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Difference Between Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association

The Memorandum of Association, as a key company document, outlines the principles necessary to lay the foundation, including the objectives, scope of authority, competencies, liabilities, and legal rights, to define the company’s relationship with its shareholders. The memorandum is a legal code of conduct that binds the company and its shareholders, investors, and beneficiaries, necessitating any sound organization to grow.

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Contents of Memorandum of Association

Under Section 4 of the Companies Act of 2013, a Memorandum of Association comprises of following clauses as discussed below:

1. Name Clause

For a public Limited company, the company’s name should end with the word ‘Limited’ as the last word.

For the private limited company, the name of the company should end with the words ‘Private Limited’ as the last words.

Moreover, these words are not covered under Section 8 of the Act; they must include one of the following words, as applicable.








Electoral Trust, etc.

2. Registered Office Clause

It specifies in which state the registered office is situated off the company.

3. Object Clause

It defines the objective of the company for which it has been incorporated. If the company does not serve the purpose, it has a right to change its name within six months from the date of incorporation.

In the memorandum, each organization member must clearly state their liabilities. Shares or guarantees can limit these liabilities. However, if unlimited liability exists, the entire clause will be abolished.

5. Capital Clause

It defines the maximum amount of capital the company’s members generate should be specified inside the Memorandum of Association. However, the company has no legal limit on the maximum amount of capital to be raised.

6. Association or Subscription Clause

The Memorandum of Association should specify the amount of authorized capital and the number of shares each company member owns.

Articles of Association(AOA)

Shares belonging to a specific class should have certain values and rights attached.

Calls of shares, transfer of shares, forfeiture, conversion of shares, and alteration of capital.

Directors, their appointment, power, and duties are also included.

Minute of Meeting circulation and their intimation.

Accounts and their audit at regular intervals of time.

Auditor’s appointments and their remuneration.

Dividends and Reverse.

Minimum subscription.

Formulation of rules to utilize and custody of the common seal.

Rules and regulations need to convert fully paid shares into stocks.

The proposed alteration increases the liability of existing members.

The alteration is allowed only to obtain better results.

The alteration can be done with a retrospective effect.

Head To Head Comparison Between Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association (Infographics)

Below is the top 10 difference between a Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association

Key Differences Between Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association

Both Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Differences:

MOA is a document that defines the necessary documents which are required to fulfill the registration of the company. At the same time, the Articles of Association is a document that defines the rules and regulations for the company’s administration.

The Indian Companies Act 1956; MOA is defined in section 2(56). However, the AOA is elaborated in section(5).

MOA is a subsidiary of the Companies Act, while AOA is a subsidiary of both MOA and AOA.

In any of the clauses, a contradiction occurs between the Memorandum and Articles; the Memorandum of an association will prevail over the Article of Association.

MOA is a supremacy body that contains information about the company’s powers. At the same time, AOA contains information about the rules and regulations which need to implement.

MOA comprises six clauses, while AOA is designed at the company’s discretion.

MOA establishes the relationship with external bodies for streamlining the organization’s operations. However, AOA regulates the relationship between the company and its members.

Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association Comparison Table

Below is the 10 topmost comparison between a Memorandum of Association vs Article of Association

Basis Of Comparison 

Memorandum of Association (MOA)

Article of Association (AOA)

Definition MOA specifies all the fundamental data required to incorporate a company. AOA defines the rules and regulations necessary to govern the company.

Registration MOA is registered during the time of incorporation Not mandatory to register.

Scope The Memorandum is the charter, which characterizes and limits the powers and constraints of the organization. The articles define an individual’s obligation, rights, and power, which are necessary to govern the organization.

Status Major document Subordinate to the memorandum.

Power MOM gives a right to the company to violet company act The act constrains the articles.

Contents Six clauses are mandatory to write a memorandum. The company’s decision is sufficient to write the articles.

Objectives The objective and power of the company are specified in the memorandum. The articles are the means to attain the objectives and power.

Validity MOA is a reserve of all the rights to attain the objective. AOA follows the defined procedure of MOA.

Defined in Section 2(56) Section 2(5)

Relation The relationship between the company and the outsider A relationship between a company and its members


The Memorandum of Association and the Article of Association are two documentation procedures that adopt different methods to cater to the fundamental data required to incorporate an organization and formulate definite sets of rules and regulations by the MOA. The mutual collaboration of both procedures helps the proper management and functioning of the company throughout its life. Due to this reason, every company requires to have its own memorandum and articles.

