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chúng tôi is a built-in command-line tool in the Windows operating system that can be used to encrypt or decrypt data on NTFS drives. This tool also lets you securely delete data by overwriting it.

How to use Cipher command in Windows

Whenever you create text files and encrypt them till such a time that the encryption process is completed, Windows will create a backup of the file, so that in case anything was to go wrong during the encryption process, the data would still be recoverable using this file. Once the encryption process is completed, the backup is deleted. But then again, this delete backup file can be recovered using data recovery software, until it is overwritten by other data.

When you use this built-in tool, it creates a temporary folder named EFSTMPWP on the system partition. It then more temporary files in that folder, and writes random data comprising of 0’s, 1’s, and other random numbers to those files.

Cipher.exe thus allows you not only to encrypt and decrypt data but also to securely delete data. Thus, many use it to delete files permanently too.

Overwrite deleted data using cipher /w

To overwrite deleted data, one can use the  /w switch.

Open the WinX menu on your Windows and select Command Prompt. Type the following and hit Enter:

cipher /w:



Here you will have to specify the Drive letter and the Folder name or path.

Cipher can also be used to display or alter the encryption of folders and files. If it is used without parameters, it will display the encryption state of the current folder and any files it contains.

Cipher.exe switches

/?   : Displays help at the command prompt.

/e   : Encrypts the specified folders. Folders are marked so that files that are added to the folder later are encrypted too.

/d   : Decrypts the specified folders. Folders are marked so that files that are added to the folder later are encrypted too.

/w   : PathName – Removes data on unused portions of a volume. PathName can indicate any directory on the desired volume.

/s:   dir   : Performs the selected operation in the specified folder and all subfolders.

/a   : Performs the operation for files and directories.

/i   : Continues performing the specified operation even after errors occur. By default, cipher stops when it encounters an error.

/f   : Forces the encryption or decryption of all specified objects. By default, cipher skips files that have been encrypted or decrypted already.

/q   : Reports only the most essential information.

/h   : Displays files with hidden or system attributes. By default, these files are not encrypted or decrypted.

/k   : Creates a new file encryption key for the user running cipher. If you use this option, cipher ignores all of the other options.

/u   : Updates the user’s file encryption key or recovery agent’s key to the current ones in all of the encrypted files on local drives (that is, if the keys have been changed). This option only works with /n.

/n   : Prevents keys from being updated. Use this option to find all of the encrypted files on the local drives. This option only works with /u.

For a full list of Cipher command line switches and parameters, visit TechNet.

Due to the very nature of the tool, you are safe using it to securely delete data, as it will never overwrite your active files; it will only overwrite data that has been deleted by you.

Microsoft SysInternals also has a powerful tool that lets you delete files permanently. With the SDelete tool, which you can download for free, you can overwrite the contents of free space on your disk to prevent deleted or encrypted files from being recovered.

Related: What is the EFSTMPWP folder?

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How To Run Windows Updates From Command Line In Windows 11/10

Windows Updates can be run from PowerShell and Command Prompt in Windows 11/10. In this article, we will be checking out how to do it. Windows Update is one of the most highlighted features of Windows 10. Because with the release of Windows 10, Windows was offered to the customers as a service rather than a product. Under the scenario of Software as a Service, this led to the Windows Updates on Windows 10 being on by default and without an option for anyone to disable it.

Now, while some criticized this move by Microsoft, ultimately this is a step towards the customer’s greater good. Because Windows Update helps the users stay secured against all kinds of threats and provide them with the latest and the greatest from Microsoft. So, for those who appreciate this service, today we are going to talk about another way to run these updates.

Run Windows Updates from Command Line

The following methods will be carried out to run Windows Update from Command Line on Windows 11/10-

Using Windows Powershell.

Using Command Prompt.

1] Run Windows Update using Windows Powershell

Running Windows Updates on Windows Powershell will require you to manually Install the Windows Update module, Get Windows Updates downloaded and Install Windows Updates. And for this, open Windows Powershell by searching for Powershell in the Cortana search box and run it with Administrator level privileges.

