Trending December 2023 # Microstrategy: Transforming Global Businesses Into Intelligent Enterprises # Suggested January 2024 # Top 13 Popular

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MicroStrategy is a worldwide leader in enterprise analytics and mobility software. A pioneer in the business intelligence and analytics space, MicroStrategy delivers innovative software that empowers business users to make better decisions and transform the way they work. MicroStrategy provides organizations with world-class software and expert services to deploy customized applications that accelerate organizations on their path to becoming an Intelligent Enterprise.

MicroStrategy’s mission is to provide businesses with the technology and technique needed to become an Intelligent Enterprise—the ultimate data-driven organization. The company’s vision is that the Intelligent Enterprise anticipates challenges and opportunities and turns them into profit and growth. MicroStrategy delivers a single version of the truth and agility, scalability and speed, AI and data discovery, enterprise analytics and mobility solutions. It connects to any data and distributes reports to thousands of users. An Intelligent Enterprise goes beyond business intelligence, delivering transformative insight to every user, constituent, and partner. The more organizations can become Intelligent Enterprises, the more productive and effective the business intelligence community will be.

The Dynamic Leader and Innovator

Michael J. Saylor is the President, Chairman & CEO of MicroStrategy. He has served as Chairman of the Board of Directors and CEO since founding MicroStrategy in November 1989 and has served as President since January 2023, a position he previously held from November 1989 to November 2000 and from January 2005 to October 2012.

In 1989 at the age of 24, Saylor combined his passions for technology, business, and the use of computer simulations to launch MicroStrategy. The company was founded on his vision of helping enterprises deliver intelligence everywhere. By harnessing the power of graphical operating systems and client-server computing and pioneering a new approach to business intelligence called relational online analytical processing (ROLAP), the company grew steadily, going public in 1998 (NASDAQ: MSTR). Under his leadership, MicroStrategy has emerged as a global leader in enterprise analytics and mobility software, serving thousands of institutions and organizations around the world.

Saylor is a named inventor on more than 40 patents. In addition to being credited as the inventor of relational analytics, he led MicroStrategy into the fields of web analytics, distributed analytics, mobile analytics, cloud computing, mobile identity, and IoT. He was also the creator and founder of chúng tôi (NASDAQ: ALRM), one of the first home automation and security companies, and chúng tôi (sold to Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories for US$110 million in 2013), one of the first cloud-based interactive voice response service providers.

Saylor is the author of the book “The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything”, published by Perseus Books in 2012. The book anticipated the impact of mobile, cloud, and social networks on worldwide political and economic development, along with the rise of Apple, Amazon, Facebook, and Google as transnational technology leaders that would destabilize the status quo across most industrial and political domains. The Mobile Wave appeared on both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal Best Seller lists.

In 1999, Saylor established The Saylor Foundation, which has donated millions to philanthropic causes including children’s health, refugee relief, education, environmental conservation, and support for the arts. The foundation runs the Saylor Academy (, which offers free college education and continuing professional development courses to students worldwide. To date, it has provided free educational services to more than 225,000 students. In 2023, 2023 and 2023, Saylor participated in the Forbes 400 Summit on Philanthropy.

Enabling Data-Driven Business Transformation

MicroStrategy works with a network of certified partners who offer some of the most innovative technologies to build analytics platforms. The partners help drive the company’s mission to empower more data-driven organizations forward. The MicroStrategy platform is extensible and fully customizable—providing access to databases, ETL tools, and big data solutions that seamlessly connect to other enterprise data architectures. The company’s partners are experts in implementing analytics and mobility applications that help modern businesses solve critical business challenges.

Earning Remarkable Recognition

MicroStrategy has been recognized by esteemed organizations globally for innovation and business excellence. Below are a few of the significant achievements.

•  Named as the Sole Challenger in Gartner’s 2023 Magic Quadrant for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms

•  MicroStrategy’s Customer Sumitomo Rubber North America won Ventana Research’s 2023 Leadership Award for Digital Technology by using MicroStrategy Mobile

•  MicroStrategy’s Customer Houghton Mifflin Harcourt won 2023 Ventana Research Technology Innovation Leadership Award for embracing MicroStrategy Mobile

Business Intelligence: The Future is Intelligent Enterprises

The company’s perspective on the business intelligence space is centered around two main pillars: 1. the need for a single form of truth and, 2. the idea of “intelligence everywhere”—where business intelligence and analytics can impact every member of an organization.

MicroStrategy finds that many companies face the challenge of establishing a single record of data. When working with various sets of data or KPIs throughout the company, it’s difficult to know which numbers are accurate and reliable. MicroStrategy believes business intelligence should enable organizations to consolidate their data into a centralized platform, establishing a “single version of truth.”

The company also operates on the notion that business intelligence should empower every member of the enterprise, regardless of technical skill or area of focus, to access and utilize data analytics. With its user-friendly, self-service-focused platform, MicroStrategy allows data to informed decision-making at every level of the organization, transforming it into an Intelligent Enterprise.

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Gusto Alternatives For Small Businesses

With so many payroll software and service options out there, it’s challenging to choose a solution that fits your business’s current needs as well as its potential requirements as it grows. 

Gusto is a popular automated payroll management system that draws customers with features like benefits management, HR functions, customized reporting and employee self-onboarding. But Gusto lacks integration with popular applications, and you can’t use it to pay international workers. Plus, even though it was founded in 2011, it lacks a competitive mobile app for employers and employees.

Fortunately, there are several Gusto alternatives with features and pricing that may suit your business. We’ve compiled our top six Gusto alternatives for their practical features, affordable pricing, and ability to automate your payroll services no matter your business’s size.