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App Association Sponsorship Claimed To Give Apple Undue Influence Without Membership

A piece this morning claims that the company exerts significant influence over a body designed to represent developers, when their interests may be at odds with those of the App Store owner …

The App Association

The App Association describes itself as “the leading industry voice on the app economy.” It says that it represents more than 5,000 developers, including makers of connected devices.

As the leading industry voice on the app economy for our members as well as policymakers, we provide resources and tools to help app makers understand the rules, regulations, and best practices that are critical to secure success and consumer confidence. Our members and experts frequently testify before Congress on topics ranging from the internet of things to connected health innovation. In addition, we regularly host briefings and product demos to showcase innovations and highlight issues faced by entrepreneurs across the country.

Given that app developers are sometimes engage in battles with Apple over such things as App Store commissions, it would at first glance seem odd that the iPhone maker would have any influence over it – but that’s what a piece today claims.

Apple ‘shapes the association’s goals’

Four former employees of The App Association have reportedly told Bloomberg that Apple shapes the goals and policies of the group.

The App Association brands itself as the leading voice for thousands of app developers around the world. In reality, the vast majority of its funding comes from Apple Inc.

The tech giant isn’t a member of the association. But it plays a dominant behind-the-scenes role shaping the group’s policy positions, according to four former App Association employees who asked not to be named discussing internal matters.

In fact, critics note, the association’s lobbying agenda tracks closely with Apple’s — even when it’s at odds with app developers, the companies that make the individual games and programs that run on Apple’s iPhone and other devices. 

But the piece appears to be based on a misunderstanding

The piece gives the impression that Apple is somehow supplying cash to the association in some quiet way in order to influence policy. It also suggests that Apple seeks influence without membership.

But this appears to be based on a misunderstanding. Apple is not a member of The App Association, but it is – very publicly – a sponsor of one specific initiative of the association. Namely, its attempt to get more sensible FRAND arrangements in place, as part of much-needed patent reform.

FRAND applies to so-called standards-essential patents, that is one without which it would be impossible to make a smartphone or other device. It states that the owner must licence the right to use the patented tech on terms which are Fair, Reasonable, And Non-Discriminatory.

Apple clearly has a keen interest in this area and sponsors this work, alongside other companies like Cisco, Intel, and Microsoft.

You can read below a letter the association and others sent to then President-elect Biden calling for FRAND reform. It is self-evident why Apple would wish to help fund this campaign.

Microsoft Word – Cover Letter Multistakeholder SEP Recommendations (13 Jan 2023).docx

January 13, 2023

RE: Recommendations for the Biden-Harris Administration on Standard-Essential Patent Licensing Policy Priorities & Actions

President-elect Joseph Biden outlined a strategy and vision for economic growth in the United States centered around a manufacturing future that is “Made in All of America.” In order to achieve this, we urge the incoming administration to ensure American innovators can access emerging technologies like 5G, Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence. But the transformative power of these technologies can only be achieved if the underlying technical standards upon which they are built can be used by all interested players on reasonable and non- discriminatory terms. Patents covering technology that is essential to using these standards — known as Standard-Essential Patents (SEPs) – must be available for American manufacturers to license in a fair and balanced framework, as promised by the owners of these patents when the standards were set.

To the detriment of American manufacturers and consumers, the previous administration’s policies over the past four years have drastically disrupted this balance and tilted the scales of leverage away from promoting products that build on these emerging technologies and in favor of royalty-seeking licensors. The desire to avoid high litigation costs and business risk can cause businesses to either accept excessive and abusive licensing terms or exit the market entirely. The impact of such decisions is felt by consumers in the form of reduced choices and higher costs.

To restore the balance to SEP licensing, and make sure American manufacturers can license the technologies needed to compete, we urge the Biden-Harris Administration to:

●  Support a broad range of procompetitive SEP licensing practices and actively combat anticompetitive practices, including updating or withdrawing the 2023 Policy Statement on Remedies for Standards-Essential Patents Subject to Voluntary F/FRAND Commitments, withdrawing the 2023 “supplement” to the Department of Justice Antitrust Division’s Business Review Letter (BRL) originally issued to IEEE in 2023, and withdrawing the improperly issued Avanci BRL and countering the previous Administration’s SEP amicus filings.

