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What is MVC?

MVC is an architecture that separates business logic, presentation and data. In MVC,

M stands for Model

V stands for View

C stands for controller.

MVC Architecture Diagram

Model Layer

This is the data layer which consists of the business logic of the system.

It consists of all the data of the application

It also represents the state of the application.

It consists of classes which have the connection to the database.

The controller connects with model and fetches the data and sends to the view layer.

The model connects with the database as well and stores the data into a database which is connected to it.

View Layer

This is a presentation layer.

It consists of HTML, JSP, etc. into it.

It normally presents the UI of the application.

It is used to display the data which is fetched from the controller which in turn fetching data from model layer classes.

This view layer shows the data on UI of the application.

Controller Layer

It acts as an interface between View and Model.

It intercepts all the requests which are coming from the view layer.

It receives the requests from the view layer and processes the requests and does the necessary validation for the request.

This requests is further sent to model layer for data processing, and once the request is processed, it sends back to the controller with required information and displayed accordingly by the view.

Advantages of MVC Architecture

Easy to maintain

Easy to extend

Easy to test

Navigation control is centralized

Example of JSP Application Design with MVC Architecture

In this example, we are going to show how to use MVC architecture in JSP.

We are taking the example of a form with two variables “email” and “password” which is our view layer.

This mvc_servlet is controller layer. Here in mvc_servlet the request is sent to the bean object which act as model layer.

The email and password values are set into the bean and stored for further purpose.

From the bean, the value is fetched and shown in the view layer.


<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"

Explanation of the code:

View Layer:

Code Line 10-15: Here we are taking a form which has two fields as parameter “email” and “password” and this request need to be forwarded to a controller, which is passed in chúng tôi method through which it is passed is POST method.

package demotest; import; import javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher; import javax.servlet.ServletException; /** * Servlet implementation class Mvc_servlet */ public class Mvc_servlet extends HttpServlet { private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L; /** * @see HttpServlet#HttpServlet() */ public Mvc_servlet() { super(); } protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { String email=request.getParameter("email"); String password=request.getParameter("password"); TestBean testobj = new TestBean(); testobj.setEmail(email); testobj.setPassword(password); request.setAttribute("gurubean",testobj); RequestDispatcher rd=request.getRequestDispatcher("mvc_success.jsp"); rd.forward(request, response); } }

Explanation of the code:

Controller layer

Code Line 14:mvc_servlet is extending HttpServlet.

Code Line 26: As the method used is POST hence request comes into a doPost method of the servlet which process the requests and saves into the bean object as testobj.

Code Line 34: Using request object we are setting the attribute as gurubean which is assigned the value of testobj.

Code Line 35: Here we are using request dispatcher object to pass the success message to mvc_success.jsp

package demotest; import; public class TestBean implements Serializable{ public String getEmail() { return email; } public void setEmail(String email) { = email; } public String getPassword() { return password; } public void setPassword(String password) { this.password = password; } private String email="null"; private String password="null"; }

Explanation of the code:

Model Layer:

Code Line 7-17: It contains the getters and setters of email and password which are members of Test Bean class

Code Line 19-20: It defines the members email and password of string type in the bean class.


<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" <% TestBean testguru=(TestBean)request.getAttribute("gurubean"); out.print("Welcome, "+testguru.getEmail());

Explanation of the code:

Code Line 12: we are getting the attribute using request object which has been set in the doPost method of the servlet.

Code Line 13: We are printing the welcome message and email id of which have been saved in the bean object


When you execute the above code, you get the following output:



In this article, we have learnt about the MVC i.e. Model View Controller architecture.

JSP plays the role of presentation of the data and controller. It is an interface between model and view while model connects both to the controller as well as the database. Main business logic is present in the model layer.

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What Is Mvc Design Pattern?

What is MVC Design Pattern?

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

This pattern divides the application into three parts that are dependent and connected. These designs distinguish the presentation of data from how the data is accepted by the user to the data shown. These design patterns have become common in the use of web applications and for developing GUIs.

