Trending December 2023 # How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide # Suggested January 2024 # Top 12 Popular

You are reading the article How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

If you’re wondering how to set up your Samsung Galaxy Watch 4 and make the most of all its features, you’ve come to the right place. Samsung’s smartwatches are brimming with exciting tools and features. Follow our extensive how to for using the Galaxy Watch 4. If you’re facing a particular glitch or issue, check out our guide to common Galaxy Watch 4 problems and solutions.

How to turn your Galaxy Watch 4 on and off

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

With extended battery life, there aren’t many reasons you’ll have to power your smartwatch on or off. If the need does arise, all it takes is the device itself.

How to turn on the Galaxy Watch 4

To turn on your Galaxy Watch 4, locate the home button, (the top button with a red lining).

Press and hold the home button until you see the Samsung startup screen.

If after a few moments, your watch won’t power on, it may be out of battery.

How to turn off the Galaxy Watch 4

Consider powering down your device if you anticipate an extended period of nonuse.

Swipe down from the top of your watch face to open the quick panel.

Tap the power icon, then tap Turn off.

How to turn on Power saving mode

If you find yourself in a pinch, you can always conserve battery by putting your smartwatch into Power saving mode. This will turn off a number of features including Wi-Fi and decrease the brightness of your screen by 10 percent.

Swipe up to your apps and tap the Settings icon.

Scroll down to and tap Battery.

Tap the Power saving toggle.

If times get really desperate, you can also disable everything on your device except a simple watch face for telling time. To do so, scroll down beyond the Power saving toggle and tap Watch only, then tap Turn on to confirm.

How to pair your new Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Pair your Galaxy Watch 4 to an Android smartphone to really get started setting up your new device. Using the Galaxy Wearable app, follow the steps below.

Open the Play Store on your compatible smartphone. Search for and select the Galaxy Wearable app and tap Install.

Once the installation is complete, open the Galaxy Wearable app and tap Start to search for your Galaxy Watch 4.

Confirm that the six-digit code on your watch matches the code on your smartphone. You should feel your watch vibrate.

On your smartphone, sign in to your Samsung Account or create an account if you don’t have one yet.

Follow the prompts to review a variety of permissions and complete the setup process.

You will see prompts to activate your carrier’s service on your smartwatch. Follow the prompts to complete the activation process. You can always skip this step if you do not want service on your watch or if you have a Wi-Fi only model.

How to update your Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

With more software features often coming down the pipe, it’s no surprise Samsung makes updating your Galaxy Watch 4 hassle-free. Set updates to occur automatically or follow the steps below to check for and install updates on demand.

From your watch

Swipe up to your apps then scroll to and tap the Settings gear icon.

Scroll down to and tap Software update to check for updates.

If prompted to download an update, tap Install now.

Wait for the watch to reboot. While installing the update you will see a progress bar or rotating animation.

From your phone

Tap Watch settings, then tap Watch software update.

Wait for the watch to reboot. While installing the update you will see a progress bar or rotating animation.

How to reset the Galaxy Watch 4

Wipe your device clean in just a few taps. Resetting your Galaxy Watch 4 to factory settings will erase all personal data from the device for a completely fresh start.

Swipe up to your apps and tap the Settings icon.

Scroll down to and tap General. 

Scroll down to and tap Reset.

From this screen, you can choose to back up your data to restore on this or another watch, or you can choose to reset the watch.

To completely erase all personal information from the device and reset your watch to factory settings, tap Reset.

How to restart the Galaxy Watch 4

To force reboot your Galaxy Watch 4, press and hold both the Home and Back buttons simultaneously for about seven seconds. Rebooting is a handy fix if your watch isn’t responding or if an app is acting up.

How to charge the Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

According to Samsung, your Galaxy Watch 4 battery should last you about 40 hours. Unfortunately, once you do run down the battery, it will take nearly two hours for a full charge.

Connect your wireless charger to a USB charging port.

Place your watch on the charger, aligning the center of your watch body with the center of the charger.

You will see a percentage indicating how much battery the device currently has left. Once the watch is fully charged, or when it is charged enough for your purposes, simply disconnect it.

How to personalize your Galaxy Watch 4

Make a statement. With fully customizable watch faces and interchangeable bands, you can personalize your Galaxy Watch 4 to a look that fits any style (and any occasion). Pair a funky watch face with a colorful strap or keep it classic with Roman numerals and a metallic band. With so many faces and bands to choose from, the combinations are endless.

How to change Galaxy Watch 4 watch faces

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

The Galaxy Watch 4 offers a variety of customizable watch faces you can set up easily and on the go. Whether your focus is fitness or fun, choose a design that fits your needs and personalize it with colors and complications. Follow the directions below to change your watch face from a paired phone, or right on the device itself.

From your phone

Many users will find it simpler to customize watch faces from a paired phone. The bigger screen makes for easier browsing of changeable options.

On your paired phone, open the Galaxy Wearable app, and tap Watch faces.

Browse through the available faces to find and tap the one you like, then tap Customize at the top of the screen. Depending on the face you select, you can edit a variety of watch face features including detail colors, complications, and more.

When you are finished customizing, tap Save.

Tap Get more watch faces at the bottom of the watch faces screen to download or buy additional watch faces.

From your watch

Scroll through the design options available right on your device. Some faces, like Big Number, only allow for simple color changes. Others, like Animals or Digital Dashboard, offer more room for complications.

Touch and hold your current watch face.

Swipe left or right to browse styles.

Select a new watch face, then tap Customize to change options including backgrounds, colors, and complications.

From your face gallery, scroll all the way left and tap Get more watch faces to download or buy additional watch faces.

How to change Galaxy Watch 4 bands

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Changing bands is one of the most visually impactful ways to personalize your device. Plus, Galaxy Watch 4 bands come in a variety of styles and materials so you can accessorize with a band that fits your lifestyle.

How to remove your Galaxy Watch 4 band

To remove your band, lay your watch face down on a clean, nonabrasive work surface. If your current band allows, disconnect any clasps and lay the band sides flat.

Using a fingernail, slide the band’s spring bar inward.

Lightly pull the band away from the watch body.

Repeat with the opposite spring bar and remaining band.

How to replace your Galaxy Watch 4 band

Start by removing your current band, then follow the directions below to attach a new style. Swap in a metal band for classy events or go with a silicon option for sweaty sessions at the gym.

Insert one end of the band’s spring bar into your Galaxy Watch lug.

Slide the spring bar inward and align the opposite corner of the band with the remaining lug.

Repeat with the opposite spring bar and band end.

How to add apps to your Galaxy Watch 4

The Wear OS app library is substantial, with more Google apps available than ever before on a Samsung smartwatch. Download the best Wear OS apps that will make your watch work harder for you.

From your phone

Add apps to your smartwatch from the Galaxy Wearable app on your paired smartphone.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app.

Near the bottom of your screen, locate and tap Store.