●  Promote the ability of U.S. companies to innovate and compete in markets around the world, including championing the U.S. government’s opposition to foreign courts forced global SEP portfolio-based licensing.

● Create a conducive environment within the U.S. government for federal agencies’ support of, adoption, and use of emerging connected technologies, including enabling standard setting organizations to develop and adopt balanced and reasonable intellectual property policies that best address an organization’s needs.

Our attached position paper provides more detail on these objectives. We look forward to working with you to help deliver on President-elect Biden’s promise to Build Back Better.


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Bu Kendo Association: Rookies, Vets Flock To The Sport For Its Action And Discipline

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BU Kendo Association: Rookies, Vets Flock to the Sport for Its Action and Discipline Japanese bamboo sword–based martial art has fighting aspect, spiritual side

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BU Kendo Association: Rookies, Vets Flock to the Sport for Its Action and Discipline

Club Sports

BU Kendo Association: Rookies, Vets Flock to the Sport for Its Action and Discipline

Kreiver Zhou (ENG’23)

Melody Ko

You are more likely to hear a kendo practice before you see it. Bamboo swords—shinai—swish through the air and collide, bare feet slap the hardwood floor, and fighters let out a yell whenever they strike.

The sword-based martial art that we now call kendo began in Japan in the 1700s, originating from military leaders discovering that their soldiers could use bamboo swords for full-contact training without risking fatal injuries. Its current name, kendo, translated to “principles of the sword,” dates to the early 1900s. 

Founded in 2005, the BU Kendo Association has about 50 members, and is coached by Alex Eitoku (CAS’12) and Reina Iwase (CAS’17, GRS’18). Group members’ experience ranges from none to nine years. While many members join the club for the fighting aspect, the veterans say the spiritual side of it keeps them around.

“There’s a Japanese word we use to refer to the proper way to fight, which is ki-ken-tai-ichi,” says association president Daniel Gruspier (ENG’22). “Ki means spirit, ken means sword, tai means body, and ichi means one. Every one of your hits should be one fluid motion.”

A kendo match—shiai—is won when a participant scores two points, or ippon. Points are scored when one participant hits either the head, wrist, or side of their opponent. But it’s not that easy. In addition, the striker has to plant their foot on the ground as the sword makes contact, follow through with the strike, and yell—called a kiai—at the same time.

Team captain Kelton Nguyen (ENG’23) has practiced kendo for nine years. Growing up in Randolph, Mass., he started kendo because he thought it looked cool when his dad tried it at the suggestion of a friend. 

At a recent practice, Nguyen quickly moves down the basketball court that serves as a dojo—a martial arts practice hall—while the rest of the team practices striking. Many of his teammates (some joined after finding the club at Splash in September) go at a much slower pace, mastering the motions before adding speed.

Both the veterans and the rookies say they like the repetition. 

“I wanted to do something physical, and kendo seemed like it had a lot of structure,” says Aylin Manav (ENG’24), a native of Turkey, who signed up last year. “I love structure and having rules to follow. Especially when you start doing really intense practices, you don’t really think much about it because your body knows the rules.”

Luis Balaguer (LAW’24) first tried kendo back home in Miami, Fla., right before the pandemic began. Having previously done karate, muay thai, and jiu jitsu, he was looking for a less physically strenuous martial art after a series of dislocated shoulders. 

“I was just thinking, what is a martial art that I can do until I’m 60 years old, with a high skill cap so that someone who’s 60 can whoop someone who’s 24?” Balaguer says. “That’s kendo. In kendo, there’s obviously a huge physical component, but there’s also a high skill cap when it comes to the spiritual, mental, and strategic parts.”

The structure of practices is rigid, and individuals have to be disciplined to make the shinai become an extension of their arm. The sword weighs about a pound, but feels heavier as a match goes on.

Despite competing alone in a shiai, Nguyen enjoys the collaborative side of the sport. In a recent practice, he and teammates sparred for a few minutes, stoically bowed to one another in the tradition of the sport, and then met in the center to talk animatedly about the match.

“Everyone in the kendo community is here to help you get better,” Nguyen says. “No one is out to get you. All of my senpai [a person with more experience] when I was at my dojo would always give me tips here and there on how I could improve. That’s how I became the kendo practitioner that I am today.”