Understanding MVC Design Pattern

Understanding these Design patterns is easy and simple. The theory stands for Model-View-Controller Pattern. The functions of the three parts are-

1. Model

This part of the design pattern is primary and contains application information. It does not contain any information on displaying data to the user. It operates independently of the user interface and controls the logic and rules of the application.

2. View

This part helps the user to see the model’s data. The main concern of this part is to access the model’s data. The view section uses a chart, table, or diagram to represent the information. It can also show similar data and use bar graphs and tables for different purposes. It is a visualization of information that the application contains.

3. Controller

How does MVC make Working so Easy?

Architecture like MVC makes working easier because:

It helps in a simplified and faster development process.

This architecture’s definite structure creates a well-rounded plan to complete the development process. Each team member can handle one of the architecture components in this plan, effectively simplifying the overall process.

Once a highly complex process, MVC now makes life easier for programmers to provide multiple views for the same data (Model).

Unlike other architectures, one can modify this architecture with greater ease.

You can alter only the Model component if there is any change in business logic and leave the other components untouched.

Suppose there is any change in the user interface. In that case, we could change the code in the View component, thereby making it clear that the business logic is unaffected, as no change was made in the Model component regarding this scenario.

Because of the simplicity it brings to the table, many programming language frameworks follow this architecture and provide a good understanding of how the web application needs to be developed.

Top MVC Design Pattern Companies

Some of the Top companies that use MVC Design Patterns are –


Go Daddy


Visual Studio

Wild Tangent

What can you do with MVC?

Using MVC, we can make the Web development process enjoyable with an uncomplicated setup.

We make every Software Development Life Cycle step more accessible and less tedious.

During development, this architecture enables individuals to care for each component, reducing time consumption.

The development code gets less complicated as we can easily understand the flow of code functionality when using MVC.

Working with MVC Design Pattern

The Controller is perhaps the most critical component in the architecture, as it is responsible for the interactions between the Model and the View.

The Model and the View are independent, and the Controller becomes the mediator, wherein the Controller will interact with the Model to the View or vice versa.

One cannot devalue the importance of the Model component as it represents the source of business logic in the application.

The View is responsible for the data being displayed on the screen. Suppose any user input or response is encountered. In that case, it is the responsibility of the View to bring the reaction to the attention of the Controller, which then decides the exact response necessary by interacting with the same communication from View to Model and thus provides information to the View to display the associated screen for the response accompanied by the required data from Model.

Take, for example, an ATM which can be useful for understanding the architecture.

The usual procedure is as follows.

The customer inserts the card inputs his password, and the necessary amount, and he gets the money he wants.

We understand that the customer interacts only with the View of the application.

Once a card is entered, the Controller actively recognizes the event and prompts the start of the proceedings.

The Controller simultaneously interacts with the event with the Model component, which contains the business logic and data.

The Model communicates the necessary data to keep the flow of the action, and the Controller promptly interacts with the View to display the required data to the customer.

The customer selects the desired action, and the View delivers the customer’s response to the Controller. The Controller interacts with the situation with the Model, which provides the data related to the current response. Again Controller gets back to View so that View can display the response to the customer.

For this, the customer tells the View the amount of money they require by providing it as input. The View tells the Controller that the customer requires the amount, and the Controller goes to the Model.

The Model, which we refer to as the Business logic, prompts the Controller to ask for the password, and the Controller tells the View to get the password from the customer. When the customer inputs the password, the Model component processes the validation and other access requirements. Suppose all the customer responses match the data’s necessities and accuracy. In that case, the Model tells the Controller to allow the machine to provide the specified amount, which the Controller readily does, thus ending the task.


It has the architecture to provide multiple Views.

Modification of the user interface does not affect the Business Logic.

It helps in developing larger applications with a definite structure.

Required Skills

Complete understanding of the architectural pattern.

Understanding how to use the framework.

Basic knowledge of an object-oriented programming language.

The ability to separate logic and display contents ensures that the Model and View are independent.

Why Should We Use MVC?

We should use MVC because:

There is no need to type the code again. Thus it enables Reusability.