Search for the app you want, tap it, and then tap Install.

Wait for the app to automatically install on your watch.

New apps you add to your phone will automatically be added to your watch, but you’ll want to manually add apps you already had before setup. To do so, open the Google Play Store on your watch and tap Apps on your phone. From here you can add any apps with a watch counterpart.

From your watch

You can also download apps directly onto your watch in the Google Play store.

Open the Google Play Store.

Search for the app you want, tap it, and tap Install.

Wait for the installation to be complete, then find the new addition in your apps.

How to remove apps from your Galaxy Watch 4

Don’t let useless apps clog your library. Delete any apps you don’t use or that no longer serve you.

Swipe up to your apps and locate the app you would like to uninstall.

Touch and hold the app’s icon.

Tap Uninstall, then tap OK.

How to add music to your Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Use the Galaxy Wearable app to send music to your watch. Music files cannot be exported directly from a PC so make sure any tracks you want to add are on your phone.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app.

Tap Watch settings, then tap Manage content.

Tap Add tracks.

Select the music files you would like to add, or tap All in the upper left corner.

Once you’ve made your selections tap Done.

You can also set up auto-syncing for new tracks by tapping the toggle under music.

How to add photos

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Keep memories close by adding personal photos to your Galaxy Watch 4. You can even set a favorite shot as your watch face.

Open the Galaxy Wearable app on your paired smartphone.

Tap Watch settings, then tap Manage content.

Tap Add images.

Select the photos you would like to add to your watch, then tap Done.

You can also set up auto-syncing for images by tapping the toggle under Gallery.

How to customize your Samsung Health settings

Start by customizing the settings in your Samsung Health app. Here you can choose what alerts you want to receive, how often you want measurements taken, and other health tracking settings.

Swipe up to your app screen and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll all the way down and tap Settings.

Scroll down to locate customizable settings.

Measurement: Tap into specific categories to customize health monitoring settings. Enable automatic heart rate and stress measurements or turn on blood oxygen monitoring during sleep. Under the heart rate menu, you can also set high and low heart rates and enable alerts for each.

Auto-detect workouts: Tap the toggle to enable or disable auto-detection for workouts. You can also tap left of the toggle to open a menu for further customization.

Inactive time alerts: Tap the toggle to enable or disable inactive time alerts. You can also tap left of the toggle to customize a weekly schedule for alerts, including start and end times.

Share data with devices and services: Review and customize connected services such as exercise machines and TVs.

How to track steps and other fitness info

Your watch will automatically track your steps and daily activity. You can also set targets to establish personal goals and stay on track.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Daily Activity.

Swipe up to view your daily and weekly data.

At the bottom, tap Set targets to choose daily goals for Steps, Active time, and Activity calories. Tap each measurable, choose a target number and tap Done.

How to track sleep

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Track your sleep stages overnight, and in the morning, your Galaxy Watch 4 will provide you with a sleep score.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Sleep.

Swipe up and view your sleep data.

If your Galaxy Watch 4 is paired to a Galaxy smartphone, you can also set it to provide snoring detection in conjunction with blood oxygen readings.

How to measure your heart rate

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Take your heart rate measurements from a relaxed, seated position.

Open the Samsung Health app and tap Heart rate.

Tap Measure to begin recording your heart rate. After a few seconds, your screen will display your current heart rate.

Tap Tag to select a status tag for your measured heart rate.

How to measure your stress levels

Keep track of your stress. The Galaxy Watch 4 can measure your stress levels for fitness and wellness purposes.

Open the Samsung Health app and tap Stress.

Tap Measure. Once the recording is complete, your current stress level results will be displayed.

From your results screen, swipe up to access breathing exercises to help reduce stress. Choose the number of breath cycles you would like to complete and tap Breath to begin. A pulsing design and basic prompts will guide you through the exercise.

How to measure body composition

Do not use this feature if you are pregnant or if you have an implanted pacemaker or other implanted medical device.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Body Composition.

Tap Measure, then select your gender, height, and weight.

Follow the prompts on your device and you will see the measurement progress on your screen. Once the recording is complete your results will be displayed.

How to measure blood oxygen

If you have any concerns about your blood oxygen seek medical attention. Like most smartwatch SpO2 sensors, the Galaxy Watch 4 provides blood oxygen measurements for fitness and wellness purposes only.

Swipe to your apps and tap the Samsung Health app.

Scroll down to and tap Blood Oxygen.

Tap Measure, then follow the prompts on your device. Once the recording is complete your results will be displayed.

Keep your credit, debit, and other cards right on your device with a digital wallet. Both Samsung Pay and Google Pay will even let you upload your Covid-19 vaccination card.

How to use Samsung Pay on Galaxy Watch 4

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

Samsung Pay makes for easy shopping. However, it is worth noting that the service only supports NFC payments at this time.

On your smartwatch, press and hold the Back button for 1–2 seconds.

Once Samsung Pay opens, swipe left to view the basic instructions. Tap the arrow to begin setting up Samsung Pay.

Tap OK to open Samsung Pay on your phone, then tap Start. If prompted, sign in to your Samsung account.

Follow the on-screen prompts to finish your setup process. Tap Add card to add a card to Samsung Pay. At this point, you will be prompted to set a lock screen if you haven’t already. Simply follow the on-screen prompts to enter a four-digit PIN, then enter it a second time to confirm.

You will be prompted to return to your phone screen to Add or import payment cards through your phone.

Once you’re all set, access Samsung Pay quickly to pay for items. Hold down the Back button on your watch and your cards will appear.

How to use Google Pay on your Galaxy Watch 4

Thanks to the Google and Samsung Wear OS collaboration, Galaxy Watch 4 users can also download Google Pay. If this is your preferred digital payment option, follow the steps below to set it up.

Swipe up to your apps and tap on Google Play Store.

Scroll down to and tap Essential watch apps, then scroll to and tap Google Pay.

Tap Install.

Once the app is installed, tap Open and follow the prompts to set up your payment options. You will need both your watch and phone handy to complete the process.

Your Galaxy Watch can also help you stay in touch. Follow the steps below to make and receive phone calls on your device.

How to make a call from your Galaxy Watch

To place a call from a Bluetooth-only device you will need to be connected to your paired smartphone. With an LTE model, you can place calls without your phone nearby.

Navigate to and tap the green Phone icon.

Tap the keypad icon to dial a number or the Contacts icon to select a specific contact.

Tap the green phone icon to make the call.

Wi-Fi model:  Your paired phone will make the call, with your Galaxy Watch acting as a speakerphone.

LTE model: Choose how to place the call by taping either the phone icon or watch icon to use the paired phone or watch.

How to answer an incoming call on your watch

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

To answer an incoming phone call, simply swipe the green phone icon to the right. To decline an incoming phone call swipe the red phone icon.

If you receive a call while already on the phone, you can swipe the green phone icon, then tap Hold current call or End current call.