Read our full Gusto Payroll review to learn exactly what the service offers so you can compare pricing and functionality.

HR best practices

Benefits assistance

Library of crucial government forms

ZipRecruiter integration

Annual background checks (up to five)

One-on-one help from ADP’s HR team

Time tracking: Employees can use ADP’s mobile app to clock in and out, request paid time off (PTO), and log overtime. Managers can use the app to create schedules and verify hours.


If you’re looking for even more Gusto Payroll alternatives, check out our reviews of the best online payroll services.

ADP pricing

ADP does not offer transparent pricing. Just like Gusto, the payroll software offers a tiered service plan structure: Essential, Enhanced, Complete and HR Pro. 

Editor’s note: Looking for the right payroll software for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

For all tiers, pricing is based on your business, the features you need, and the number of employees you have. You have to contact ADP directly to receive a price quote.

2. Patriot Payroll

Patriot says its average client can run payroll in less than three minutes. In addition, the full-service plan features federal, state, and local tax filing and deposits, a solid feature if your business has less than 100 employees.

However, if you need benefits administration (HR) and custom reports, look elsewhere. This stripped-down payroll software doesn’t offer any extras.

Here’s a look at Patriot Payroll’s key features and pricing options.

Patriot Payroll key features

Unlimited pay runs: Patriot offers unlimited payroll scheduling, so you have maximum flexibility when paying employees and contractors. 

Multiple states: Have employees in multiple states? Patriot Payroll takes care of taxes and deductions.

Support for up to 100 employees: Unlike competitors in the same feature and price range, Patriot Payroll can support up to 100 employees, letting you scale your workforce affordably.

Patriot Payroll pricing

Basic Payroll: The base price is $10 plus $4 per employee per month.

Full-Service Payroll: The base price is $30 plus $4 per employee per month.

3. Paylocity

Paylocity provides a wide range of services, including payroll, HR, tax filing, benefits management, time tracking and talent administration. Paylocity also has a self-service portal that allows employees to update and edit personal information and withholding details and to sign up for direct deposit.

When using Paylocity, each payroll is verified before it’s run to reduce human errors. Plus, you can run reports to monitor employee turnover and labor costs either through the desktop or mobile app.

Here’s a look at Paylocity’s key features and pricing options.

Paylocity key features

Employee portal: Workers can sign up for direct deposit, view pay stubs, edit personal information, and access company updates.

Taxes: Federal Forms 940, 941, W-2 and 1099, as well as state unemployment tax and withholding forms, are e-filed on your behalf. Paylocity offers a 100% guarantee for any IRS fines due to its error.

Geofence time tracking: Employees can clock in and out using the app. In addition, the app has built-in geographical points to prevent worker abuse.

Recruiting and performance-based reviews: You can recruit applicants and track their status. Create custom performance reviews, improve employee engagement with feedback surveys, and monitor raises to align with the overall budget.

Did You Know?

When a small business uses direct deposit to pay its employees, it saves money and time while supporting employees’ financial health and security.

Best Paypal Alternatives For Businesses

If you’re a small business owner who wants to accept credit cards in person and online, you’ve probably considered using PayPal. PayPal is a payment facilitator – a company that simplifies the credit card acceptance process. PayPal places its business customers under its master merchant account, so businesses don’t have to apply for and deal with separate merchant accounts. 

Many businesses accept card payments with PayPal, but it’s not for everyone. Here’s a look at the best PayPal alternatives that might work well for your business, along with an overview of precisely what PayPal offers. 


If you’re considering a credit card processor for your business, check out our reviews of the best credit card processors, compare their features, and decide which is right for you.

What to consider when choosing a PayPal alternative

When looking for the best PayPal alternative, consider how your business operates and what it needs (and doesn’t need). You want to avoid paying for features you won’t use and find a payment gateway that offers the functionality you need. 

Consider the following factors when evaluating PayPal alternatives: 

Low fees

Quick access to your money

High security level

Integration with other websites and software tools you use

POS hardware types and cost

Great customer service

Support for international transactions

Easy integration with your website


There’s some confusion about the difference between a payment gateway and a payment processor. A payment processor facilitates transactions between your merchant account and a customer’s bank account, while a payment gateway authorizes your customers’ payments.

1. Best PayPal alternative for in-person transactions: Square

While PayPal got its start enabling cashless payments online, Square was a mobile payment pioneer, introducing the first widely used card reader that plugged into a mobile phone. Square’s strongest presence is in the in-person retail transaction space; more recently, it has branched out into e-commerce payments with its Square Payments service. (You may want to check out our comparison of PayPal and Square.)

Here’s a rundown of what Square has to offer.

Square’s e-commerce functions

To distinguish itself, Square offers merchants a free online store that incorporates its payment system. Businesses can choose from a variety of site setups with industry-specific features. Like PayPal, Square websites can accept donations and membership fees. 

A Square online store is a good option for both startups without a website and brick-and-mortar businesses adding an e-commerce option.

If you don’t need a website, you can still use Square for your e-commerce payment processing with Square Online Checkout. Square Online Checkout is comparable to PayPal Checkout’s button generator. (We’ll explain more about PayPal’s features later.) 

With Square Online Checkout, you input information about each product, including its name, image and price. The service accepts Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Discover, JCB and UnionPay cards, as well as prepaid, debit and reward cards with those logos. Square Online Checkout also takes Apple Pay and Google Pay, but not Venmo, PayPal or PayPal Credit.