The matches themselves are loud. The two fighters circle each other and try to take any opportunity they see. The two shinai collide, as well as making contact with the fighter’s helmet, wrists, and chest protectors. Spectators wince at quiet hits when a shiai is in progress. That indicates the shinai missed the heavy padding while still making contact with the fighter.

In normal years, the club competes at four tournaments: one in the fall and three in the spring. Most tournaments have been canceled by COVID this year, but Gruspier says he’s hoping the team can attend this spring’s Harvard International Shoryuhai Intercollegiate Kendo Tournament at Harvard University.

BU kendo club members appreciate how the sport has taught them discipline and mindfulness. They say the mental and spiritual aspects hold just as much, if not more, importance than the physical parts. 

“Kendo isn’t just hitting people with a sword or putting the armor on and dodging and blocking,” Balaguer says. “It’s also the perspective you go into life with. I do kendo in law school. I make sure I’m always super on it and performing at my highest possible level.”

BU Kendo Association has practices three times a week at FitRec: Saturdays and Sundays, from 10 am to noon, on Court 3 on the second floor, and Wednesdays, from 8 to 10 pm, in one of the multiuse spaces behind the rock wall. Email [email protected] for more information.

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Apple Iphone 4 Vs. The Rest Of The Smartphone Pack

How does Apple’s iPhone 4 stacks up against the competition? Take a look at these charts and see for yourself and read on.

The iPhone 4 may look similar to the prototype Gizmodo got its hands on last month. But the devil is in the details, as they say. The iPhone 4 now unveiled we can put it head-to-head with the hottest phones right now, including a couple of unreleased devices from Dell and Research In Motion.

The phones we are looking at are the HTC Incredible, HTC Evo 4G, Samsung Galaxy S and Motorola Milestone XT720 from the Android side, the HTC HD2 and Dell Lightning from the Windows Mobile camp, the Nokia N8 representing the Symbian platform and the recently leaked BlackBerry Bold 9800, a crossover touchscreen phone with a famous physical BlackBerry keyboard.

iPhone 4 vs The Android Army

Steve Jobs stressed in his keynote on Monday that Android is only fourth in the smartphone race, pointing out Research In Motion is leading the pack, followed by the iPhone, Windows Mobile and only then Google Android. Yet Android phones are selling in large numbers and are quickly catching up, mainly due to sheer volume of models from various manufacturers running the OS.

Speed-wise, all the above-mentioned Android phones run on speedy 1GHz processors, except the Milestone XT720, which runs on a 550MHz chip. Apple on the other hand, took its speedy A4 chip found on the iPad and put it in the iPhone 4 (no surprise here). With this, the iPhone 4 comes in line with the top-notch Android phone, but given the OS and app differences, a proper speed comparison would be quite subjective.

The iPhone 4 also has the smallest display in comparison to the Android phones in this chart, but the Retina Display technology in the iPhone 4 rivals even the huge 4.3-inch screen on the Evo 4G, packing in more pixels per inch. The camera on the iPhone 4 is now on the par with the Samsung Galaxy S, and still below the Incredible, Evo 4G or Milestone in terms of megapixels. All five phones can record 720p HD video though – yet only the iPhone will have the Apple-designed iMovies app, and nothing out today is remotely comparable to this in terms of mobile video editing.

The Samsung Galaxy S is the only one left out of the camera flash party, but the phone is second only to the iPhone when it comes to thinness. Weight-wise, the iPhone 4 is heavier than the HTC Incredible and the Galaxy S, but lighter than the Evo 4G and the Milestone XT720.

As for battery life, the iPhone 4 claims the longest battery life, with up to seven hours of talk time, closely followed by the Galaxy S, with 6.5 hours. Of course, these are manufacturer specifications, and real-life results can be very different. Stay tuned for PCWorld testing.

The Android Market may not be as big as Apple’s App Store (with over 225,000 apps), but it is getting new apps every day — now clocking over 38,000 apps. But for Flash games fans, Android is the most viable solution, as the iOS will clearly not support Adobe’s technology any time soon. To top it off, multitasking and tethering also come with the iOS 4 in the iPhone 4, catching up with the Android phones.

iPhone 4 vs WinMo, Symbian and BlackBerry

The HTC HD2 and the Lightning also have an FM tuner, a feature not found on the iPhone 4. Microsoft still lacks in the app store department, and the Lightning, running Windows Mobile 7 will go a step back in terms of multitasking and Flash support.