If you  put the first call on hold, tap the three vertical dots, then tap Swap to return to the original call when ready.

For such a complex and powerful tool, the Galaxy Watch 4 is actually quite simple to set up. The more you personalize your device to your own purposes, the harder the device will work for you. We also have high hopes that more tools and features from Google will continue to make their way to these watches.

You're reading How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide

How To Customize The Watch Face On Apple Watch: A Detailed Guide

Feeling festive, blue, missing someone, or need tons of data handy, instantly switch your Apple watch face to match your mood, occasion, or requirements. Set photos or animated Memoji, add varied complications or change it as per a schedule. Thankfully Apple gives you several ways to customize your watch face. Here’s how you can do it.

How to Change Watch Face on Apple Watch

There are two effortless ways to choose a different watch face on your Apple Watch quickly.

Credit: Apple

Lift your wrist to light up the screen. You may also tap once. From the left or right edge, swipe horizontally to easily switch to a different watch face from your collection.

Press firmly on your current watch face. Now, swipe left or right to see all the available watch faces from your collection. Tap on one to set it.

Now, let us see how to add helpful features to the Apple Watch face.

Add Complications to the Watch Face

According to Apple, complications are ‘special features‘ that you can add to some watch faces. Once you do that, you can see information like battery status, weather, stocks, heart rate, etc. at a glance. Complications also let you quickly trigger an action. For example, get to the Phone app quickly. Here is how to add complications to the Apple watch face.

Press firmly on the current watch face. Tap on Customize. If your Apple Watch is running watchOS 7, tap on Edit.

Swipe left till you reach the end screen. Tap on one of them.

Press the Digital Crown to save the changes.

Finally, tap on the watch face to set it.

Add Complications from Other Apps

Third-party apps downloaded from the App Store can have their complications for the Apple Watch. Here is how to enable and make use of them.

Open the Watch app on your paired iPhone. Tap on My Watch tab, if not already.

Tap on Complications.

Tap on Edit.

Under DO NOT INCLUDE, tap on the green plus icon for a complication.

Tap Done.

Now, this third-party complication is ready to be used with compatible watch faces. Follow the above steps for this. It is the same as adding any in-built complication.

Note: watchOS 7 allows you to add multiple complications from the same app to view different pieces of information at a glance.

For instance, if you use the Dawn Patrol app for surfing, you can set up a watch face that shows the water temperature, swell, and wind speed predictions for a beach of your choice.

Change Watch Face Colors, Symbols, Dial, etc.

On supported watch faces, you can change the accent color, style, dial type (analog, digital), number system (Arabic, Indian, Roman, etc.), and more. Here is how.

Press firmly on the current watch face.

Tap Customize. Or swipe left or right to select the desired watch face and then tap on Customize.

On top of the screen, you will see SYMBOLS, DIAL, STYLE, COLOR, etc. The options here depend on the watch face. Some have, some do not.

Turn the Digital Crown to make the changes.

Swipe left to right to select a different heading. Again rotate the Digital Crown to customize it.

Press the Digital Crown to save the changes, and finally tap on the watch face to set it.

Set Photo as Watch Face on Apple Watch

There are two easy ways. You can use saved pictures on your Apple Watch to create and set it as a watch face. Or, use the Photos app on the iPhone. Let us look at both.

Using Apple Watch

Open the Photos app and tap on a picture to open it in full screen.

Press firmly on the image.

Tap on Create Watch Face.

Choose Kaleidoscope or Photos.

The image is set as the watch face. Press the Digital Crown to see it.

Using Photos App on iPhone

Launch the Photos app → Albums → Recents.

Tap on Select. Now choose one image or any number up to 24 (It will change every time you lift your wrist). Next, tap on the Share icon.

Scroll down and tap on Create Watch Face.

On the next screen, you can customize it with colors, complications, etc.

Finally, tap on ADD. The new watch face is set.

With watchOS 7, you can share watch faces too. So, if you have a beautiful watch face with photos of your kids, you can share this with your wife’s Apple Watch.

Add a Watch Face to Your Collection

Suppose you want to sport a new watch face every day (or frequently). For this, you should add them to the collection, so it becomes effortless to switch among them. Here is how to do that.

Press firmly on the current watch face.

Swipe all the way from right to left. Tap on the plus icon.

Use touch or Digital Crown to see the watch faces. Tap on one to add it.

Note: When you create watch faces, for example, from photos, they are automatically added to your collection.

View Your Watch Face Collection

You can view your collection from the Apple Watch or the paired iPhone.

Delete a Watch Face From Your Collection

You can remove watch faces straight from your Apple Watch or the iPhone. Here’s how.

From the Apple Watch

Firmly press on a watch face.

Swipe left or right to select the desired one.

Now, drag it up (just like you force close apps on iPhone). Finally, tap Remove.

From the iPhone

Open the Watch app → Tap on My Watch.

Tap on Edit next to MY FACES.

Tap on the red minus icon and then tap Remove.

Change Time Shown in Watch Face

Many people, myself included, like to keep the wristwatch 5 minutes ahead. You can do so with your Apple Watch as well. Please note that thankfully, this change does not affect alarms, the time shown in notifications, world clocks, or any other time. Pretty neat!

Open the Settings app on your watch.

Scroll down using touch or by rotating the Digital Crown. Tap on Clock.

Tap on +0 min.

Turn the Digital Crown to set your watch ahead. You can choose from 1 minute to up to 59 minutes.

Finally, tap on Set.

This new forward time is visible only on the watch face. The time everywhere else, like in the upper right corner of the Apple Watch Settings app or other apps, will continue to be the actual time.

Automatically Change Apple Watch Faces According to Time and Location

Launch the Shortcuts app on your iPhone.

Go to the Automation tab from the bottom of the screen and tap on ‘+’.

Here, tap on Create Personal Automation.

Tap Time of Day and choose the time and the repeat cycle accordingly.

After selection, tap on Next.

Now, tap on Add Action.

Search Set Watch Face and select the action.

Here, tap on Face (the box at the end) and select the watch face from the list, and tap on Next.

Now, turn off the toggle next to Ask Before Running off.

Select Don’t Ask from the popup & then tap on Done to create the shortcut.

The tutorial is focused on Time of Day, you can easily do similar for a location as well. This is very slightly different, Just repeat steps 1 to 3 and then choose either Arrive or Leave → Choose, and enter the location.

After selection tap on Done → select whether Any time or Time Range → Tap on Next → Add Action → search for Set Watch Face → Tap on Face → select the watch face → Next → Done.

As and when the shortcuts created by you will run, your Apple Watch face will switch. Isn’t this hack super simple and massively handy; And the best part is that you can create as many scenarios as you want, one for home, office, movie, parties, gym, and what not…

Customize the Apple Watch Face to Match your Mood

This how you can play with different watch face settings to make the Apple Watch reflect your personality. Feel free to explore the possibilities on your own.