You can also use Square for your e-commerce shopping cart by connecting with one of its partners, including GoDaddy, Wix, WooCommerce, Magneto, Weebly and 3dcart. However, If you have a custom-built website, you’ll need a developer to help you connect Square payments.

If you’re comparing Square to PayPal, note that Square accepts fewer payment types than PayPal and doesn’t have a responsive button display.

Like PayPal, Square enables customers to buy from merchants via link or QR code to drive sales from social media, landing pages and printed materials.

Editor’s note: Looking for the right credit card processor for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

Did You Know?

Restaurant payment processing has some unique considerations. You should consider your average sales ticket size, monthly sales volume and processing needs before signing a contract with a credit card processor.

Square’s money-moving abilities

Square has its own bank, Square Financial Services, which can integrate seamlessly with the Square Payments online payment-processing solution, giving merchants instant access to their money with no fees, minimum balance requirement or credit checks. 

If you have a bank account, Square allows you to send up to $10,000 per transfer instantly, with unlimited instant transfers per day. Instant transfers cost 1.5% of the transfer amount. Standard transfers are usually sent within 36 hours (one to two business days) and are free.

Bottom Line

Square is an excellent choice for in-person retail and restaurant businesses because of its specialized software. Square is less likely than PayPal to freeze merchant funds, it’s easy to integrate, and its free website tool is a nice addition. Read our in-depth Square review for more information.

Did You Know?

Even if your e-commerce transactions are considered riskier, there are ways to protect your business when taking payments online, including using two-factor authentication, using a personal verification system, and ensuring your hosting provider has safeguards in place.

Stripe’s mobile and point-of-sale functionality

Stripe’s handheld reader, the BBPOS Chipper 2X BT, is comparable to Square’s contactless chip reader. It’s currently Stripe’s only available card reader, connecting via Bluetooth to a mobile device. It costs $59, and each transaction is charged 2.7% plus 5 cents. 

The company will soon be rolling out the BBPOS WisePOS E, a hybrid countertop and handheld card reader, for $249.

Stripe’s recurring billing and subscription features

Stripe can generate invoices, schedule subscriptions, schedule email reminders for missed or overdue payments, and handle billing proration. It can also trigger actions based on upgrades, payments and cancellations. Stripe integrates with other tools like Salesforce, DocuSign, NetSuite and Xero.

Stripe’s marketplace operations

If your business is a marketplace where you provide a platform for service providers to sell, Stripe may be a good solution for you. Its software helps marketplaces instantly onboard and manage service providers, split revenue from transactions among multiple recipients, and control expenses. It also allows you to retain your sellers with instant payouts and balance cards.

Stripe’s money-moving abilities

When you first get set up with Stripe, it takes seven to 14 days to transfer your money to your bank account. Once you’re established, payouts to your bank account arrive on a two-day rolling basis. If you’re in a high-risk industry, however, your money will take 14 days to arrive. Companies based in countries other than the U.S. and Australia will also have slower transfer times.

Bottom Line

Stripe is best suited for e-commerce and marketplace businesses, especially those planning to scale quickly. It has excellent security features, and its transaction-retry protocol can increase sales that otherwise would have been declined. Read our in-depth Stripe review for more information.

Bottom Line

Authorize.Net is best suited for e-commerce businesses, especially those with web developers on staff. It has excellent security features, but it’s not tailored to retail or restaurant businesses. Transaction costs will be high for businesses that process many smaller purchases.

Upcoming PayPal competitors

Keep an eye out for these up-and-coming players in the payment facilitation space:

Stax by Fattmerchant



Flagship Merchant Services (read our Flagship review for more information)

A primer on PayPal

In case you’re deciding between PayPal and a PayPal alternative, here’s a quick primer on PayPal’s pricing, setup, equipment, technology and customer service. PayPal lets merchants accept payments from e-commerce sites over the phone with a virtual terminal, by subscription and on demand with invoicing.

Here’s a look at PayPal’s payment processing services.

What is PayPal Checkout?

PayPal Checkout is PayPal’s e-commerce and app payment solution. It offers contextual checkout button options so you can display payment buttons relevant to the individual customer. For example, Venmo users will see a Venmo checkout option. Paying with major debit and credit cards is also an option. Offering these relevant payment options increases conversion because it makes paying easier.

Customers authorize payment in a PayPal pop-up window on the merchant site, and then PayPal automatically fills in the customer’s name and shipping address on the merchant checkout page. PayPal Checkout includes PCI compliance.

There are three levels to PayPal Checkout, depending on your business’s complexity and needs. (The fee for receiving domestic transactions via PayPal Checkout is 3.49% of the purchase price plus 49 cents per transaction.)

Button generator: This is PayPal Checkout’s most basic checkout option. The button generator eliminates the need to set up shopping cart functionality since you can just copy the code and paste it into each product page on your website.

Standard integration: This requires you to use a web developer. It enables customers to aggregate purchases in a shopping cart and pay for them all at one time using a variety of payment types. 

Advanced integration: This gives you all the standard integration features and adds the flexibility of customizing the look, feel and placement of the debit and credit card payment fields. More importantly, it has security features, including fraud protection tools.

What is PayPal’s Store Cash?

Store Cash is an optional feature for PayPal e-commerce merchants to help increase sales from abandoned shopping carts. PayPal can track about 40% of people who leave your site without purchasing. It can also identify customers who have purchased from you within the past 12 months, but not within the past three months. 

PayPal then sends these people an email notifying them that Store Cash is in their PayPal wallet to spend on your site within seven days. You pay a fee to PayPal of 8% of the purchase amount only when a customer returns to your site and makes a purchase using Store Cash.