It helps in the efficient testing of the application during the testing phase.

If there are any modifications, then there is no need to edit the application’s entire code.

It helps in the better maintenance of the application.

It reduces ambiguity and uncertainty.

The most important thing we can do with MVC is an abstraction of logic from View.


There will always be a future for MVC.

The programming language or the framework may change, but the architecture will still be used.

You may stop using Dot net MVC but could still use Python with the Django framework that uses the MVC principles.

Why do we Need MVC?

It may be complex, but it helps provide definiteness and clean code.

We need MVC to develop one or more applications simultaneously faster.

It helps the organization in better maintenance and support for the applications.

Who is the right audience for learning MVC Design Pattern technologies?

Developers and programmers are the right audiences for learning these designs as they actively use them in programming platforms. The learners should be passionate about learning the design patterns and using and applying them accordingly to their projects.

How will this Technology help you in Career Growth?

Your programming language and framework depend more on your career growth based on its demand. Still, MVC as architecture will always be a viable option for your career growth. Hence MVC is necessary and valuable for your career.

For example, people have started to move from Dot Net MVC to Dot Net Core, but there is demand for Django, which uses MVC.


Trygve Reenskaug introduced the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture in the 1970s. Its popularity peaked in 1996; from then on, it has been used to develop user interfaces and applications. It can be integrated with JavaScript and Jquery as well. People working in MVC must update themselves with the current trends of technologies because they will embed the architecture into future languages that will boom in the industry.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “What is MVC Design Pattern?” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

Sqoop Tutorial: What Is Apache Sqoop? Architecture & Example

What is SQOOP in Hadoop?

Apache SQOOP (SQL-to-Hadoop) is a tool designed to support bulk export and import of data into HDFS from structured data stores such as relational databases, enterprise data warehouses, and NoSQL systems. It is a data migration tool based upon a connector architecture which supports plugins to provide connectivity to new external systems.

An example use case of Hadoop Sqoop is an enterprise that runs a nightly Sqoop import to load the day’s data from a production transactional RDBMS into a Hive data warehouse for further analysis.

Next in this Apache Sqoop tutorial, we will learn about Apache Sqoop architecture.

Sqoop Architecture

All the existing Database Management Systems are designed with SQL standard in mind. However, each DBMS differs with respect to dialect to some extent. So, this difference poses challenges when it comes to data transfers across the systems. Sqoop Connectors are components which help overcome these challenges.

Data transfer between Sqoop Hadoop and external storage system is made possible with the help of Sqoop’s connectors.

Sqoop has connectors for working with a range of popular relational databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQL Server, and DB2. Each of these connectors knows how to interact with its associated DBMS. There is also a generic JDBC connector for connecting to any database that supports Java’s JDBC protocol. In addition, Sqoop Big data provides optimized MySQL and PostgreSQL connectors that use database-specific APIs to perform bulk transfers efficiently.

Sqoop Architecture

In addition to this, Sqoop in big data has various third-party connectors for data stores, ranging from enterprise data warehouses (including Netezza, Teradata, and Oracle) to NoSQL stores (such as Couchbase). However, these connectors do not come with Sqoop bundle; those need to be downloaded separately and can be added easily to an existing Sqoop installation.

Why do we need Sqoop?

Analytical processing using Hadoop requires loading of huge amounts of data from diverse sources into Hadoop clusters. This process of bulk data load into Hadoop, from heterogeneous sources and then processing it, comes with a certain set of challenges. Maintaining and ensuring data consistency and ensuring efficient utilization of resources, are some factors to consider before selecting the right approach for data load.

Major Issues:

1. Data load using Scripts

The traditional approach of using scripts to load data is not suitable for bulk data load into Hadoop; this approach is inefficient and very time-consuming.

2. Direct access to external data via Map-Reduce application

Providing direct access to the data residing at external systems(without loading into Hadoop) for map-reduce applications complicates these applications. So, this approach is not feasible.