Install the PSWindowsUpdate Module

Type in,

Install-Module PSWindowsUpdate

to install the Windows Update module for Windows Powershell.

Check for Updates

After that,


to connect to the Windows Update servers and download the updates if found.

Install Updates

Finally, type in,


to install the Windows Updates downloaded on your computer.

Check for Microsoft Updates Add-WUServiceManager -MicrosoftUpdate Install specific updates only Get-WindowsUpdate -KBArticleID "KB1234567" -Install Hide specific Update Install-WindowsUpdate -NotKBArticle "KB1234567" -AcceptAll Skip Updates belonging to specific categories Install-WindowsUpdate -NotCategory "Drivers","FeaturePacks" -AcceptAll

Related: Command-line switches to deploy Microsoft software Update packages

2] Run Windows Update using Command Prompt

Command Prompt on Windows Operating Systems exists since a very long time whereas Windows Powershell is comparatively new. Hence, it has similar capabilities to run Windows Updates, but the highlighting point here is that you do not need to download any module for Windows Updates.

First, open Command Prompt by searching for cmd in the Cortana search box and run it with Administrator level privileges.

Finally, type in the following commands and hit the Enter key in order to perform the respective operations,

Start checking for updates: UsoClient StartScan Start downloading Updates: UsoClient StartDownload Start installing the downloaded updates: UsoClient StartInstall Restart your device after installing the updates: UsoClient RestartDevice Check, Download and Install Updates: UsoClient ScanInstallWait

It is worth noting that, the Command Prompt commands mentioned above are just meant for Windows 11/10 only.

How to enable the Windows Update service in Windows 11/10?

If the Windows Update service is disabled or is set to run manually, then you can enable the Windows Update service in Windows 11/10 using the following steps:

Type services in the Search box and use Enter key

In the Properties window, set the Startup type to Automatic

Press the Start button to run the service

Press Apply button and OK button to save the changes.

How do I know if Windows Update is installed in Command Prompt?

If you want to check the history of installed security updates or critical updates in Command Prompt on Windows 11/10, then first open the elevated Command Prompt window and execute wmic qfe list command. This will show the update description, update ID (or Hotfix ID), Installed by, Installed On, etc., information. Here, do note that not all Windows Updates are visible. So, it is better to access the Update history section in the Settings app of Windows 11/10 to see all the installed updates.

Related read: How to Update Drivers using Command Prompt.

How To View, Save And Clear Command Prompt Command History In Windows 11/10

The Command Prompt is nothing but a black and white command-line utility that comes out of the box on Windows 11/10. But for those who know its true potential, it is a great replacement for many of the users’ third-party software. For example, it can help you in organizing your hard drive partitions, create a bootable USB drive for you, refresh all the BIOS files, and much more. Many administrators and power users tend to make use of multiple commands on this command line to get their work done. Today, we will be talking about methods that will help the user view their Command Prompt history and to save that Command Prompt history on Windows 11/10.

View, save, clear Command Prompt command History

We will cover the following topics:

View using DOSKEY.

View using the F7 key.

Save the Command Prompt History.

Clear command prompt history.

1] View command history using DOSKEY

This method is a pretty straightforward one. After you have entered a series of commands in the Command Prompt window, all you need to do is enter the following command inside the same Command Prompt window-

doskey /history

After that, you will be able to check all the commands that you just entered during that session in the Command Prompt in the same sequence as you entered it.

You can check a screen snippet of the same above.

Read: How to clear CMD screen?

2] View CMD history using the F7 key

This is better than the DOSKEY method mentioned above. I am not claiming that because this is better, but if you just want to get back to any previously executed command, it is really reliable.

To view the command history, you need to hit the F7 key. F7 works for Command Prompt and PowerShell as well.

This will lead to a small pop-up to appear with the list of all the previously executed commands in the session.

You can use the up and down arrow key to navigate through the list and hit the Enter key to select any of them.