How does PayPal handle subscriptions?

With PayPal, you can enable recurring and subscription payments. The option has customizable trial periods to encourage customers to subscribe, and it can handle fixed or quantity-based pricing. The fee for this type of transaction is 3.49% of the purchase price plus 49 cents.

What is PayPal Here?

PayPal Here is PayPal’s mobile in-person payment solution; it includes a mobile credit card reader and processing, monitoring and reporting through an app. 

PayPal offers two types of readers, both of which connect to the business owner’s mobile device via Bluetooth. The readers can’t accept PINs for debit card transactions, but they do accept both debit and credit cards, including Visa, Mastercard, Discover, and American Express, as well as PayPal, Venmo, Apple Pay, Samsung Pay, and Google Pay. Card readers can integrate with other POS hardware, such as receipt printers and cash drawers.

The app software is merchant-friendly and easy to use. It can calculate sales tax, apply discounts, send invoices, run sales reports and track inventory.

There are no monthly fees to use PayPal Here. The transaction fees are as follows:

Card present, PayPal account and Venmo: 7%

Keyed-in card numbers: 5% plus 15 cents

These are the PayPal Here card reader equipment fees:

Chip and Swipe card reader: Free for new PayPal Here customers; $24.99 for existing customers

Chip and Tap card reader: $59.99 or $79.99 with a charging stand

What is Zettle?

Zettle is PayPal’s fixed retail POS solution. Signing up for Zettle is a bit more involved than signing up for PayPal Here, PayPal Checkout or Virtual Terminal; merchants must meet eligibility requirements, apply and be approved.

Like PayPal Here, Zettle includes an app to help you take payments, track sales and manage your inventory. It can integrate with your online sales as well as popular accounting software programs such as QuickBooks. Download the Zettle app on a smartphone or tablet, or use it with a Zettle POS cash register. Zettle hardware includes a cash register, card reader, receipt printer and handheld scanner.

There are no monthly fees to use Zettle. The transaction fees are as follows:

Card present and QR code transactions: 29% plus 9 cents

Keyed-in card numbers: 49% plus 9 cents

The costs for Zettle equipment are as follows:

Cash register and card reader: $249

Cash register, card reader and receipt printer: $499

Cash register, card reader, receipt printer and handheld scanner: $699

Card reader and receipt printer: $339

Card reader: $29 for new users; $79 otherwise

Card reader dock and charger: $49

Stand for iPad: $159

Cash drawer: $119

Handheld barcode scanner: $229

What is the PayPal Virtual Terminal?

The PayPal Virtual Terminal is a secure payment gateway site that you can access via web browser on a phone, tablet or computer. It’s suitable for companies that do most of their transactions over the phone; it requires no hardware, coding or software. 

After the PayPal Virtual Terminal is set up, you’ll enter customer contact information, purchase amount, and credit or debit card information on the screen. Because the risk of fraud is higher for transactions in which the payment card is not physically present, the fee is higher for virtual terminal transactions: 3.09% of the purchase price plus 49 cents.

What is PayPal’s invoicing option?

The PayPal invoicing option is most often used by freelancers and independent contractors. It allows business owners to create, manage and send invoices, and there’s no charge for these functions. The only time you’ll be charged is when a customer pays an invoice online using a credit card, debit card, PayPal account or PayPal Credit. The fee for these online payments is 3.49% plus 49 cents per transaction.

What are the pros of using PayPal?

If you’re considering PayPal payment services, here are some upsides:

It’s easy to set up and use.

Customers are usually already familiar with it.

Since there are 325 million active PayPal accounts, giving users the option to pay with PayPal may increase your conversions.

It’s in 200 markets worldwide and more than 100 currencies, so it supports international sales.

It integrates with several popular shopping cart systems.

It’s secure and PCI compliant.

It offers PayPal Credit, which provides seamless financing of customer purchases, increasing conversion for higher-ticket items.

It supports invoices, subscriptions and recurring payments.

It has a high withdrawal limit for instant bank account transfers – $25,000 per transaction.

What are the cons of using PayPal?

PayPal also has some downsides to consider:

PayPal may freeze your account. Since all business clients are under the PayPal umbrella, PayPal is more sensitive to potentially fraudulent transactions. If PayPal suspects a problem, it can freeze your account, putting a serious crimp in your cash flow until you definitively prove your identity.

PayPal may hold your money. Due to its fear of fraudulent transactions, PayPal may decide to hold your money for up to 21 days. In the meantime, you won’t have access to that money for buying inventory or covering other business expenses.

Your bank may charge you to receive money transfers from PayPal. Some banks charge a fixed fee for incoming transfers, regardless of the transfer amount.

PayPal’s fee for chargebacks is high ($20 each).

Powershell Global Variable: Explained With Examples

PowerShell is a versatile scripting language system administrators and developers use to automate tasks and manage system configurations. One important aspect of PowerShell scripting involves the use of variables to store information that can be referenced and manipulated. Global variables hold a significant place among the different types of variables due to their reusability and broad scope.

In PowerShell, global variables are accessible throughout the entire scope of a script or session. They allow data to be shared between different functions or modules. To create a global variable in PowerShell, you can use the “global” keyword at the beginning or the top of a script.

In this article, we’ll have a detailed discussion on PowerShell global variables. We’ll go over examples and use cases to help you better understand the concept.

Let’s get into it!

Before you start making global variables in PowerShell, let’s quickly review the basics of global variables. You need to have a good understanding of the basics to be able to make valuable variables.