3. In addition to having the ability to work with enormous data, Hadoop can work with data in several different forms. So, to load such heterogeneous data into Hadoop, different tools have been developed. Sqoop and Flume are two such data loading tools.

Next in this Sqoop tutorial with examples, we will learn about the difference between Sqoop, Flume and HDFS.

Sqoop vs Flume vs HDFS in Hadoop

Sqoop Flume HDFS

Sqoop is used for importing data from structured data sources such as RDBMS. Flume is used for moving bulk streaming data into HDFS. HDFS is a distributed file system used by Hadoop ecosystem to store data.

Sqoop has a connector based architecture. Connectors know how to connect to the respective data source and fetch the data. Flume has an agent-based architecture. Here, a code is written (which is called as ‘agent’) which takes care of fetching data. HDFS has a distributed architecture where data is distributed across multiple data nodes.

HDFS is a destination for data import using Sqoop. Data flows to HDFS through zero or more channels. HDFS is an ultimate destination for data storage.

Sqoop data load is not event-driven. Flume data load can be driven by an event. HDFS just stores data provided to it by whatsoever means.

In order to import data from structured data sources, one has to use Sqoop commands only, because its connectors know how to interact with structured data sources and fetch data from them. In order to load streaming data such as tweets generated on Twitter or log files of a web server, Flume should be used. Flume agents are built for fetching streaming data. HDFS has its own built-in shell commands to store data into it. HDFS cannot import streaming data

What Is Rpa? Full Form, Benefits, Design Tools & Application

What is RPA?

RPA (Robotics Process Automation) which allows organizations to automate task just like a human being was doing them across application and systems. The purpose of RPA is to transfer the process execution from humans to bots. Robotic process automation interacts with the existing IT architecture with no complex system integration required.

RPA automation can automate workflow, infrastructure, back-office processes, which are labor-intensive. These software bots can interact with an in-house application, website, user portal, etc. RPA stands for Robotic Process Automation. The Robotic Process Automation is a software program that runs on an end user’s pc, laptop, or mobile device. It is a sequence of commands which are executed by Bots under some defined set of business rules.

The main goal of the Robotics process automation process is to replace repetitive and boring clerical tasks performed by humans with a virtual workforce. RPA automation does not require the development of code, nor does it require direct access to the code or database of the applications.

Why Robotic Process Automation?

Consider the following scenario in a typical enterprise

The business climate is ever-changing. An enterprise needs to continuously evolve its product, sales, marketing, etc. process to grow and stay relevant.

A typical enterprise uses multiple and disconnected IT systems to run its operations. With the business process change, these IT systems are not changed frequently due to budget, timing, and implementation complexity issues. Hence, the business process does not map the technical process mapped in the IT system.

The problem? — Humans

With any change in the business process, a company would need to hire new employees or train existing employees to map the IT system and business process. Both solutions are time and money-consuming. Also, any succeeding business process change will need hiring or retraining.

Enter RPA

With Robotic Automation, the company can deploy virtual workers who mimic human workers. In case of a change in process, a change in a few lines of software code is always faster and cheaper than retraining hundreds of employees.

A human can work average of 8 hours a day, whereas robots can work 24hours without any tiredness.

The average productivity of humans is 60%, with few errors compared to Robot’s productivity which is 100% without any errors.

Robots handle multiple tasks very well compared to a human being.

Example of RPA

Consider the following example in this RPA tutorial about the Invoice Processing Business process

Description Can be Automated via RPA?

Open invoice email from the supplier and print it for records Yes

Barcode Scanning Manual

Create work item in a legacy software system Yes

Enter PO to retrieve Invoices Yes

Check supplier name is correct or not? Yes

Key Invoice, Data and Amount Yes

Match PO and Invoice Yes

Check if Amount is matches or not? Yes

If amount match Matches Invoice, Calculate Tax Yes

Complete Invoice Processing Yes

Work Item Closed Yes

If Amount does not match Hold, follow with vendor Yes

Supplier accepts or resends Invoice Yes

If Supplier name is incorrect to hold a pass to exception team Yes

Flag for exception handling Yes

Differences between Test Automation and RPA

There are multiple overlaps between a Test Automation Tool and RPA tool. For instance, they both drive screens, keyboard, mouse, etc., and have similar tech architecture. But following are the key differences between the two