2] Save the Command Prompt History

Sometimes, you might need to keep a record of the commands they used in a session using the Command Prompt in a TXT, HTML, CSV or a RTF file.

For that, you can use an extension of the DOSKEY command.

You just need to enter the following command and then hit  the Enter key,

Then, your backed-up history file will be saved in a location where you executed the command in the Command Prompt window.

4] Clear command prompt history using Alt+F7

The simplest way is to restart the Command Prompt. The command history is cleared automatically every time you close it and start the command prompt again.

To clear the command history, you can also use Alt+F7 keyboard shortcut. Alt+F7 works for Command Prompt and PowerShell as well.

You can also delete the command history by using the Registry Editor. Navigate to the following key:


How to view command history in Windows PowerShell?

Like Command Prompt, Windows PowerShell also keeps a history of commands executed by you. Open PowerShell in Windows 11/10 and execute the following command:


If you want, you can get more information for each command (command ID, execution status, command line, start execution time, and end execution time). For this, use the command given below:

How to export command history in PowerShell?

You can export or save the command history of PowerShell as a CSV file to your desktop or any location on your Windows 11/10 system. For this, you need to use the Export-CSV cmdlet, the path for the output file and file format. The command would be:

Replace Username with the actual username, the Desktop with the location or folder where you want to save the output, and CommandHistory with the file name of your choice.

How To Run Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool In Windows 11/10

Windows 11/10 has a Memory Diagnostic Tool that you can use to check for possible memory problems, including testing the Random Access Memory (RAM) on your computer. The tool helps you figure out bad memory, memory issues, and usually takes 20 minutes to complete.

Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool

Alternatively, you can also type ‘


‘ in Start search and hit Enter to open it.

Choose between two options for when to run the Memory Diagnostics Tool.

You can Restart now and check for problems.

Or you can select Check for problems the next time I start my computer.

If you choose to restart your computer and run the tool immediately, make sure that you save your work and close all of your running programs. The Memory Diagnostics Tool will run automatically when you restart Windows.

Two Test Passes will be run.

Advanced options for running the Memory Diagnostics Tool:

You can adjust the following settings:

Test mix. Choose what type of test you want to run: Basic, Standard, or Extended. The choices are described in the tool.

Cache. Choose the cache setting you want for each test: Default, On, or Off.



Type the number of times you want to repeat the test.

The default is Standard, and it includes all the Basic tests, plus LRAND, Stride6, WMATS+, WINVC, etc.

The Basic test covers MATS+, INVC, and SCHCKR.

The Advanced test includes all Basic and Standard tests plus Stride38, WSCHKA, WStride-6, CHCKR4, WCHCKR3, ERAND, Stride6, CHCKR8, etc.

If you change your options, press F10 to save and start the test.

Else you may press Esc to continue running the default test.

It might take several minutes for the tool to finish checking your computer’s memory.

Read: Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool stuck?

Once the test is completed, Windows will restart automatically. If the tool detects errors, you should contact your computer manufacturer for information about fixing them since memory errors usually indicate a problem with the memory chips in your computer or other hardware problem.

You may also want to try some Advanced Memory Diagnostic on Windows, with Memtest86+, and maybe check out some more PC Stress Test free software.

Is Windows Memory Diagnostic tool any good?

It’s an excellent program and a free tool to check if there is anything wrong with your RAM. If the tool shows any symptom of an issue, then you can further check with another program.  Along with the standard checking tool, it also offers checks such as ERAND, Stride6, CHCKR8 to find problems with the installed RAM.

Why does Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool take so long?

It doesn’t perform one test and gives a result. Instead, it checks using multiple programs, and if there is a problem, you will know about it. Combine this with the amount of RAM, and it takes even more time. This tool should be used when you have an issue with the memory, and you want to be sure before replacing it.

Read: Windows Memory Diagnostic displaying no results.

Can I exit Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool?

It’s only testing the memory, and it should be fine even if you have exited in between. However, you will have to force shutdown the PC to exit the tool. I would still suggest that you better wait it out. Keep the PC plugged, and get something else done in the meantime.