Besides, we also have a list of best Apple Watch alternatives. In case you are planning to get a wearable for a friend or family, make sure to check our recommendation.


Author Profile


The founder of iGeeksBlog, Dhvanesh, is an Apple aficionado, who cannot stand even a slight innuendo about Apple products. He dons the cap of editor-in-chief to make sure that articles match the quality standard before they are published.

A Beginners’ Guide To Image Similarity Using Python

If you believe that our Test Image is similar to our first reference image you are right. If you do believe otherwise then let’s find out together with the power of mathematics and programming.

Every image is stored in our computer in the form of numbers and a vector of such numbers that can completely describe our image is known as an Image Vector.

Euclidean Distance:

Euclidean Distance represents the distance between any two points in an n-dimensional space. Since we are representing our images as image vectors they are nothing but a point in an n-dimensional space and we are going to use the euclidean distance to find the distance between them.


A histogram is a graphical display of numerical values. We are going to use the image vector for all three images and then find the euclidean distance between them. Based on the values returned the image with a lesser distance is more similar than the other.

To find the similarity between the two images we are going to use the following approach :

Read the image files as an array.

Since the image files are colored there are 3 channels for RGB values. We are going to flatten them such that each image is a single 1-D array.

Once we have our image files as an array we are going to generate a histogram for each image where for each index 0 – 255 we are going the count the occurrence of that pixel value in the image.

Once we have our histograms we are going to use the L2-Norm or Euclidean Distance to find the difference the two histograms.

Based on the distance between the histogram of our test image and the reference images we can find the image our test image is most similar to.

Coding for Image Similarity in Python Import the dependencies we are going to use from PIL import Image from collections import Counter import numpy as np

We are going to use NumPy for storing the image as a NumPy array, Image to read the image in terms of numerical values and Counter to count the number of times each pixel value (0-255) occurs in the images.

Reading the Image

We can see that out image has been successfully read as a 3-D array. In the next step, we need to flatten this 3-D array into a 1-Dimensional array.

flat_array_1 = array1.flatten() print(np.shape(flat_array_1)) >>> (245760, )

We are going to do the same steps for the other two images. I will skip that here so that you can try your hands on it too.

Generating the Count-Histogram-Vector : RH1 = Counter(flat_array_1)

The following line of code returns a dictionary where the key corresponds to the pixel value and the value of the key is the number of times that pixel is present in the image.

One limitation of Euclidean distance is that it requires all the vectors to be normalized i.e both the vectors need to be of the same dimensions. To ensure that our histogram vector is normalized we are going to use a for loop from 0-255 and generate our histogram with the value of the key if the key is present in the image else we append a 0.

H1 = [] for i in range(256): if i in RH1.keys(): H1.append(RH1[i]) else: H1.append(0)

The above piece of code generates a vector of size (256, ) where each index corresponds to the pixel value and the value corresponds to the count of the pixel in that image.

We follow the same steps for the other two images and obtain their corresponding Count-Histogram-Vectors. At this point we have our final vectors for both the reference images and the test image and all we need to do is calculate the distances and predict.

Euclidean Distance Function : def L2Norm(H1,H2): distance =0 for i in range(len(H1)): distance += np.square(H1[i]-H2[i]) return np.sqrt(distance)

The above function takes in two histograms and returns the euclidean distance between them.

Evaluation :

Since we have everything we need to find the image similarities let us find out the distance between the test image and our first reference image.

dist_test_ref_1 = L2Norm(H1,test_H) print("The distance between Reference_Image_1 and Test Image is : {}".format(dist_test_ref_1)) >>> The distance between Reference_Image_1 and Test Image is : 9882.175468994668

Let us now find out the distance between the test image and our second reference image.

dist_test_ref_2 = L2Norm(H2,test_H) print("The distance between Reference_Image_2 and Test Image is : {}".format(dist_test_ref_2)) >>> The distance between Reference_Image_2 and Test Image is : 137929.0223122023

How To Build A Pc For Beginners – Step By Step Guide

This is the big one: Read Your Motherboard And Case Manuals!

I cannot stress enough the importance of reading your manual. These will be the most functionally unique parts of your first computer build and are highly unlikely to match any build guides you may be consulting.

For the PC I built for this article, I used a Mini ITX NZXT H210i- I wouldn’t recommend a Mini ITX case for a newcomer, but you should still be able to follow along decently well!

A common beginner builder’s mistake is to toss away things you think you don’t need early in the build, only to scramble desperately to find them in a pile of empty boxes mid-build.

Don’t let this be you! Please don’t throw anything away or lose track of where it is until your PC is entirely built!

A Phillips head screwdriver, smaller is better- this is used for installing your motherboard and other components

A stable place to hold all of your screws, preferably magnetic

Any anti-static equipment

A pair of tweezers is also handy for inserting and removing small screws.

Plastic Cable Ties for cable management.

If you’re using a regular retail (DVD) copy of Windows, you don’t need to do any extra setup.

If you want to install using USB, use this tool on another PC to create a Windows installation USB drive. Alternatively, you can use Rufus to create the installation media if you already have a Windows 10 ISO.

First and foremost, you’re going to need a clean, flat surface for you to work on. Most tables will do fine in this regard- make sure that it isn’t wet/dirty if you’re building outdoors.

Secondly, you’ll need to evaluate your environment. If you don’t have any anti-static equipment, you’re going to need to work in a place where static buildup is unlikely to occur. This means no carpeted floors and something to touch to ground yourself- even if it’s just a metal part of the inside of your chassis.

If you have anti-static equipment (like an anti-static wrist strap or the anti-static bags that will come with your motherboard and GPU), now is the time to make sure it’s all set up. 

This means hooking your anti-static wristband or mat to a grounding point (as pictured below).

With the anti-static bags that came with your motherboard and GPU, place these components on top of them. This is where you’ll want to rest them throughout the rest of the build process.

Now that you have a clean workspace prepared with everything you need, it’s time to get started!

First, remove both side panels from your case. If you’re dealing with a tempered glass panel, be extra cautious and find a safe, soft place to set it down while you’re working on the inside of the build. A properly-cased pillow can do the job here; make sure nothing applies pressure directly to the window.

Inside the case, there will already be some cabling for your case fans and front panel connections. Route these through cable management holes for the time being, preferably closer to the top of your case, so it’s easier to plug them in later on in the build.

This is an important part: keep your clearances in mind! Be especially sure here and later in the build that no cords are in danger of coming into contact with either CPU or case fans because the result could be…fiery. (As in, you might actually start a fire, and your hardware is definitely screwed.)

To Install an Intel CPU:

To install an Intel CPU, you’ll need to first push down on the retention mechanism and move it slightly to the side to get it free. Then, pull back on this lever to reveal the bare CPU socket– you don’t need to remove the black plastic thing here.

It’ll pop out on its own after installing the CPU- and gently place your CPU inside, aligning the triangle on the corner of the CPU with the triangle in the socket.