Parameter Test Automation RPA

Goal Reduce Test execution time through automation Reduce headcount through automation

Task Automate repetitive Test Cases Automate repetitive Business processes

Coding Coding knowledge required to create Test Scripts Wizard-driven, and coding knowledge not required

Tech Approach Supports limited software environment. Example: Selenium can support only web applications. Supports a wide array of software environments

Example Test cases are automated

Application Test Automation can be run on QA, Production, Performance, UAT environments. RPA is usually run only on production environments

Implementation It can automate a product. It can automate a product as well as a service.

Users Limited to technical users. Can be used across the board by all stakeholders.

Role Acts as a virtual assistant. Acts as a virtual workforce.

AI Can execute only what is coded. Many RPA tools come with an AI engine can process information like a human

RPA Implementation Methodology

In this Robotic Process Automation tutorial, we will learn the RPA implementation methodology.

RPA Implementation Methodology


In this phase, you need to Identify processes that you want to automate. The following checklist will help you identify the correct process.

Is the process manual & repetitive?

Is the process Rule-based?

Is the input data is in electronic format and is readable?

Can existing System be used as it is with no change?

Next, steps in planning phase are

The setup project team finalizes implementation timelines and approach.

Agree on solution design for performing Robotic Process Automation processes.

Identify a logging mechanism that should be implemented to find issues with running bots.

The clear roadmap should be defined to scale up RPA implementation.


In this phase, you develop the automation workflows as per the agreed plan. Being wizard-driven, the implementation is quick.


In this phase, you run RPA Testing cycles for in-scope Automation to identify and correct defects.

Support & Maintenance

Provide continuous support after going live and helps in immediate defect resolution. Follow general maintenance guidelines with roles and responsibilities with business and IT support teams.

Best Practices of RPA Implementation

This RPA tutorial will teach about best practices to implement RPA automation.

One should consider business impact before opting for RPA process.

Define and focus on the desired ROI.

Focus on targeting larger groups and automating large, impactful processes.

Combine attended and unattended RPA.

Poor design, change management can wreak havoc.

Don’t forget the impact on people.

Governance of the project is foremost thing in RPA process. Policy, Corporate, Government compliance should be ensured.

General Use of RPA

Here are some general use of Robotic Process Automation:

1. Emulates Human Action:

Emulates human execution of the repetitive process using various application and systems.

2. Conduct high-volume repeated tasks:

3. Perform Multiple Tasks:

Operates multiple and complex tasks across multiple systems. This helps to process transactions, manipulate data and send reports.

4. ‘Virtual’ system integration:

Instead of developing a new data infrastructure, this automation system can transfer data between disparate and legacy systems by connecting them at the user interface level.

5. Automated report generation:

Automates data extraction to develop accurate, effective, and timely reports.

6. Information validation and auditing:

Resolves and cross-verify data between different systems to validate and check information to provide compliance and auditing outputs.

7. Technical debt management:

It helps to reduce technical debt by reducing the gap between systems, preventing the introduction of custom implementations.

8. Product management:

It helps to bridge the gap between IT systems and related product management platforms by updating both systems.

9. Quality Assurance:

It can be beneficial to QA processes which cover regression testing and automating customer use case scenarios.

10. Data migration:

11. Gap solutions:

Robotic automatic fills the gaps with process deficiencies. It includes many simple tasks such as password resets; System resets, etc.

12. Revenue forecasting:

Automatically updating financial statements to predict revenue forecasting.

Application of RPA

Here are important applications of robotic process automation.

