Install Synaptic through Ubuntu Software or apt-get:
Once installed, launch Synaptic to view all installed packages. It marks packages currently installed with a green square. You can also filter for installed applications, only using the sidebar.Using apt-get
If you installed the software with apt-get, remove it with apt-get. This will include the same packages as those found in Synaptic. But considering the slight possibility of variance between apt-get and Synaptic, you may prefer to remove your software with the same package manager that installed it. This will always ensure a complete deletion.
To remove a package and all associated files from your system, execute the following command:
Replace package-name with the name of the package you wish to remove. In our example, we’re removing wireshark.
Once the package is found, type “Y” and then press “Enter” to confirm the package’s removal.
Using the purge command will remove the application as well as its configuration files. It does not remove the application’s dependencies though. To remove any remaining dependencies that were automatically downloaded with the original package, run the following command:
This will remove all unnecessary dependencies, including any orphaned by removing their parent package.Using yum-remove
If your Linux distro uses yum instead of apt-get, use this command:
Again, replace package-name with the name of the package you wish to remove. To uninstall multiple packages, list them after the remove command.
yum removewireshark tmux
If you installed packages using yum’s Groups functionality, you’ll need to remove them as a group.
Replace with the appropriate group name to remove all repositories associated with that group. The @ sign specifies a group, and the quotes are used to capture the space in the name of the group. If the name has no space, quotes are not strictly necessary.Manually Removing User Configuration Files
After uninstallation, you may want to manually scan the following directories for the user config and residual files:
Note: ~/ means the Home folder, and “~/.local” is a hidden folder (named .local) in the Home folder. You will need to press Ctrl + H to view the hidden files/folders in your File manager.
User config files are usually stored in their application-specific folder, so you can easily spot them by their folder’s name.
You’ll also want to look for package-specific files that share the package name. For example, the KDE uses “~/.kde” to store user configuration files.Conclusion
The best and easiest way to remove applications on Linux is with the package manager that installed the applications. Since package managers install the vast majority of software on most Linux platforms, simply using your package manager to remove it covers an enormous variety of circumstances. However, in most cases, your user config files will still be untouched in the Home folder, so it is best for you to go through the “~/.local” folder to make sure all residual files are removed.
Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.
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Managing processes is an essential task for any Linux system administrator. There are times when you need to check the running processes on your system, such as when troubleshooting an issue or monitoring system performance. In this article, we will discuss the various methods to check processes in Linux and provide code examples to illustrate their usage.What is a Process?
A process is a running instance of a program on a Linux system. Every process has a unique process ID (PID) assigned by the Linux kernel. The PID helps to identify and manage the running processes on the system. Each process has its own memory space, CPU time, and other system resources.Checking Processes in Linux
There are several ways to check processes in Linux. Here are some of the most commonly used methods:1. ps Command
The ps command is used to display information about the running processes on a Linux system. The command provides a snapshot of the current system state in a tabular format. You can use various options with the ps command to display detailed information about the processes, such as PID, CPU usage, memory usage, and more.
Here is an example of how to use the ps command to display the running processes on a Linux system:ps aux
The ps aux command displays all the running processes on the system, including the processes started by other users. The output includes the PID, user, CPU usage, memory usage, and other details.2. top Command
The top command is a popular utility to monitor system processes in real-time. It provides an interactive interface to display the running processes and their resource usage. The top command updates the information every few seconds, allowing you to monitor the system performance continuously.
Here is an example of how to use the top command to display the running processes on a Linux system:top
The top command displays the running processes in real-time and updates the information every few seconds. The output includes the PID, user, CPU usage, memory usage, and other details.3. htop Command
Here is an example of how to use the htop command to display the running processes on a Linux system:htop
The htop command displays the running processes in an interactive and user-friendly interface. The output includes the PID, user, CPU usage, memory usage, and other details.4. System Monitor
System Monitor is a graphical utility that provides a user-friendly interface to monitor system processes. It displays the running processes and their resource usage in a graphical format. You can use System Monitor to kill or terminate a process, set process priorities, and more.5. Kill Command
The kill command is used to terminate a running process on a Linux system. You need to specify the PID of the process you want to terminate with the kill command. The kill command sends a signal to the process to terminate it gracefully.
Here is an example of how to use the kill command to terminate a process on a Linux system:kill PID
Replace PID with the actual process ID of the process you want to terminate.Conclusion
In this article, we discussed the various methods to check processes in Linux. The ps command provides a snapshot of the system processes, while the top and htop commands provide real-time monitoring of the system processes. System Monitor is a graphical utility that provides a user-friendly interface to monitor system processes. The kill command is used to terminate a running process on a Linux system.
As a Linux system administrator, you should be familiar with these methods to check and manage the running processes on your system. These tools help you to troubleshoot issues, monitor system performance, and optimize resource usage.
Running Windows apps on Linux might be avoided by some, but the truth is, there are occasions where it helps.
One of the biggest reasons that some folks can’t break free from Windows is the available applications. Sometimes these applications are legacy applications that don’t have an open source alternative. Other times, it’s simply a matter of someone wanting to play their favorite video games. And even though the available apps and video games for Linux has grown tremendously over the years, there are always “those specific titles” that seem to be missing.