Confirm before proceeding that your CPU is properly aligned. As long as it is, you can push the socket cover back down and lock it in with the mechanism you undid earlier- this will make some noise, but as long as your CPU was properly installed earlier, you have nothing to worry about.

Video Guide: 

To Install an AMD CPU:

AMD CPUs differ from Intel CPUs in that their sockets are pinless- instead, all of the pins are on the CPU itself. This has its own pros and cons, but for building, it essentially means that all you have to do is raise the retention arm, gently lower the CPU into the socket (aligning it with the triangles while doing so, like with an Intel CPU installation), and… you’re done!

Well, after returning the retention arm to its previous position, and as long as you didn’t meet any resistance on the way down. If you’re unsure, watch the video embedded below.

If using a stock cooler, you don’t need your own thermal paste! It’s pre-applied on the heatsink. All you need to do is install it.

These instructions are meant only as a guideline, especially if you’re working with a third-party cooler! Always consult the official manual!

When it comes time to install your CPU cooler, make a note of the four screw holes around your CPU socket- there are mounting points for your CPU cooler. 

Now, apply a thermal paste blob about the size of two grains of rice on the center of your CPU.

Being careful to align the bottom of the cooler with the CPU and the screw holes, gently lower the cooler into place onto your CPU. Next, screw it down on opposite diagonal corners, and be sure to plug the CPU cooler fan into the CPU-FAN header on your motherboard, which should be close by. 

With an AMD stock cooler, you’ll need to use the latching mechanism on both sides to lock the cooler into place.

Video Guide: 

Stock Coolers (Intel and AMD)

Fortunately, RAM is one of the easiest components to install!

First, identify your RAM slots and the corresponding tabs at the edge of each slot. If you’re using a motherboard with more than 2 RAM slots, consult your manual to determine which order to mount your RAM sticks in- if it’s just two slots, the order doesn’t matter.

Push back these tabs, then align the RAM sticks with their slots and slowly push them down into the slot. The tabs will push up and lock into place when you do this.

Remember to push down the tabs before installing RAM- besides that, it’s a pretty clear-cut scenario!

Once you’ve confirmed the location of your standoffs and/or installed them, it’s time to put them in your motherboard over the standoffs. Then, use the screws supplied with your motherboard to screw it in!

Chances are you already have a few cases fans pre-installed, but in case they aren’t installed, or you bought extra fans, you’ll want to mount them right about now.

Fortunately, this is pretty easy: just use the included screws at marked fan slots inside your chassis, hold them on one side and screw them in on the other. Tilt your case on its side or screw in opposite diagonal corners first if you’re having trouble.

Push your PSU into the case (outlet side facing out) until screw holes on it align with the screw holes in your chassis.

Once aligned, simply screw it in! Do make sure the Fan intake side of the PSU faces the grills of the case, so that it can suck in fresh air and expel hot air without any help from case fans.

The cables that came with your case- namely for front panel I/O, USB, and audio- need to be plugged in sooner or later. This is the time to do it, but exact instructions vary greatly depending on the case and motherboard- you’ll need to consult both of their manuals for this process.

In order to find where SATA drives are mounted in your case, consult your case manual. Once you’ve mounted the drive, you’ll need to plug in both the SATA cable and power cable/strip. The SATA cable will go into a corresponding SATA port on the motherboard- shaped like an L- and the power cable should run back to the PSU.

Watch Video:

M.2 drives require dedicated M.2 slots on your motherboard. These slots will usually be on the front, but one may also be on the back, especially if you’re building inside a mini ITX case. 

The M.2 slot on your motherboard should come with a pre-installed screw on the opposite of the connector- unscrew this before proceeding, as you’ll need it to finish the mount.

Now, all you need to do is insert the M.2 drive into the slot and lay it flat against the slot. The circular gap at the end of the SSD should align with the screw hole at this point- steady it to make sure it does, and then re-screw it in.

Watch Video:

Before doing anything else with your GPU, note the plastic tabs inside of the I/O slots and remove all of them. Not just the one you’re going to use, all of them– one of our writers had the misfortune of leaving his inside an old graphics card and needing to use a set of pliers to free up the slots.

Before attempting to mount your GPU, you’ll need to unscrew the PCI Express slots in your chassis to make room for it. Keep the screws, though!

Fortunately, actually installing the GPU is pretty dead-simple. All you need to do is align it with the PCI Express slot on your motherboard, and push it down firmly to install it.

Next, you’ll want to take the screws you removed earlier and screw them back in, securing your GPU in place inside your case. If its manual says it, you’ll need you to plug in an 8-Pin power cable or more, and you’re ready to use your graphics card!

This is the time to double-check everything if all of your cables are routed properly and securely plugged in. Double-check the following connections especially:

Is the motherboard power cable plugged in securely?

Is the CPU power cable plugged in securely?

Are any SATA drives powered and plugged in?

If the GPU has an 8-pin power connector, is that plugged into both the CPU and PSU?

Are all case fans plugged in?

If you’ve answered all these questions, put your side panels back on, plug in your PSU, turn on your PSU, and hit the power button!

If it powers on, you’re ready to proceed.

Now that you’ve built your PC, it’s time to get it up and running!

Installing your OS is as simple as plugging in your USB/inserting your DVD, powering on, and following the on-screen instructions.

(Skip any GPU drivers for the moment- you can get those from AMD or Nvidia directly.)

If prompted to restart, do not do so until you have installed ALL relevant drivers to your motherboard.

Now that you’ve installed your basic drivers, head to  chúng tôi .

Using the application located here, you can quickly and conveniently stall dozens of popular applications at once, such as Steam, Discord, Dropbox, Chrome, Firefox, Malwarebytes, and more. Chances are, at least a few of the apps you want are included in this bundle! (Steam still usually needs an update afterward, though.)

Now that you’ve installed your drivers and favorite apps, you need to do just one more thing before you get up and running: install your graphics drivers!

If you’re using an AMD graphics card, you’ll want to get the drivers straight from AMD. Note your make and model, and use the page linked below to get the right download for your system.

If you’re using an Nvidia graphics card, get the drivers from them! Check your GPU model (i.e., GTX 760 or RTX 3080) and download the corresponding driver from the page linked below.

I want to say a great job! If you followed all the steps listed in this guide, you should have a brand-new pc built all by yourself. Tell all your friends how awesome you are, and be sure to have fun with your new pc.

Too small of a workspace

Small workspaces become problematic during a typical PC build. The floor is typically a poor choice when building a PC. Carpet is prone to generating static electricity, which can damage your components. It is essential to find a table or solid surface with lots of room.

Access to another internet-connected device

You need a separate internet-ready device. This can be a cell phone, laptop, tablet, etc. You can access the guide, search google and find answers to common problems you may be having with your build.