Industry Usage


Patient registration



New employee joining formalities

Payroll process

Hiring shortlisted candidates


Claims Processing & Clearance

Premium Information

Manufacturing & Retail

Bills of material

Calculation of Sales


Service Order Management

Quality Reporting

Travel & Logistic

Ticket booking

Passenger Details


Banking and Financial Services

Cards activation

Frauds claims



Change of Address

License Renewal


Issues Processing

Account setup and communication

RPA Tools – Robotic Process Automation

Selection of RPA Tool should be based on following 4 parameters:

Data: Easy of reading and writing business data into multiple systems

Type of Tasks mainly performed: Ease of configuring rules-based or knowledge-based processes.

Interoperability: Tools should work across multiple applications

AI: Built-in AI support to mimic human users

Popular Robotic Automation Tools:

1) Blue prism

Blue Prism is a Robotic Process Automation software. It provides businesses and organizations with an agile digital workforce.

2) Automation AnyWhere

Automation Anywhere is a developer of robotic process automation (RPA) software.

Learn more about Automation Anywhere.

3) UiPath

UiPath is Robotic Process Automation software. It helps organizations efficiently automate business processes.

Learn more about UiPath.

Benefits of RPA

Some benefits that RPA can provide to your organization:

Large numbers of the process can easily have automated.

Costs are reduced significantly as the RPA takes care of the repetitive task and saves precious time and resources.

Programming skills are not needed to configure a software robot. Thus, any non-technical staff can set up a bot or even record their steps to automate the process.

Robotic process automation support and allow all regular compliance processes with error-free auditing.

The robotic software can rapidly model and deploy the automation process.

The defects are tracked for each test case story and the sprint.

Effective, seamless Build & Release Management

Real time visibility into bug/defect discovery

There is no human business which means there is no need for time for the requirement of training.

Software robots do not get tired, and it increases, which helps to increase the scalability.

Let’s not forget some cons of the RPA process:

The bot is limited to the speed of the application

Even small changes made in the automation application will need the robots to be reconfigured.

Myths of RPA:

Coding is required to use RPA softwareThat’s not true. To use Robotics Process Automation tools, one needs to understand how the software works on the front-end and how they can use it for Automation.

RPA software does not require human supervision, and this is an illusion because humans are needed to program the RPA bot, feed them tasks for Automation and manage them.

Only large big companies can afford to deploy RPA Small to medium-sized organizations can deploy RPA to automate their business. However, the initial cost will be high but recovered in 4-5 years.

RPA is useful only in industries that rely heavily on software

RPA can generate automated bills, Invoices, telephone services, etc., which are used across industries irrespective of their software exposure.

How do design tools build robots for robotic process automation (RPA) applications?

There are a few ways that design tools can build robots for an RPA application.

One way is by using a programming language to create the robots. This approach is used when the design tool has access to a preexisting robotic system or when the programmer is familiar with the robotics codebase.

Another method is by using an off-the-shelf robot builder. These tools allow designers to drag and drop objects onto a screen, and the robot will automatically create the corresponding code for you. This approach is useful when there is no preexisting robotic system or when the programmer does not access robotics code.

Finally, some design tools include built-in robots that allow users to prototype and test their designs with robots quickly. This approach is useful when there is already a robotic system available.


RPA meaning or RPA full form is Robotic Process Automation

Robotics Process Automation allows organizations to automate task just like a human being was doing them across application and systems.

The main goal of Robotics process automation process to replace repetitive and boring clerical task performed by humans, with a virtual workforce.

The average productivity of human is 60% with few errors as compared to Robot’s productivity which is 100% without any errors.

One should consider business impact before opting for RPA process

There is multiple overlaps between a Test Automation Tool and RPA tool. Though they are still different

RPA implementation has 4 phases 1) Planning 2) Development 3) Testing 4) Support & Maintenance

RPA is used in wide range of industries like Healthcare, Insurance, Banking, IT etc

Php Ajax Tutorial With Example

What is Ajax?

AJAX full form is Asynchronous JavaScript & XML. It is a technology that reduces the interactions between the server and client. It does this by updating only part of a web page rather than the whole chúng tôi asynchronous interactions are initiated by chúng tôi purpose of AJAX is to exchange small amounts of data with server without page refresh.