In this article, I’ll share some tips I recommend when you want to run Linux as your default OS, but still need certain legacy Windows applications. Yes, you can run Windows apps on Linux – it’s clearly an option if you need it.
Okay, I’ll admit this isn’t directly addressing the issue. But hear me out. Some applications like Dropbox, Steam, VueScan, Lightworks, Moneydance and Spotify all have Linux versions. Truth be told, there are a surprising number of proprietary applications designed for Windows that have Linux counterparts. Even better would be to locate open source alternatives to popular software. Firefox, Filezilla, Gimp, LibreOffice to name just a few.
Admittedly none of these replace Microsoft Office or Adobe products, but they might help fill in other gaps with less “thought of” software titles.
Because these applications are usually natively supported and not running in a WINE wrapper, I recommend this option as the best approach to running applicable application titles.
Running Windows apps on Linux may, for your workflow, may require Wine – the software solution. Years ago, I used to run all sorts of Windows applications using WINE. Applications such as older versions of Photoshop, Microsoft Office, even Internet Explorer. Today, my usage of WINE is exclusively used for Windows games.
So why don’t more people use WINE for their Windows applications? Frankly, because it’s incredibly non-user friendly to rely on. Here are but a few issues when relying exclusively on WINE:
What works with one distro release, might not work on another.
The compatibility database is a joke. Not only is it almost always missing critical information like extra DLLs or other related packages, but most of the time I find the best information with WINE off-site on a random blog.
Often you see bugs reported and they’ll remain unconfirmed.
Now don’t misunderstand me. WINE itself is amazing piece of engineering and I recommend supporting it if you benefit from it. However, the compatibility database is a complete train wreck and often isn’t as accurate as it appears. Remember, I’ve been using WINE for years and I have found instance after instance where the compatibility database was flat out misreported.
With the negative stuff aside, for most people I recommend going with one of the following approaches to WINE:
PlayOnLinux – at its core, it’s simply a tool that allows you greater flexibility to work with WINE in a newbie friendly environment. What I personally like about it is when I research an application, I get accurate details as to whether or not it’s working correctly. Instead of being some sort of thing that tries to support multiple OS’, this is a community project for Linux enthusiasts exclusively.
Should you run WINE with Windows software? It’s been my experience that WINE is best for legacy Windows software and some Windows games. Software that is bleeding edge might not be compatible yet. But not to worry, there is a fallback plan that might be a solution for you.
Running Windows apps on Linux can be enabled by using virtual machine. Now I know what you’re thinking: running a virtual machine (VM) isn’t truly running Windows software inside of Linux. After all, it does require you to install Windows and enough RAM to accommodate running a second operating system comfortably while using Linux as the host. For many people, this may be a show-stopper…meaning you’ll need to rethink using a VM to run Windows applications.
Using a Windows VM is ideal when you have a copy of Windows to install and need to run applications like Office or Photoshop. The difference between using a Windows VM and running Windows as a standalone OS comes down to control. For example, I recommend running Windows in seamless mode with networking disabled. This gives you access to the Windows application without needing to worry about what data is being sent back and forth over the Internet.
Now some of you might be thinking; “That’s great Matt, I don’t have a Windows license or a copy of Windows to run.” Not a problem, as it turns out you can actually run a fully operational copy of Windows 10 at no cost whatsoever. The only functional limitation I found was that personalization is limited and there is a watermark on the desktop. Outside of that, this “evaluation” (unregistered) copy of Windows 10 is fully functional and will allow you to install and run any applications you have.
For casual users, I recommend running VirtualBox for running Windows. But be warned – you don’t want to use a VM to play video games or edit videos.
If you absolutely must play Windows games because your preferred game titles aren’t available for Linux, you may want to consider dual-booting with a Windows installation. Personally, I don’t do this as I do not want Windows installed. Putting that aside, if you want to play Windows games…run Windows. And by running it as a standard installation (dual-booting with Linux), you’re guaranteed that your Windows games will run as they supposed to.
The obvious downside is that you’re running Windows strictly for games or other heavier Windows applications. And if you already have Linux installed, this will make adjustments to GRUB, plus other related considerations. It’s not impossible but it’s not for the faint of heart, either. On the flip side if you have a fresh hard drive and are willing to install Windows first, it’s usually a bit easier to set up.
Let’s review our options when it comes to running Windows software:
1) You can run some Windows applications with WINE, assuming it’s compatible.
2) Any applications that won’t run with WINE, can be run with a virtual machine using an installation of Windows.
3) Should heavier requirements need 3D acceleration and are incompatible with WINE, you may want to consider dual-booting Windows with Linux.
Now just to clear the air. I personally don’t run Windows in a virtual machine or dual-boot. However, there are some games I play using WINE. If you’re stuck trying to pull yourself away from legacy Windows applications take heart, there is hope. One of the options above may provide you with a means of using Linux for most daily tasks while still having access to any Windows applications you can’t live without.
What say you? Do you find yourself dual-booting or using WINE? Perhaps you didn’t know that it’s possible to run an unregistered copy of Windows 10 without any show-stopping restrictions? Hit the Comments and share your experience with Windows applications as a Linux user.
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