In PowerShell, the variable scope is the area where a variable is accessible or visible.

PowerShell protects access to variables, aliases, functions, and PowerShell drives (PSDrives) by limiting their visibility and modification within specific scopes.

The different PowerShell scopes include:

Global: The variable is accessible throughout the entire PowerShell session.

Local Scope: The variable is accessible only within the current script or function.

Script: The variable is accessible within the current script.

Private: The variable is only available within the current parent scope, and it is not inherited by any child scope.

A PowerShell global variable is a variable that is accessible across all scripts, functions, or cmdlets within the current session.

To declare a PowerShell global variable, you use the $global: prefix before the variable name.

In the following example, the code creates a global variable named $global:TotalUsers:

$global:TotalUsers = 1000

Local variables are limited to the scope in which they are created. They are only accessible within the current script or function. No prefix is needed to declare a local variable.

For instance:

$totalUsers = 1000

In PowerShell, variables can store different types of data, such as strings, integers, arrays, functions, and processes.

The following are some examples of variables with different data types:

Strings: A sequence of characters enclosed in single or double quotation marks.$stringVar = "Hello, world!"

Integers: Whole numbers, both positive and negative.$intVar = 42

Arrays: Collections of objects, where each object can be accessed via an index.$arrayVar = @(1, 2, 3, 4)

Functions: Code blocks that perform a specific task and can be called by their name.function Show-Message { param([string]$message) Write-Output $message }

Processes: System processes that can be managed using PowerShell cmdlets, such as Get-Process.$processVar = Get-Process -Name powershell

When you’re working with PowerShell global variables, remember that they can store any of these data types. They can be accessible across scripts and functions, making them particularly useful for sharing data throughout a session.

In the section above, you learned the basics of a PowerShell Global Variable. We’ll now go over 2 of the most important global variables techniques that you’ll most often use when working with global variables.

Specifically, we’ll go over the following:

Set-Variable Cmdlet

Get-Variable Cmdlet

The Set-Variable cmdlet can also be used to create or modify a global variable. Specifying the -Scope parameter as Global sets the variable at the global scope level.

The following PowerShell Script demonstrates this case:

Set-Variable -Name AppVersion -Value "1.0" -Scope Global

This creates a global variable named AppVersion with the value “1.0”.

To retrieve the value of a global variable, you can use the Get-Variable cmdlet. By specifying the -Scope parameter as Global, it retrieves the value of the variable from the global scope.

For example:

Get-Variable -Name AppName -Scope Global

This returns the value of the AppName global variable, which is “MyApp”.

There are several cmdlets available in PowerShell for you to manage global variables. These are also known as scope modifiers.

We’ve listed some commonly used ones below:

This cmdlet clears the value of a variable. To clear a global variable, you can use the -Scope parameter as Global.

Clear-Variable -Name AppName -Scope Global

This clears the value of the AppName global variable.

This cmdlet removes a variable, effectively deleting it. To remove a global variable, you can use the -Scope parameter as Global.

Remove-Variable -Name AppName -Scope Global

This removes the AppName global variable from the global scope.

This cmdlet can also be used to remove a global variable by specifying the Variable: drive.

Remove-Item -Path Variable:AppName

This removes the AppName global variable.

To create a read-only or constant global variable, you can use the -Option parameter with the Set-Variable cmdlet.

Set-Variable -Name ReadOnlyVar -Value "Read Only" -Scope Global -Option ReadOnly

This creates a read-only global variable named ReadOnlyVar with the value “Read Only”.

Global variables can be helpful in maintaining state or sharing information across scripts and functions. However, it’s important to use them carefully to avoid unintended consequences.

The following are some best practices for using global variables:

Minimize the use of global variables: Use global variables only when necessary, and rely more on local or script-scoped variables.

Choose descriptive names: Use names that clearly indicate the purpose of the variable and avoid naming conflicts.

Initialize your variables: Assign default values to your global variables to avoid accessing uninitialized variables by mistake.

Avoid modifying global variables in functions: Modifying global variables within a function can lead to unexpected behavior. Prefer using parameters or return values to pass information between functions.

Read-Only Global Variables

Aliases and Tab-Completion

Working with PSDrives

Manipulating Hash Tables

PowerShell provides read-only global variables that hold constant values and can be accessed anywhere within your scripts or functions.

They serve as a means to share information throughout the script without the possibility of being modified. Some examples of read-only variables are:

$Host: Provides information about the current PowerShell host.

$PSHome: The path to the root of the PowerShell installation.

These variables cannot be changed, and if you attempt to do so will result in an error.

PowerShell allows you to create aliases for global variables. This helps streamline your code and improves readability.

To create an alias for a global variable, you can use the Set-Alias command, followed by the desired alias name and the variable name.

For instance:

Set-Alias -Name gvMyVar -Value $global:MyVariable

PowerShell also offers tab completion, which can be used to quickly reference global variables and their aliases.

You can simply type the first few characters of the variable name or alias, then use the tab key to cycle through possible completions.

In PowerShell, you can work with global variables as if they are part of a drive called Variable: This is known as a PSDrive.

To access the global variables within the Variable: drive, you can use standard commands such as Get-ChildItem or Set-Location.

The following example will return a list of all the global variables currently available:

Get-ChildItem Variable:

PowerShell’s hash tables can be used as global variables to store and organize data with key-value pairs.

To create a hash table as a global variable, you use the following syntax:

$global:MyHashTable = @{ Key1 = 'Value1' Key2 = 'Value2' Key3 = 'Value3' }

Hash table global variables allow you to access and manipulate values by their associated keys efficiently.