JavaScript is a client side scripting language. It is executed on the client side by the web browsers that support JavaScript.JavaScript code only works in browsers that have JavaScript enabled.

XML is the acronym for Extensible Markup Language. It is used to encode messages in both human and machine readable formats. It’s like HTML but allows you to create your custom tags. For more details on XML, see the article on XML

Why use AJAX?

It allows developing rich interactive web applications just like desktop applications.

Validation can be performed done as the user fills in a form without submitting it. This can be achieved using auto completion. The words that the user types in are submitted to the server for processing. The server responds with keywords that match what the user entered.

It can be used to populate a dropdown box depending on the value of another dropdown box

Data can be retrieved from the server and only a certain part of a page updated without loading the whole page. This is very useful for web page parts that load things like



Users visiting the site etc.

How to Create an PHP Ajax application

We will create a simple application that allows users to search for popular PHP MVC frameworks.

Our application will have a text box that users will type in the names of the framework.

We will then use mvc AJAX to search for a match then display the framework’s complete name just below the search form.

Step 1) Creating the index page

chúng tôi


“onkeyup=”showName(this.value)”” executes the JavaScript function showName everytime a key is typed in the textbox.

This feature is called auto complete

Step 2) Creating the frameworks page

chúng tôi

<?php $frameworks = array("CodeIgniter","Zend Framework","Cake PHP","Kohana") ; $name = $_GET["name"]; $match = ""; for ($i = 0; $i < count($frameworks); $i++) { if (strtolower($name) == strtolower(substr($frameworks[$i], 0, strlen($name)))) { if ($match == "") { $match = $frameworks[$i]; } else { $match = $match . " , " . $frameworks[$i]; } } } } echo ($match == "") ? 'no match found' : $match; Step 3) Creating the JS script


function showName(str){ if (str.length == 0){ document.getElementById("txtName").innerHTML=""; return; } if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari } else {// code for IE6, IE5 } } } }


“if (str.length == 0)” check the length of the string. If it is 0, then the rest of the script is not executed.

“if (window.XMLHttpRequest)…” Internet Explorer versions 5 and 6 use ActiveXObject for AJAX implementation. Other versions and browsers such as Chrome, FireFox use XMLHttpRequest. This code will ensure that our application works in both IE 5 & 6 and other high versions of IE and browsers.

Step 4) Testing our PHP Ajax application

Type the letter C in the text box You will get the following results.

The above example demonstrates the concept of AJAX and how it can help us create rich interaction applications.


AJAX is the acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML

AJAX is a technology used to create rich interaction applications that reduce the interactions between the client and the server by updating only parts of the web page.

Internet Explorer version 5 and 6 use ActiveXObject to implement AJAX operations.

Internet explorer version 7 and above and browsers Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Safari use XMLHttpRequest.

Requirements Analysis Techniques With Example: Complete Tutorial

As a Business Analyst, requirement analysis is the most important part of your Job. It will help you determining the actual needs of stakeholders. At the same time, enable you to communicate with the stakeholders in a language they understand (like charts, models, flow-charts,) instead of complex text.

A requirement analysis has a

Specific Goal

Specific Input

Specific Output

Uses resources

Has a number of activities to be performed in some order

May affect more than one organization unit

Creates value of some kind for the customer



Learn More

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Drag & Drop


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JIRA Software

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Requirement Analysis Techniques

Requirement analysis techniques are mainly used to map the business workflow so that you can analyze, understand and make required changes to that workflow or process.

There are various requirement analyzing techniques that can be used as per the software development process like

Business process modeling notation (BPMN)

BPMN (Business Process Modeling & Notation) is a graphical representation of your business process using simple objects, which helps the organization to communicate in a standard manner. Various objects used in BPMN includes

Flow objects

Connecting objects

Swim lanes


A well design BPMN model should be able to give the detail about the activities carried out during the process like,

Who is performing these activities?

What data elements are required for these activities?

The biggest benefit of using BPMN is that it is easier to share, and most modeling tools support BPMN.