Ignoring Cable Management

This is a mistake that I have seen even experienced builders make. Take an opportunity to visit this website and view some good examples of cable management. Cable management keeps your system looking neat and tidy, minimizes dust collection, and creates proper airflow inside your case.

Failure to Read Manuals

Everyone’s done it; they look at a project, think how hard it can be, and something doesn’t go right, or you have to start completely over. The motherboard manual is the most important manual out of all of your components.

Critical information like connecting your front panel USB, sound, and power buttons are essential, and if you don’t follow your manual, you might not be able to even turn on your computer when you are finished.

Forgetting to Install I/O Shield

A first-time mistake made by many builders. If you fail to remove it and install the one that comes with your motherboard and connect all peripherals, you cannot install it afterward. You will have to unplug everything, disconnect the GPU, and remove the board to install it.  

Not Installing Mobo Stand-offs

These brass stand-offs protect your motherboard by keeping them from making contact with the case. This contact could cause your mobo to short out. If this happens, you may need a new motherboard or other components.

Improper Handling of Components

The components of your computer are pretty delicate. It is important to take precautions when installing and handling them. Without using Anti-Static wrist straps properly clipped to your case, you could short out your new RAM, CPU, and GPU. Also, if you don’t handle your CPU from the edges, you risk damaging the pins on an AMD CPU.

Proper Amount of Thermal Paste

Installing too much thermal paste can squeeze out upon installation of the cooler/heatsink. The thermal paste could get onto the motherboard and create a mess. Place one drop the size of a grain of rice right in the middle on top of the CPU. Take a look here at the suggested application of thermal paste.

Failing to Install RAM in Dual Channel

If you have purchased a dual-channel RAM kit. Your mobo’s manual will explain in detail how to install your RAM. Dual channels are often staggered. Meaning, if you have four RAM slots, you would skip one slot and install in the next one. In the image below, you can observe if you had two 1GB chipsets. You would install one in Channel A, Slot 0. The other 1GB chipset in Channel B, Slot 0. 

Failing to Plug-in All Cables

This is a common mistake as well. If every component from your mobo, GPU, SATA drives, Cooling Fans, I/O ports, etc., must be plugged in. Failure to do so will cause some or all of your computer components to fail to boot up. Before you plug it in and boot up, double-check all components, power supply, and cables.

Installing Fans the Wrong Way

When cooling your computer, you must remember you want to pull fresh air in and warm (dirty) air out. From personal experience, you get optimum results if you install front fans pulling in the fresh air and all rear fans pulling air out.

Plugging in Monitor and not GPU

This situation typically only is a problem when purchasing a board with onboard video. However, you need to recall that if you bought a GPU, it goes in the lower expansion slots of the case typically. If you plug in your monitor to the mobo’s onboard video, you may not see anything displayed. Double-check your connections before booting up.

Working on PC While It’s Turned On

This is something that doesn’t need much explanation. However, keep in mind that this can be dangerous, and you could seriously damage your components by static electricity or shorting out something accidentally. Safely shut down the PC, unplug it, hold the power button for about five seconds, open the computer, and continue your work.

Using a Bad Outlet or Outlet on a Switch

This one is more popular than you can imagine. I received many tech calls, and after troubleshooting over the phone, I learned to start with this one. Try another wall outlet, and if you are using a surge protector, verify the switch is turned on. You would be surprised how many times this resolved a tech call.

PC building can seem really technical and overwhelming. You want to focus on buying the right parts, and it’s not hard as you think. You can try PCPARTPICKER and view some of the builds. They offer guides that show each piece it takes to build that particular PC. Once you see the parts that go in your build, you can begin to customize it based on those results. You will find that patience, not experience, is your greatest ally.

Some easier PC setups can be completed in less than an hour. By easier, I’m talking about an air-cooled CPU setup with a single GPU, 1-2 SATA or NVMe drives, RAM, and power supply. However, when you deal with several storage drives, multiple GPU’s, water cooling, etc., you are adding several more hours of work. Keep in mind this does not include installing the OS & software that can easily take another hour or more.

In all honesty, PC manufactures have the upper hand. They purchase components at bulk prices and use those savings to offer an OS, maybe even an office program for documents, and maybe a trial of Anti-virus software. When you build the PC, you have to pay retail or wait for deals on parts and purchase the OS and other software, which adds up rather quickly. If you are looking at higher price point PCs such as Alienware, they are pretty overpriced. You can build a similar PC for quite less.

Many things can go wrong during a PC build. One of the most popular mistakes is buying incompatible components. This is why I suggest using PC Part Picker to make sure all of your components are compatible. Cheap PSUs can be a real problem. A very generic PSU could result in a house fire, so always buy a high-quality PSU from a trusted brand. Last but not least, READ THE MANUALS. If you don’t install the components according to your manual’s instructions, you might have to restart the build process or even risk damaging a component.

The first component you should purchase should be the CPU. After you select AMD or Intel, the CPU choice will determine the form-factor of your motherboard, then your motherboard’s form factor will determine the size of the case needed, etc.

Out of all of your research on your computer, make sure to spend as much time possible on this component. The PSU acts like a lifeline to your entire PC. It provides the necessary power to each component and keeps it running efficiently. If you purchase a cheap PSU, it could cause poor system performance, short-out or destroy components, even cause a fire. It is extremely important to choose a trusted and reputable brand name when shopping for a Power Supply.

A driver is an essential program that allows your OS to communicate and function properly with all of the devices within your computer. These devices include the GPU, sound cards, network cards, HDD, USB ports, and so much more. Keeping your drivers up to date is important because your computer will not function properly without them.

According to tomshardware, 8GB is the bare minimum for most people. You can run only 4GB for just web-browsing, email, and casual windows games like solitaire. If you want to start playing some of the more popular games today, such as F1 or Division 2, it is recommended you go for at least 16GB.

How To Use A Guide For Creators

In today’s digital age, creators need effective tools to manage their online presence and engage with their audience. One such tool that has gained popularity is chúng tôi This free, all-in-one toolkit offers a range of features to help creators optimize their online profiles and drive traffic to their content. If you’re new to chúng tôi and want to harness its power, follow these simple steps to get started.

See More : Is chúng tôi Safe? Is it Secure and Trustworthy

To begin using chúng tôi the first step is to sign up for an account. Follow these instructions:

Visit the chúng tôi website.

Choose the social platform you prefer to use for logging in to chúng tôi Options include Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, and Twitch.

If your email is not already linked, you will need to connect your Facebook or Google account to ensure chúng tôi can reach you effectively.

After successfully signing up, it’s time to create your profile on chúng tôi This step allows you to showcase your online presence and provide links to various platforms and content.

Log in to your chúng tôi account.

Navigate to your profile settings.

Customize your profile by adding a profile picture, bio, and any other relevant information you want to share with your audience. provides a convenient way to consolidate your online presence by adding links to your profile. This allows your audience to navigate to your preferred destinations with ease.