Can RAM suddenly go bad?

Any hardware can go bad with time or if there is a manufacturing fault. The same applies to RAM. If everything looks good, the memory test can reveal if there is an issue with the RAM. If there is a fault, it would be best to replace it with a new RAM.

TIP: See this post if you receive Only part of a ReadProcessMemory or WriteProcessMemory request was completed message.

How To Install And Use Command Line Cheat Sheets On Ubuntu

Cheat is a command line primarily based on Python software that lets in system administrators to view and save helpful cheat sheets. It retrieves simple-text examples of a delegated command which will remind the user of alternatives, arguments, or commonplace makes use of. Cheat is used for “commands which you use frequently, however now not frequently sufficient to consider”

Installing Cheat

Before installing Cheat, we need to make sure that everything’s up to date on the system as shown in the below command –

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Installing Cheat is best done with the Python package manager Pip. To install pip, use the following command –

$ sudo apt-get install python-pip

To install cheat, use the following command –

$ sudo pip install cheat

The sample output should be like this –

Collecting cheat    Downloading chúng tôi (42kB)    Downloading docopt-0.6.2.tar.gz    Downloading chúng tôi (755kB) Installing collected packages: docopt, pygments, cheat    Running chúng tôi install for docopt ... done    Running chúng tôi install for cheat ... done Successfully installed cheat-2.1.24 docopt-0.6.2 pygments-2.1.3

To verify if the cheat is installed or not, use the following command –

$ cheat -v

The sample output should be like this –

cheat 2.1.24 Setting the Text Editor

we are able to pass on to create our personal cheat sheets, Cheat desires to know which textual content editor we would love to apply to edit sheets by means of chúng tôi set nano text editor, use the following command –

$ export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim

We can confirm the above command was successful using the following command –

$ printenv EDITOR

The output should be like this –


To make this change persistent and permanent across all future shell sessions, you must add the environment variable declaration to your .bashrc file. This is one of several files that are run at the start of a bash shell session. To open bashrc file, use the following command –

$ nano ~/.bashrc

The sample output should be like this –

# ~/.bashrc: executed by bash(1) for non-login shells. # see /usr/share/doc/bash/examples/startup-files (in the package bash-doc) # for examples # If not running interactively, don't do anything case $- in    *i*) ;;      *) return;; esac export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim # don't put duplicate lines or lines starting with space in the history. # See bash(1) for more options HISTCONTROL=ignoreboth # append to the history file, don't overwrite it shopt -s histappend # for setting history length see HISTSIZE and HISTFILESIZE in bash(1) HISTSIZE=1000

Then add the same export command as shown below

..................................................... # If not running interactively, don't do anything case $- in *i*) ;; *) return;; esac export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim # don't put duplicate lines or lines starting with space in the history. # See bash(1) for more options HISTCONTROL=ignoreboth ...........................................

Save and exit the file.

Running Cheat

To run Cheat in its most basic form for tail command, use the following command –

$ cheat tail

The sample output should be like this –

# To show the last 10 lines of file tail file # To show the last N lines of file tail -n N file # To show the last lines of file starting with the Nth tail -n +N file # To show the last N bytes of file tail -c N file # To show the last 10 lines of file and to wait for file to grow tail -f file

To see the list of all existing cheats, use the following command –

$ cheat -l

The output should be like this –

7z /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/7z ab                     /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/ab apk                    /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/apk apparmor               /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/apparmor apt                   /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/apt apt-cache             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/apt-cache apt-get             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/apt-get aptitude             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/aptitude asciiart             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/asciiart asterisk             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/asterisk at                   /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/at awk                   /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/awk bash                /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/bash bower                /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/bower chmod                /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/chmod chown                 /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/chown convert             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/convert crontab             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/crontab csplit             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/csplit cups                 /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/cups curl                 /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/curl cut                /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/cut date                 /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/date dd                   /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/dd df                   /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/df dhclient             /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/cheat/cheatsheets/dhclient .............................................................................................. Creating and Editing Cheat Sheets

To create a cheat sheet, use the following command –

$ cheat -e tutorialspoint

The above command tutorialspoint is a cheat sheet name. It will open a blank cheat sheet. Now add your cheats and save it.