UML (Unified Modeling Language)

UML is a modelling standard primarily used for specification, development, visualization and documenting of software system. To capture important business process and artifacts UML provides objects like




Class diagram

There are 14 UML diagrams that help with modelling like the use case diagram, interaction diagram, class diagram, component diagram, sequence diagram, etc. UML models are important in the IT segment as it becomes the medium of communication between all stakeholders. A UML-based business model can be a direct input to a requirements tool. A UML diagram can be of two type’s Behavioral model and Structural model. A behavioral model tries to give information about what the system do while a structural model will give what is the system consist of.

Flow chart technique

Data flow diagram

Data flow diagrams show how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. Components of data flow diagram includes





A logical data flow diagram shows system’s activities while a physical data flow diagram shows a system’s infrastructure. A data flow diagram can be designed early in the requirement elicitation process of the analysis phase within the SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) to define the project scope. For easy analyzing a data flow diagram can be drilled down into its sub-processes known as “levelled DFD”.

Role Activity Diagrams- (RAD)

Role activity diagram is similar to flowchart type notation. In Role Activity Diagram, role instances are process participants, which has start and end state. RAD requires a deep knowledge of process or organization to identify roles. The components of RAD includes


External events


Roles group activities together into units of responsibility, according to the set of responsibility they are carrying out. An activity can be carried out in isolation with a role, or it may require coordination with activities in other roles.

External events are the points at which state changes occur.

States are useful to map activities of a role as it progresses from state to state. When a particular state is reached, it indicates that a certain goal has been achieved.

RAD is helpful in supporting communication as it is easy to read and present a detailed view of the process and permitting activities in parallel.

Gantt Charts

A Gantt chart is a graphical representation of a schedule that helps to coordinate, plan and track specific tasks in a project. It represents the total time span of the object, broken down into increments. A Gantt chart represents the list of all task to be performed on the vertical axis while, on the horizontal axis, it list the estimate activity duration or the name of the person allocated to the activity. One chart can demonstrate many activities.

IDEF (Integrated Definition for Function Modeling)

IDEF or Integrated Definition for Function Modeling is a common name referred to classes of enterprise modeling languages. It is used for modeling activities necessary to support system analysis, design or integration. There are about 16 methods for IDEF, the most useful versions of IDEF are IDEF3 and IDEF0.

Colored Petri Nets (CPN)

CPN or colored petri nets are graphically oriented language for specification, verification, design and simulation of systems. Colored Petri Nets is a combination of graphics and text. Its main components are Places, Transitions, and Arcs.

Petri nets objects have specific inscription like for

Places: It has inscription like .Name, .Color Set, .Initial marking etc. While

Transition : lt has inscription like .Name (for identification) and .Guard (Boolean expression consist of some of the variables)

Arcs: It has inscription like .Arc. When the arc expression is assessed, it yields multi-set of token colors.

Workflow Technique

Workflow technique is a visual diagram that represent one or more business processes to clarify understanding of the process or to make process improvement recommendations. Just like other diagrams like flowcharting, UML activity and process map, the workflow technique is the oldest and popular technique. It is even used by BA for taking notes during requirements elicitation. The process comprises of four stages

Information Gathering

Workflow Modeling

Business process Modeling

Implementation, Verification & Execution

Object oriented methods

Object-oriented modeling method uses object oriented paradigm and modeling language for designing a system. It emphasis on finding and describing the object in the problem domain. The purpose of object oriented method is

To help characterizing the system

To know what are the different relevant objects

How do they relate to each other

How to specify or model a problem to create effective design

To analyze requirements and their implications

This method is applicable to the system which has dynamic requirements (changes frequently). It is a process of deriving use cases, activity flow, and events flow for the system. Object oriented analysis can be done through textual needs, communication with system stakeholder and vision document.

The object has a state, and state changes are represented by behavior. So, when the object receives a message, state changes through behavior.

Gap Analysis

Gap Analysis is the technique used to determine the difference between the proposed state and current state for any business and its functionalities. It answers questions like what is the current state of the project? Where do we want to be? etc. Various stages of Gap Analysis include

Review System

Development Requirements




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