To add or update a key-value pair, you can use the following syntax:

$global:MyHashTable.Key4 = 'Value4'

To remove a key-value pair from the hash table, you use the Remove method:


Combining hash tables with the global scope functionality allows for efficient data storage and manipulation across your PowerShell scripts and functions.

In this section, you’ll find some frequently asked questions that you may have when working with PowerShell global variables.

To declare a global variable in PowerShell, you can use the $global: prefix followed by the variable name.

For example:

$global:myVariable = "Hello, world!"

This will create a global variable called myVariable with the value “Hello, world!”.

You can modify the value of a global variable by using the $global: prefix followed by the variable name and assigning a new value.

For example:

$global:myVariable = "New value"

This will change the value of myVariable to “New value”.

Variables defined inside a function are local to that function by default, which means they cannot be accessed outside the function.

However, you can use different variable scopes, such as global, script, local, or private, to control the accessibility of a variable. For example:

function Test-Function { $local:myLocalVar = "Local variable" $script:myScriptVar = "Script variable" }

To access a variable outside of a function, you can either declare it with the global or script scope or use a return statement to return the value.

For example:

function Get-MyVariable { $global:myResult = "Global variable value" return $global:myResult } $myVar = Get-MyVariable Write-Host "Variable value: $myVar"

In PowerShell, global variables can be accessed anywhere inside the script, functions, and any cmdlet in the current session.

On the other hand, local variables are limited in scope and can only be accessed within the block in which they are declared (e.g., function, loop, or if statement).

Emotionally Intelligent Leadership For Professional Success !!

Emotional intelligence can be misunderstood and misrepresented. But the bottom line is that the manager who can think about emotions accurately and clearly may often be better able to anticipate, cope with, and effectively manage change.  

The concept of emotional intelligence

Before the 1990s, EI had been an overlooked part of human nature – recognized intuitively sometimes, but not examined according to rigorous, scientific criteria. The new scientific idea behind EI is that human beings process emotional information; they comprehend and utilize emotional information about social relationships. This idea was launched in 1990 in some scientific articles by Reun Baron. Daniel Goleman’s successful popularization of those early articles on emotional intelligence, and the related work of many other scientists, led to a great deal of popular discussion of the idea. This popular notion of EI as anything but IQ has created a new management fad. Unfortunately, the faddish appeal of emotional intelligence has encouraged many people engaged in otherwise legitimate business consultation to include a wide variety of approaches and concepts under the umbrella of emotional intelligence. We believe in a definition of EI that has been developed after many years of scientific study and real-world experience. To explain our definition, it helps to begin with the two terms that make it up. The terms emotion and intelligence have specific, generally agreed-upon scientific meanings that indicate the possible ways they can be used together. Emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, and fear refer to feelings that signal information about relationships. For example, happiness signals harmonious relationships, whereas fear signals being threatened. Intelligence refers to the capacity to carry out abstract reasoning, recognize patterns, and compare and contrast. Emotional intelligence, then, refers to the capacity to understand and explain emotions, on the one hand, and of emotions to enhance thought, on the other. Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A case study The capacity to reason with and about emotion is frequently important in management and leadership. Consider the case of Jerry Taksic (this and other names have been changed). Jerry was a well-regarded operations manager at a New York City office of Merrill Lynch. Several years ago, he supervised the move of some in his group from their offices in the city across the river to an office park in Jersey City. The move was seemingly welcomed by the staff, most of who lived on the other side of the river. The move would dramatically cut down their commuting time and reduce their tax bills. Jerry handled this project with his usual meticulousness and concern. He worked with the designers and the architects, as well as building management, to ensure a smooth transition. Jerry never expected perfection, and perfection was not to be realized. Soon after the move, he fielded a phone call at his downtown office from Eddie Fontaine, the group manager at the Jersey City location. Eddie reported that his group had become concerned that they were working in a “sick” building because a number of employees were suffering from respiratory problems. Although Eddie made light of their concerns, Jerry perceived concern in the group and began to investigate the situation. He called in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) team, and it, along with environmental engineers, was dispatched to the site. They inventoried the physical plant, and shortly thereafter, filed their report. Jerry and Eddie reviewed the report together: The HVAC team could not detect any problem with the building. Jerry appreciated that Eddie and the group might be feeling somewhat overwhelmed by the move, as well as somewhat isolated and cut-off from the rest of the team’s work. Given the context, Jerry supported his group leader, complimented him on his general expertise, and let the matter drop. For the time being, Jerry was handling the emotions of his team effectively. Shortly thereafter, however, a second situation arose concerning parking problems. Ever the problem-solver, Jerry personally intervened with the building management to resolve the situation to his staff’s satisfaction. As with the building ventilation problem, this was a time-consuming issue that detracted from the primary mission of both Jerry and his group. Jerry’s supervisor began to become concerned about the group’s apparent lack of focus and lowered productivity. When the supervisor asked Jerry if intervening in such problems was a good use of his time, Jerry replied, “That’s my job. I solve problems.” Yet another such problem arose a few days later, however, and Jerry’s patience began to wear thin.  