Nokia however, will also challenge the iPhone 4 with its flagship N8 device. The N8 has a 12-megapixel camera (the biggest in the whole lot), an FM tuner and transmitter (think wireless music in your car via radio), and runs Flash (albeit Lite).

Amd Radeon Rx 7900 Xtx Vs. Radeon 6900 Xt: Battle Of The Generations

That’s the cool thing about last-generation GPUs. The new AMD cream of the crop has not obsoleted the older gen, not by a long shot. GPUs such as the 6900 XT remain potent, and in many cases, can prove to be excellent price-to-performance warriors. The refreshed AMD 6950 XT added a few percentage points to the mix, too. With AMD putting the 6000-series GPUs on sale, is it enough to draw you away from the breakneck performance of the 7000 series to save a few bucks? 

Radeon RX 6900 XT

Read our review

Best Prices Today:

We’re going to retroactively look at the big guy from last generation—the 6900 XT—and the 7900 XTX of this generation. They were both the fastest and top AMD GPUs on release. Keeping in mind the 7900 XT and 6950 XT also exist, we’ll keep the attention on the OG “original” top dogs. 

AMD 6900 XT vs. AMD 7900 XTX: Price and availability 

Thiago Trevisan

Both GPUs debuted at a $999 MSRP. This makes them impressive—since comparable Nvidia GPUs are priced higher, such as the RTX 3090 and RTX 4080. 

Recently, AMD has dropped the price of the older 6900 XT to as low as $629 to make way for the 7900 XTX. (You can even pick up the 6950 XT for under $700, too.)  

They have another shared attribute, this time concerning availability. The 6900 XT came during a very turbulent time of the GPU shortages, making it rarely available at MSRP. Thanks to an ease in the GPU market, it’s easily found in stock now.

Neither the 6900 XT nor the 7900 XTX have had ideal launch and availability conditions for most of their existence. If you were to purchase today, you’d more easily find the older 6900 XT for cheaper in stock. 

Radeon RX 7900 XTX

Read our review

As we’ll find out, the 7900 XTX has an impressive performance uplift if you consider both GPUs at their original $999. That MSRP has stayed the same, unlike the RTX 4080, which has crept up. If we compare the current $629 6900 XT price, however, you’re certainly paying more for each frame by a similar dollar amount as of today. 

Considering the above, we’d say the 7900 XTX is one of the better performance values you can get today, for those seeking the most frames. If you can do with a bit less performance, the 6900 XT is still a good value. 

AMD 6900 XT vs. AMD 7900 XTX: Performance

Thiago Trevisan

Performance is the dueling ground where the real questions will be answered concerning these two contenders. 

Keep another important performance issue in mind: CPU choice. With the 7900 XTX reaching such high frame rates, your CPU choice will become even more of a factor in some games. Just as the RTX 4090 can have CPU bottlenecks at even 4K, the 7900 XTX will be much more demanding. Meaning you’re likely able to skate by with a fast—but not “fastest” CPU—such as the 6900 XT without as much bottlenecking. 

From PCWorld’s RX 7900 XTX review.

Brad Chacos

With Cyberpunk 2077 (ray tracing and DLSS/FSR off), the 7900 XTX is one of the most impressive GPU’s we’ve seen. It even puts up a domineering effort against the Nvidia RTX 4090, which is quite the feat! 

We also see the 6900 XT with very close performance to the RTX 3090, but far from the 7900 XTX. If this was your game of choice, the latter’s performance is around 63 percent better on paper. Oddly enough, the price difference between $629 and $999 for both GPUs currently stands around 58 percent. While you’re getting tremendous performance increases, the price is similarly higher. You’ll have to ask yourself if you’re fine with the acceptable 91 FPS at 1440p for Cyberpunk, or if you need more (such as 4K, and ray tracing, where the answer favors the 7900 XTX). 

There is no doubt that when comparing their original $999 MSRP, instead of the cheaper current price of the 6900 XT, the performance gains make the 7900 XTX a better choice. But at current prices, it’s a bit more of a toss-up.