Access your profile settings on

Locate the “Links” section.

Add the relevant links that drive traffic to your desired destinations, such as affiliate links, content, or other platforms you want to promote.

Once you have completed the profile setup and added your links and social media handles, it’s time to leverage your Beacons link effectively.

Copy your unique Beacons link from your profile.

Share it across various platforms such as social media, websites, or blog posts.

Use it in your bios or descriptions on social media to direct your audience to all the important links and content you want them to explore.

Monitor the analytics provided by chúng tôi to gain insights into your link performance and audience engagement.

Also Read : chúng tôi Login: A Complete Guide to Accessing Your Account

One of the primary use cases for chúng tôi is by content creators, including influencers, musicians, athletes, and gamers. The platform provides them with an interactive way to connect with their fans and followers. Through chúng tôi creators can engage their audience by offering custom video responses to their fans’ questions. This direct interaction enhances fan engagement and strengthens the relationship between creators and their audience. plays a crucial role in the events industry. Managing an event involves the coordination of various activities and the dissemination of important information to attendees. With chúng tôi event organizers can efficiently handle these tasks. The platform enables them to provide attendees with essential information such as the event location, booth locations of brands, event schedules, and announcements. chúng tôi also helps in guiding attendees through the venue and sending alerts on scheduled events. It enhances the overall event experience and ensures smooth operations. finds applications in the transportation industry as well. It offers a convenient way to inform passengers about routes, schedules, and important updates. For example, in airports, beacons can be utilized to provide passengers with real-time information about flight changes, delays, weather conditions, and gate locations. This helps passengers stay informed and enables them to plan their journeys more effectively. Several international airports, including Heathrow, New York’s JFK, and Frankfurt, already utilize this technology to enhance the passenger experience.

In the hospitality industry, chúng tôi can be used to provide guests with a personalized and seamless experience. When guests visit a hotel, restaurant, or bar, the platform enables establishments to send them relevant information about their visit. This can include details about the venue, menus, special offers, loyalty programs, and more. Additionally, beacons can be used for site visits and guest management, allowing hospitality businesses to streamline their operations and provide exceptional service.

Another exciting use case for chúng tôi is personalized video shoutouts. Users can submit various types of content, including images, PDFs, audio files, and videos. Personalized video shoutouts have become increasingly popular, particularly in the realm of celebrity greetings and influencer engagements. With chúng tôi users can request customized video messages from their favorite personalities, creating memorable and meaningful interactions.

Read More : What is Beacons AI: Empowering Creators with Innovative Tools offers creators a comprehensive toolkit to manage their online presence efficiently. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can maximize the benefits of chúng tôi and drive traffic to your preferred destinations seamlessly.

Q: Is chúng tôi completely free to use?

A: Yes, chúng tôi is a free toolkit for creators.

Q: Can I customize my Beacons profile?

A: Absolutely! You can personalize your Beacons profile with a profile picture, bio, and other information that aligns with your brand.

Q: Which social media platforms can I link to my Beacons profile?

A: chúng tôi allows you to add links from Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, Twitch, and more.

Q: Can I track the performance of my Beacons link?

A: Yes, chúng tôi provides analytics to help you monitor the performance of your links and understand audience engagement.

Q: Can I use chúng tôi on mobile devices?

A: Yes, chúng tôi is accessible on both desktop and mobile devices, ensuring convenience and flexibility for creators.

Share this:



Like this:




Excel Cheat Sheet: A Beginners Guide With Time

Excel is a powerful tool that helps you store data, perform calculations, and organize information. To make the best use of the tool, you need a quick reference to guide you through the various functions, commands, and shortcuts.

This article is a comprehensive Excel cheat sheet specifically designed for beginners. It starts with the basics and moves on to functions, formulas, and data analysis tools.

Let’s get started!

We start with a cheat sheet for navigating the Excel interface, which can seem a little intimidating at first glance, but don’t worry!

This section will give you the lowdown on the essential features, shortcuts, and tricks, including the ribbon, workbooks and worksheets, and rows, columns, and cells.

The ribbon is at the top of your screen. Each tab includes a set of commands to help you perform tasks quickly

To show or hide the ribbon commands, press Ctrl-F1.

If you can’t remember the location of a command, you can always use the search bar on the ribbon to find it.

A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets. Worksheets are where you organize and process your data.

You can navigate through your worksheets using keyboard shortcuts:

Press Ctrl + Page Up to move to the next sheet.

Press Ctrl + Page Down to move to the previous sheet.

Worksheets are made up of rows, columns, and cells.

Rows are labeled with numbers, and columns are labeled with letters. Cells are the intersection of rows and columns and are referred to by their column and row labels, like A1 or B2.

To navigate within a worksheet, use the arrow keys to move up, down, left, or right.

You can also use the following shortcuts:

Ctrl + up arrow

Ctrl + down arrow

Ctrl + left arrow

Ctrl + right arrow

Now that you know how to navigate the Excel interface, let’s go over some of the basics of the program in the next section of our cheat sheet.

You can also use the arrow keys to navigate between cells.

Press ‘Enter’ to apply your changes.

To undo, press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘Z’, or use the ‘Undo’ button in the Quick Access Toolbar.

To redo, press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘Y’, or use the ‘Redo’ button in the Quick Access Toolbar.

To move a single cell or a range of cells, follow these steps:

Hover your cursor over the edge of the cells until it becomes a four-sided arrow.

Alternatively, you can use the ‘Shift’ + arrow keys to select cells.

To find a specific value or text in your worksheet:

Press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘F’ to open the ‘Find’ dialog box.

Enter your search query.

To replace a value or text:

Press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘H’ to open the ‘Replace’ dialog box.

Enter the value you want to find in the ‘Find what’ field.

Enter the value you want to replace within the ‘Replace with’ field.

With the basics done, let’s take a look at what you need to remember when formatting cells in the next section.

When entering dates or times, format the cells accordingly before inputting the data.

To format a cell:

Choose ‘Format Cells’.

Select the desired format.

You can choose the appropriate number format to simplify data presentation. Here’s how you can apply different number formats:

Select the cells you want to format.

Common number formats include:

General: Default format without specific styles.

Number: Displays numbers with decimals and commas.

Currency: Adds currency symbols to the numbers.

Percentage: Represents the value as a percentage.

Date: Formats the cell value as a date.

Enhance the readability of your text by applying various formatting options.

When you select the cells containing the text you want to format, you can use keyboard shortcuts for quick formatting:

Ctrl+B for bold.

Ctrl+I for italic.

Ctrl+U for underline.

Alternatively, use the toolbar options in the ‘Home’ tab, like ‘Font’ and ‘Alignment’.

Apply borders and shading to emphasize or differentiate cell data. Follow these steps:

Select the cells you want to format.

Conditional formatting allows you to apply formats based on specific conditions. Here’s how to implement it:

Select the cells you want to apply conditional formatting to.