Case analysis according to the EI Ability Model

Jerry was facing a somewhat typical work issue. He was a generally competent manager who implemented a change (in this case, a movie), and was confronted by a series of at-work issues and problems by the team undergoing the change. Jerry’s issues happened to come to light because, at about that time, he was referred for executive coaching by the division president, who worried that Jerry’s team’s performance was suffering. There are many different ways to analyze a case, of course. One might speak in terms of motivating the workforce to return to work and look at the incentives surrounding the move and the incentives to complain about it. Or, one might speak in terms of setting boundaries and imposing penalties for those who are disrupting morale, or about treating employees like customers and making them happy. The EI analysis of Jerry’s situation begins, as it does in most cases, with an appreciation of the fact that both the technical and emotional aspects of situations are closely intertwined. This means that something that looks technical may become emotional, and something that seems emotional can become technical. For example, in the present case, each of the problems raised by the satellite group – sick buildings, parking, and other matters, were real technical issues. The string of issues together, however, suggested an emotional component: that the team’s move had triggered some negative or worried feelings. Jerry’s handling of the initial, sick-building problem seemed judicious. He could, first of all, have missed the emotional concerns, if he were poor at perceiving emotions, or ignored them if he didn’t care. Alternatively, he could have focussed solely on the emotional components and ignored the technical issues of a real, possible, health risk. He did well, however, by attending to the feelings involved and intervening by investigating the building condition with an HVAC team. His reaction to the parking problems was a bit less clear in its effectiveness. His perception of the emotions of his team – that parking issues were of concern ― was no doubt accurate. His understanding that if the problem was not dealt with it could get worse was also correct. Issues remained, however, and morale and productivity appeared to be suffering. To gain a better comprehension of the problem at this stage, it helps to learn a bit more about emotional intelligence.  

Understanding Emotional Intelligence

The Reun Baron model of emotional intelligence states that there are five composites of skills that are related to EI. These Five Composites and some of their interrelationships are shown in the diagram below. The first two branches, Self Perception, and Self Expression are termed “experiential EI,” because they relate most closely to feelings. They involve, first, the capacity to perceive emotions in others accurately, and, second, the ability to use emotions to enhance how we think. When Jerry perceived concerns and anxieties in his team, he accurately perceived emotions among those around him. When he (presumably) used his own emotions to motivate his response to those concerns, he was effectively using his emotions to facilitate his thoughts and actions. The third and fourth areas of EI skills are termed “strategic EI” because they pertain to calculating and planning with information about emotions. The third area, Interpersonal Composite, involves knowing how emotions change, in and of themselves, as well as how they will change people and their behaviors over time. The fourth area, Emotional Management, focuses on how to integrate logic and emotion for effective decision-making. These four skill areas are related to one another, but they are functionally distinct as well. We know this from our research in ability-testing of EI, which has accompanied the scientific theory. Our current test of EI is called the Emotional Quotient Intelligence Test, or EQ I 2.0. Jerry had taken the EQ I 2.0 during the early portion of his executive coaching. The EQ I 2.0, like the Reun Baron model upon which it is based, promotes a distinct and well-defined approach to studying EI. Rather than having people evaluate themselves (self-report method), or having others evaluate them (360 methods), the EQ I 2.0 is an ability test and asks people to solve emotional problems. For example, to assess Emotional Perception, the EQ i 2.0 includes a task in which test-takers must identify emotions in faces and pictures. To assess Facilitating Thought, test-takers are asked what they think is the best emotion to feel when carrying out a task such as brainstorming. To measure Understanding Emotion, the EQ i 2.0 includes questions about emotional vocabulary, how emotions blend together, and how emotions change over time. Finally, to test Emotional Management, the EQ I 2.0 includes descriptions of socio-emotional situations, and participants are asked to identify the best course of action to improve a feeling. In Jerry’s case, the results of the EQ I 2.0 confirmed and clarified the issues involved in his leadership at that point in time. Jerry’s scores on the Perceiving, Facilitating, and Understanding sub scales were superb. That was no surprise: Jerry had accurately perceived his own, and Eddie Fontaine’s, frustration and concern about the people on their team. He perceived that his group in Jersey City felt isolated and cut off from the rest of his team members (Perceiving Emotion). Jerry had used those feelings to focus on the immediate issues at hand: the details of the building, the parking, and so forth (Facilitating Thought). He understood the move could make them more than a little angry with him “for leaving them.” He further understood that when people felt that way, their progression from irritation to frustration and then to anger, posed an enormous threat to the group’s productivity and cohesiveness (Understanding Emotion). After more than an hour of such thinking, Jerry decided to move his office across the river two days each week. He would alternate the location of staff meetings. Jerry planned on having a “Welcome to Jersey!” house-warming party. The plan was gradually put into place. The complaints decreased and dwindled, productivity recovered. Jerry himself was not “cured”: He still had a way of looking at the individual problems rather than the group of them together, and he needed to constantly remind himself to go beyond the facts and the logic of such situations when he managed them, to directly address the underlying feelings and emotions. An ability to address such concerns is, after all, one of the essentials of effective leadership.  

Findings and claims about EI

The ability model of EI presented here is based on careful theoretical development, coupled with empirical research. As already noted, once the popularized use of the term EI became unmonitored from the basic meanings of emotion and intelligence, nearly any quality could be – and has been referred to as Emotional Intelligence. Regrettably, almost any claim can be made about EI if the term is not clearly defined since almost any research can be said to pertain to it. Unfortunately, many irresponsible claims have been made about the topic in various popularizations. These claims refer both to the size of the EI effect (e.g., “twice as important as IQ”) and the areas of the EI effect (e.g., “virtually any area of life”). Our own position is much different: That EI is an important capability, but one that coexists with many other important strengths and weaknesses, and that it affects some areas more than others. One positive outcome of the popularization of EI has been the enormous interest in research in the area. A growing body of literature examines the EQ I 2.0 and its findings. These findings suggest that people high in EI form strong relations with others and have reliable support networks. Other people come to help these individuals in times of need. By contrast, people low in EI are socially perplexed and are relatively more prone to drug and alcohol use, and to using aggressive and violent behavior to solve problems. It is important to add that the vast majority of low EI scorers will not suffer from these more serious difficulties. Empirical findings of leadership are only just being made public. Leaders who are high in EI may be better equipped to develop stronger teams and to communicate more effectively with others. People high in EI will build real social fabric within an organization, and between an organization and those it serves, whereas those low in EI may tend to create problems for the organization through their individual behaviors. This story is still being written and we urge both researchers and practitioners to proceed knowing that new findings will continue to change and improve our understanding. The general data, however, suggest what EI can mean to individuals in organizations.  