In looking at the lower-priced 7900 XT, the price-to-performance difference falls in favor of the 6900 XT, as the $899 7900 XT lacks the same oomph as its bigger XTX brother (but doesn’t lack the high pricing). 

From PCWorld’s 7900 XTX review.

Brad Chacos

With Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, we find a game that likes AMD hardware in general. The 6900 XT is putting up impressive numbers still—even at 4K it’s able to go above the magical 4K 60 FPS barrier. At 1440p, once again we see the 7900 XTX with nearly a 60 percent gain over the 6900 XT. 

That is incredible—but once again you must ask yourself if the 123 FPS of the 6900 XT at 1440p is insufficient. Chances are, it will do you just fine, and you’re paying much less. 

From PCWorld’s 7900 XTX review.

Brad Chacos

Returning to Cyberpunk 2077, we now see how ray tracing fares. AMD has made some impressive improvements to its ray-tracing performance in the 7900 XTX, although it’s still behind Nvidia. 

In most cases, ray tracing is where you’ll likely also want to pair FSR to ensure you’re getting playable frame rates. With FSR balanced, you’re getting over 50 percent better ray-tracing performance with the 7900 XTX over the 6900 XT. With FSR off, that number climbs slightly closer to 60 percent, where the brute force of the 7900 XTX plays a bigger role. You will get less FPS with it off, and sometimes low enough to be unplayable with ray tracing. 

The story with ray tracing is oddly like regular rasterized performance differences between both GPUs. In both cases, the 7900 XTX performs more than 50 percent higher. 

If your primary goal is ray tracing, chances are you’ll be better served on the Nvidia side. Otherwise, you’re likely paying similarly for that performance increase on the 7900 XTX versus the 6900 XT. 

AMD’s FSR technology is a great performance feature on both GPUs, and they’ll be further augmented by the eventual release of FSR 3. 

In the performance conclusion, if you’re okay with the $999 price, the clear choice is the much faster 7900 XTX. It’s one of the few decent “bang-for-buck” GPUs nowadays, even at its current price. If you’re okay with some compromises in frames, the $629 6900 XT has more than enough chops to handle demanding games. 

AMD 6900 XT vs. AMD 7900 XTX: Power and other things to know

As we’re talking about the leading performers from AMD, efficiency isn’t always the first talking point. While AMD has heavily pushed its relative efficiency in the past, Nvidia has certainly showcased some impressive numbers, too. 

Brad Chacos

With a 355W TDP on the 7900 XTX and a tamer 300W on the 6900 XT, they’re both reasonable. Remember, the RTX 4090 has a whopping 450W TDP, albeit with more performance. 

This means that typically you’ll have an easier time cooling and fitting these AMD GPUs in your system. AMD made a point initially that these are “normal-sized” and use the regular PCIe 8-pin adapters compared to Nvidia’s 12VHPWR solution. While that is true, some AIB third-party coolers such as the PowerColor Red Devil can be just as massive! 

The 7900 XTX is even bigger than the RTX 4080.

Thiago Trevisan

Another important point to touch on is in driver support. While AMD has been much better in recent generations with driver updates, there have been some issues. For example, updated drivers for the 6900 XT were noticeably late after 7900 XTX drivers had already been released for some new game releases. That’s one thing to remember about buying the older GPU—you may have less frequent driver updates over time compared to the shiny new thing. 

AMD 6900 XT vs. AMD 7900 XTX: The verdict 

There is no doubt that, pound for pound, the 7900 XTX is impressive. If we consider that the $999 MSRP technically stayed the same versus the 6900 XT, it’s even more so. (We’re looking at you, RTX 4080!) 

We can find the 6900 XT at $629 today, however. And while it doesn’t have the door-busting performance of the 7900 XTX, it’s still competent in modern games. It’s also much easier to find in stock. You will be missing out on the top frame rates, and likely have insufficient ray-tracing performance. If you combine FSR and the upcoming FSR 3 with the 6900 XT, it will prolong the life of this GPU even more. 

Having said that, if you find a $999 7900 XTX, the performance gains are clearly worth it for many. You’ll enjoy 50 percent more frames in many games, including ray tracing, at the same original MSRP of the 6900 XT. 

Verdict: The 7900 XTX, albeit more expensive, is likely worth it over the 6900 XT currently, as it will give you longer usability and comes with tremendous performance gains.