Searching Cheat Sheets

To search cheat sheet, use the following command –

$ cheat -s tail

The above command is searching for tail command. The sample output should be like this –

asterisk:    # To print out the details of SIP accounts: dnf:    # To search package details for the given string dpkg:    # List all installed packages with versions and details hardware-info:    # Display all hardware details journalctl:    # Actively follow log (like tail -f) mdadm:    # See detailed array confiration/status    mdadm --detail /dev/md${M} p4:    # Print details related to Client and server configuration pacman: pip:    # Show details of a package tail:    tail file    tail -n N file    tail -n +N file    tail -c N file    tail -f file

That’s it. After this article, you will be able to understand – How To Install and Use Command Line Cheat Sheets on Ubuntu, we will come up with more Linux based tricks and tips. Keep reading!

How Do We Access Command Line Arguments In Python?

Command line is the place where executable commands are given to operating system. A Python script can be executed by writing its name in front of python executable in the command line.

If you want some data elements to be passed to Python script for its processing, these elements are written as space delimited values in continuation to name of script. This list of space delimited values is called command line arguments.

For example,

When there exists a way to pass arguments through the command line, there must also exist a way to accept those arguments passed. There are various ways to access them

Using a List Object argv[]

Using argparse Module

Using getopt Module

Using argv[] List Object

Python contains a special list object called argv[] that stores these command line arguments passed. They are distinguished by a space character. argv[] is defined in sys module of Python distribution.


For example, let us assume we are trying to pass two strings as arguments to the python file ‘’ while executing it through command line.

This program’s List object would then contain the following −

sys.argv[]=[‘’, ‘Hello’, ‘TutorialsPoint’]

In the python program, access these arguments shown as follows −

import sys print ("first command line argument: ",sys.argv[1]) print ("second command line argument: ",sys.argv[2]) Output

The output will be produced as −

first command line argument: Hello second command line argument: Tutorialspoint Using argparse Module

The argparse module is a built-in module that reduces boiler plate code and makes your code more robust. It is better than using the special List Object argv[] as the argparse module handles all the standard use cases, including subcommands, and generates the help and its usage for you, checks and sanitizes the user input which argv[] fails to do


In the following example, let us try to execute the following python program ‘’ through the command line.

import argparse parser = argparse.ArgumentParser("simple_example") parser.add_argument('student_id', type=str, help='Show student_id') args = parser.parse_args() print("The Student Exists with ID:") print(args.student_id)

In the command line, use the following command to execute the program above,

Output python chúng tôi 2000133

The output will be produced as follows −

The Student Exists with ID: 2000133 Using getopt Module

Python provides the getopt module is used to parse the command line arguments in a program. The API is designed similar to the getopt() function in C programming language, therefore, it supports same conventions as the function.

This module provides a method with the same name, getopt(). It is used to access the command line arguments. Following is the syntax of this method −

getopt.getopt(args, shortopts, longopts=[])

As we can see, getopt() method accepts three parameters: args, shortopts and longopts


args is the list of command line arguments

args is the list of command line arguments

Longopts is a list of strings with the names of long options. Options that require arguments should be followed by an equal sign (=).

This method is equivalent to sys.args[1:], i.e., it does not access the reference of the program.


Following example demonstrates the usage of getopt.getopt() method to parse through the command line arguments.

import sys import getopt def welcome(): first_arg = None next_arg = None argv = chúng tôi [1:] try: opts , args = getopt.getopt (argv, "f:n:") except: print ("Error") for opt , arg in opts: if opt in ['-f']: first_arg = arg elif opt in ['-n']: next_arg = arg print (first_arg + " " + next_arg) welcome() Output

Use the following command to execute the program above by passing two arguments through command line −

python chúng tôi -f Hello -n Tutorialspoint!

The output is obtained as −

Hello Tutorialspoint!

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