Developing emotionally intelligent leadership

The Five Composites model of EI, and the EQ I 2.0 test based on it, provide us with a model of leadership and its development. The EQ I 2.0 cuts right to the heart of a leader’s underlying leadership skills, and the model offers a way to conceptualize and carry out strategic plans that incorporate emotions and emotional relationships in the workplace. For example, an overall plan might be to encourage existing customers to adopt a new product, with minimal defections to a competitor. This may demand a strategic plan that addresses both technical aspects – such as product quality, cost, and distribution – and emotional aspects, such as customer feelings toward the company. Carrying out the emotional aspects of such a plan can be organized according to the four branch model of perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. For example, perceiving emotions might involve surveying the feelings of customers. Using emotions might involve making certain one is in the right frame of mind when tackling sensitive tasks. Understanding emotions may involve charting the emotional impact of various marketing plans on customers while paying attention to an emotional bottom line, as well as to the financial one. Managing emotions may involve knowing how to lead so as to encourage desired emotional reactions associated with the plan. Some leaders are already excellent at such tasks. Others may seek and acquire training in the area, or rely upon the acumen of a trusted lieutenant.  

The pivotal role of emotional intelligence

Do we believe that emotional intelligence is a core competency for management effectiveness? We believe it is one useful tool, but we also believe that there is more than one way to lead and that certain situations call for EI more (or less) than others. An interim CEO who must enter a troubled organization and jettison major pieces of the company requires the cool-headedness of an aggressive surgeon. While there will be a lot of bad news, there may be little or no time to employ those skills, even if the CEO is high in EI. In many other cases, however, leaders lead not through rational, logical decision-making alone, but by merging thinking with feelings. This is where EI skills may play a pivotal role. Scientific research has uncovered a legitimate new human ability in emotional intelligence, and this has implications for the workforce. Jerry’s situation, outlined earlier, is one example of how to use that skill. There are many other such stories we have studied (and participated in) as well. The stories are all different, but they all illustrate how technical and emotional factors work together in the workplace. They also illustrate how the manager who can think accurately and clearly about emotions, may often be in a better position to anticipate, cope with, and effectively manage change.   Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Professional Success: A case study! Article by: Dr. Pratik P. SURANA ( ACTP, Ph.D.,EQ I 2.0 Certified Trainer and Assessor) Chief Mentor and Founder, Quantum Group ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???. ???.

Developing Intelligent Tutoring Systems And Ai’s Role

With AI, teachers can now develop intelligent tutoring systems

According to a research report , artificial intelligence in the global education market is projected to reach USD3.68 billion by 2023, registering a CAGR of 47%. The role of AI in education is huge and imperative in the current scenario. AI along with other disruptive technology has given rise to EdTech and smart learning methods. It has now entered into another significant area, which is Intelligent Tutoring . Intelligent tutoring systems, as the name suggests is an intelligent computer system that can effectively provide instructions to the learners and enables a feedback system with minimal human intervention. In May last year, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University developed a system wherein a teacher can teach computer systems with the help of AI and create intelligent tutoring systems. A report by CMU quotes Ken Koedinger, professor of human-computer interaction psychology saying that initially, it took almost 200 hours of development for each hour of tutored instruction since they programmed production rules by hand and later using a shortcut method reduced the hours to about 40 to 50. Still, it is a long process considering the variety of problems and instructions that exist. The new AI-based intelligent tutoring system is not that lazy to learn and can be programmed in 30 minutes for a 30-minutes session. The paper published on the same states that they used a novel interaction design to create Intelligent Tutoring Systems by training Simulated Learners. It leverages machine learning and developed a user-friendly teaching interface for these machine learning programs. Teachers can demonstrate how to solve a problem in different ways to these computer systems and correct if they respond with errors. Since it uses AI and machine learning, the system can learn to solve problems under a topic by generalizing without receiving any demonstration from teachers. Artificial intelligence is disrupting the education sector and with the arrival of pandemics, the influence increased. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are hailed for their capability to provide one-on-one curriculum and personalized instructions. Intelligent tutoring systems using AI are set to revolutionize the conventional education system that runs on a one-size-fits-all rule and thinks that everybody needs an equal amount of learning time and attention. Every student is different and Intelligent Tutoring Systems are designed to address this. It is customizable according to the needs of each student. Intelligent tutoring systems developed by AI do not require any programming and teachers can mold it according to their teaching techniques. The system developed by CMU has been proved effective in teaching English grammar, chemistry, and algebra and they have experimented with specific problems like multi-column addition to test its capability. Ken Koedinger explains in the report that the machine learning models usually stumble in different places while learning, like the students. Thus, it might also enlighten teachers on understanding the difficulty level of each technique and instruction. Artificial intelligence technology has reigned different industries and education is a relevant one. By enabling the faster and easier development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, AI is making world-class education accessible to all.

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