Rise Of The Communist Party Of China


The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the People’s Republic of China’s founding and sole ruling party (PRC). The CCP won the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang under Mao Zedong’s leadership, and Mao declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Since then, the CCP has ruled China with the help of eight smaller parties in a united front, and it has complete control of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive CCP leader has added their theories to the party’s constitution, which outlines the party’s ideological beliefs, collectively known as socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Foundation and Early History

Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, two progressive intellectuals who wanted to bring about social and economic reforms in China, founded the Communist Party of China (CPC) in Shanghai in 1921. Its establishment was part of the larger May Fourth Movement, a political and cultural movement aimed at challenging traditional Chinese values and bringing about modernity and reform. The party began as a small gathering of intellectuals and students. It was heavily influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology and sought to destabilise the existing Chinese government and establish a socialist society. The CPC quickly grew in popularity, and by 1925, it had established branches in major cities across China.

During the Chinese Civil War, the CPC and its leader Mao Zedong were able to seize control of the country and establish the People’s Republic of China with Beijing as its capital in 1949. Since then, the CPC has remained China’s dominant political party, enacting economic reforms that have aided the country’s rapid economic growth and modernization.


The ideology that led to the rise of the Communist Party of China (CPC) can be traced back to the mid-1800s. The ideas of the CPC combined Marxist, Leninist, and Mao Zedong Thought with traditional Chinese values to create a unique vision for transforming Chinese society. This prompted rural campaigns aimed at improving education and economic development, which fuelled support for the CPC and aided its rise to power across mainland China. The Great Leap Forward of 1958 consolidated state control over almost every aspect of daily life while also aiming to rapidly industrialise China through farm collectivization and rapid expansion of the heavy industry.


The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is the People’s Republic of China’s ruling political party. It was founded in 1921 by Chinese revolutionaries such as Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, and Mao Zedong to bring down the feudal system and establish a socialist state.

Through propaganda, censorship, and strict control over civil society, media, and the internet, the CCP has also been successful in imposing its ideology on the Chinese people.


The Communist Party of China’s (CPC) organizational structure enabled them to become a powerful force in China. Formed in 1921, the CPC was an amalgamation of different branches, each representing its political beliefs. This enabled them to gain millions of members across the country, giving them both financial and political power. With this power, they were able to implement social reforms to improve public services and increase public support. In addition, they financially repressed landlords and estate owners who opposed them. This structure allowed them to expand their base of support without relying heavily on massive armies or weapons, making them a formidable force during times of civil unrest. Ultimately, this organization allowed them to emerge victorious over their rivals, such as the Kuomintang, and become a dominant political party in China.

The pictured shows the top five Chinese Communist Party secretary (Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Ren Bishi) statue at xibaipo . China Shijiazhuang, Hebei Xibaipo, April 16, 2013.

Symbol Party to Party Relations Electoral History

The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) rose to prominence in 1921 when they were founded in Shanghai. Under Mao Zedong’s leadership, the CPC was successful in overthrowing the Nationalist government during the Chinese Civil War and establishing the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Since then, the CPC has been China’s ruling party, wielding considerable power over the government and society. The CPC joined the United Nations in 1971 and has been a major player in international politics ever since. The CPC’s power and influence remain a defining factor in Chinese politics today.


The Chinese Communist Party’s rise has been a remarkable success story. From a small group of revolutionaries in the 1920s, it grew into one of the world’s most powerful political forces. It has maintained its legitimacy through a combination of economic growth, political reform, and social stability. Despite its ups and downs, the Communist Party of China has been able to bring stability and prosperity to a once-chaotic country. China’s Communist Party, as the world’s second-largest economy, will continue to play an important role in the global political and economic landscape in the coming years.


Q1. Has China experienced any turmoil since 1949?

Ans. Yes, China has experienced tremendous turmoil since 1949, including the 1949 Revolution, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.

Q2. Do people support the CPC for what reasons?

Ans. People support the CPC because it is seen as a party that stands for the interests of the Chinese people, and pursues economic and social policies that benefit the country.

Q3. What is Deng Xiaoping’s legacy?

Ans. Deng Xiaoping is remembered for his leadership in reforming China’s economy and opening it up to the world. He is credited with modernizing China and transforming it into an economic superpower.

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