Select from the list of available conditions or create a new rule.

Assign the appropriate format for the selected condition.

In the next section of our reference guide, we provide a cheat sheet for popular Excel formulas. Let’s go!

Before we give you the most commonly used Excel formulas and functions, here is a quick primer on how to use them.

Formulas in Excel are used to perform calculations and manipulate data with built-in functions.

To create a formula, start with an equal sign (=) followed by a combination of numbers, cell references, and mathematical operators.

Here is an example that adds the values in the range A1 to A5


With that in mind, let’s look at some basic Excel formulas and functions.

Sometimes you need to chop up strings in a cell. For example, extracting the parts of an address is a common task. These text functions are very useful:

LEFT: this function returns the first or multiple characters from a string.

RIGHT: gets the last or multiple characters from a string.

MID: gets characters in the middle of the string.

CONCAT: puts strings together.

This example shows the use of the LEFT function to extract the first four characters:

The find functions provide powerful features for working with text:

FIND: locates a specific string within another text string

SEARCH: similar to FIND but works with wildcard characters

In the next section, we take a look at some popular Excel math functions.

There is a long list of Excel functions that includes some highly complex computations. Here are the ones you will most commonly use:

SUM: Adds up a range of numbers.

AVERAGE: Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of a range of numbers.

MIN: Returns the smallest value in a dataset.

MAX: Returns the largest value in a dataset.

COUNT: Counts the number of cells containing numbers within a range.

PRODUCT: Multiplies a range of numbers together.

Here is an example of the SUM function:

Time functions help you manage, convert, and manipulate time data.

NOW: Returns the current date and time.

TODAY: Returns the current date without the time.

HOUR: Extracts the hour from a given time.

MINUTE: Extracts the minutes from a given time.

SECOND: Extracts the seconds from a given time.

TIME: Constructs a time value from separate hour, minute, and second values.

A lookup function searches for specific values within a range or table and returns corresponding data from another column or row. These are the most common for Excel users:

VLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first column of a table and returns a value in the same row from a specified column.

HLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first row of a table and returns a value from a specified row in the same column.

INDEX: Returns a value from a specified row and column within a given range or table.

MATCH: Searches for a specified item in a range or array and returns the relative position of the item within that range.

If you’ve got the latest version of MS Excel, there are some new features like XLOOKUP, which is faster than the older functions.

Here’s an example of using the VLOOKUP function:

Cell referencing is a way to point to a specific cell or range of cells in a formula. There are two types of cell references: absolute and relative.

Absolute refers to a specific cell or range and keeps the same reference even when the formula is copied. It uses a dollar sign ($) to denote absolute referencing, like $A$1.

A relative reference changes when the formula is copied to another cell or range, adjusting the reference based on the new location.

Formulas can sometimes result in errors due to incorrect syntax, invalid references, or other issues with calculation. Some common error messages are:

#DIV/0!: Division by zero

#NAME?: Occurs when Excel doesn’t recognize text in the formula

#REF!: Invalid cell reference

#VALUE!: Occurs when the wrong data type is used in a formula

To fix errors, check the formula’s syntax, cell references, and data types to make sure they are correct and compatible.

With formulas done, the next section of our reference is for Excel data analysis tools.

Excel provides a wide range of tools to help you analyze and organize your data effectively. Let’s discuss the various tools and their importance.

Sorting and filtering in Microsoft Excel enables you to arrange your data in a more organized way. To access the feature:

Go to the Home tab.

Choose one of the options in the drop-down list.

These are your options:

Sort A to Z: Orders text data alphabetically or numerical data from the lowest value to the highest.

Sort Z to A: Orders text data in reverse alphabetical order or numerical data from the highest value to the lowest.

Custom Sort: Apply multiple sorting conditions to your data.

Filter: Display only rows that meet specific criteria.

Pivot tables are used to summarize and consolidate your data effectively. They enable you to perform quick data analysis by dragging and dropping different fields into rows or columns and applying calculations such as sum, average, and standard deviation.

To create a pivot table:

Select your data range.

Choose ‘PivotTable’ from the drop-down menu and configure your pivot table settings.

Drag and drop fields into rows, columns, and values areas to analyze your data.

Visual representations of your data using charts

and graphs can help you gain better insights and make informed decisions. Excel comes with a handy variety of charts and graphs to choose from, including:

Column charts: Compare different data sets across distinct categories.

Bar charts: Display comparisons among discrete categories horizontally.

Line charts: Show trends and patterns over time.

Pie charts: Illustrate proportional data and percentages.

To create a chart in Excel:

Select your data range.

Customize your chart’s design, layout, and formatting to meet your requirements.

Charts and graphs are powerful tools. If you want to see some in action, check out this video:

We’ve covered a lot of ground so far! Up next is a reference for popular Excel keyboard shortcuts.

There are four categories of keyboard shortcuts in Excel:

General Shortcuts

Navigation Shortcuts

Formatting Shortcuts

Data Analysis Shortcuts

Here are some commonly used shortcuts for routine tasks and Excel commands:

Ctrl + N: Create a new workbook

Ctrl + O: Open an existing workbook

Ctrl + S: Save the current workbook

Ctrl + Z: Undo the last action

Ctrl + Y: Redo the last action

Ctrl + C: Copy the selected cells

Ctrl + X: Cut the selected cells

Ctrl + V: Paste the copied or cut cells

To navigate within a workbook, try the following shortcuts:

Ctrl + arrow keys: Move to the edge of the current data region

Ctrl + G: Open the Go To dialog box

Ctrl + Page Up: Move to the previous sheet in the workbook

Ctrl + Page Down: Move to the next sheet in the workbook

Home: Move to the beginning of a row

Ctrl + Home: Move to the first cell in the worksheet (A1)

Use these shortcuts for formatting in Excel:

Ctrl + 1: Open the Format Cells dialog box

Ctrl + B: Apply or remove bold formatting

Ctrl + I: Apply or remove italic formatting

Ctrl + U: Apply or remove underline formatting

Ctrl + 5: Apply or remove strikethrough formatting

Alt + H + H: Access the Fill Color options

Alt + H + B: Access the Border options

When working with data, these shortcuts can be helpful:

Alt + A + S + S: Sort selected data alphabetically

Alt + A + T: Add or remove a filter to the selected range

Ctrl + Shift + L: Enable or disable AutoFilter

Alt + =: Insert an AutoSum formula

F2: Edit an active cell

Ctrl + Shift + Enter: Enter a formula as an array formula

By mastering these keyboard shortcuts, you can navigate, format, and analyze your data more efficiently and effectively.

And there we have it. We’ve covered a lot of ground in this cheat sheet, diving into the essentials of navigating the Excel interface.

This guide is here to simplify your journey with Excel, offering you the key tools, shortcuts, and techniques at your fingertips, so make sure to save it for future reference!

Update the detailed information about How To Use The Galaxy Watch 4: A Beginners Guide on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!