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After the Plassey battle of 1757, the whole country was under the dominance of the British, both politically and economically. Because of this incident, the landlords and the chieftains lost much of their power and not only that, but they also lost many of their properties and estates. It resulted in many uprisings against the British, that was the protest by deposed chieftains and landlords.

Polygar rebellions (1799-1805)

The poligars or the polygars are also referred to as the Palaiyakkarars, who were from the Tirunelveli Kingdom of South India. Between the years 1799 to 1805, they gave a major fight to the British. At this time two major poligar wars occurred between the poligar and the British government. Madurai, Sivaganga, Sivagiri and Tirunelveli were the most powerful central from where the whole war was controlled.


it was believed that south India’s Poligars were similar to north India’s Rajputs. They were the military chief who got the lands in exchange for their military services. They have a major influence in terms of powers. The situation changed when the Nawab of Arcot gave control of some places such as Tirunelveli and Carnatic, to the British government.

Figure 1: Two revolts and the timeline

It caused the main problem among the Poligars because they were the independent authority in their territories. As a result of this situation, two poligar wars took place. In 1799, the first war broke out and this revolt was led by Veerapandi Kottabomman. He refused to accept the British and stand against paying the revenue to them. He had defied for 7 years and in the end, the government to set an example of warning to the other poligars hanged him publicly.

Figure 2: View of Comery- Polygars

Artist: James Welsh (1775–1861); Engraver: Robert Havell, Jr., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The second war broke out after the British government suppressed the first one. It was also known as the South Indian Rebellion, because of the range and impacts of the war. Because of it, the second war was more violent in form and it started in February of the year 1801. This war was controlled by the brother of Veerapandi Kottabomman, Oomaithurai, who was able to take the control of many forts and even successfully captured Tuticorin.


In the year 1801 the nawab of Arcot signed a treaty with the British government and it was named the Carnatic treaty. Under this treaty, he surrendered all the civil and military administration that comes under his territories to the British. Because Poligar system brutally came to an end. In replacement of it, the British government implemented the zamindari settlement in the place.

Velu Thampi Dalawa and the revolt (1805-09)

Thampi Chempakaraman Velayudhan led one of the major revolts against the British. He was popular as Velu Thampi and he was the Dalawa, which means the Prime minister, of the Travancore kingdom. In the year, 1805 he started the revolt against the ruler because the government tried to throw him out of the position of Diwan. Not only that, but they also tried to impose an excessive financial burden on the people. He stands against the imposed burden on the kingdom, which was imposed by the Subsidiary Alliance Treaty. This treaty was signed forcefully by Travancore in the year 1805 and as a result of the treaty, the number of British troops increased drastically.

At the same time, the kingdom started facing a major financial crisis because of the extra expenses.

Under the treaty, the British also started interfering with the internal situations of the kingdom. He was able to gather major support from the people of his kingdom and outside of the country against British rule. Velu Thampi managed to arrange armed forces against British rule and prepared for a long war. The battle of Quilon ended in the years 1809. At the end of the battle, the force of Thampi lost against the British force and as a result, they ordered to capture and execute him in public to set an example for the rest of the people. However, in 1809, Velu Thampi fled and he took his own life to avoid the capturing.


These two uprisings led by Velu Thampi Dalawa and Veerapandi Kottabomman left a huge impact on the history of India. They both are examples of unsuccessful attempts at wars but gave a fight against British colonialism. They occurred in the most politically, economically and socially disrupted condition when the landlords and chieftains faced major problems. These two revolts are considered the earliest freedom struggles that were conducted from 1799 to 1809 and this was the time when the British entrenched themselves in this country.


Q1. Who was the leader of the Ramosi tribal revolt of 1882?

In the year 1882, Chittur Singh led the Ramosi tribal revolt. It was also known as the Ramosi uprising, and it took place against the new pattern of administration planned by the British. It is considered the first tribal uprising against the government run by the British.

Q2. What was the major revolt by the Indians against the British government?

The first widely spread revolt was the Indian Mutiny. It was begun by the Indian troops who worked under the British East India Company and it began from Meerut and spread to Lucknow, Kanpur and even Delhi.

Q3. What was the main reason behind the tribal revolts?

There were many tribal revolts against the government run by the British in the 19th century. Most of those uprisings had the same cause; they were against the “land settlement and land laws”. It created major tension among the tribal community because non-tribal groups started entering the forest.

Q4. What is the Khasi uprising?

The Khasi uprising occurred in the Hills of Khasi and Jaintia in the year 1833.

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Liability Of Landlords And Tenants

Leases or rent agreements are agreements whereby the right to use an immovable property is granted to a third party for a predetermined period in exchange for a predetermined specified value, which is either to be paid periodically or on particular occasions by the transferee to the transferor. Following the signing of a lease, a tenancy is established, with the transferor or lessor acting as the landlord and the transferee or lessee as the tenant.

How liability of Landlords and Tenants Occur?

There are several rights and duties associated with a lease. The relationship of landlord and tenant comes into existence after sign of a contract between the two respective parties. The rights and duties of landlord and tenants are essentially governed by the terms of the contract and the provisions regarding the same in the Transfer of Property Act.

Liabilities of the Landlord

The following are the liabilities of the landlord −

Duty to give possession − Because a lease is an agreement to transfer the right to possess a property, the landlord has a duty to give the tenant possession of the property so that he can use it.

Duty to disclose the defects − If there is any latent substantial defect in the property, the landlord must disclose it to the tenant. Depending on the conditions, the handover of the possession may be actual or constructive.

Agreement for peaceful enjoyment − Absence of interruption or opposition is referred to as quiet enjoyment. Since a lease is a transfer of the right to enjoy a property, the landlord has an implied duty to make sure the tenant can exercise this right in peace.

Duty to repair − The owner is required to perform all required repairs to the property. The renter may do the same and deduct the cost of repairs from the rent or seek reimbursement from the property owner if the owner neglects to make the required repairs.

The owner is obligated to make certain payments, and they must be made on time. Even if the payment was not made by the landlord, it is still recoverable from the tenant or against the property.

Liabilities Of Tenant

The following are the liabilities of tenant −

The renter may not utilise the rental property for any other purpose than the one for which it was rented.

Nothing on the property may be permanently removed, with the exception of agricultural uses, without the landlord’s permission.

When the lease expires, it is the tenant’s responsibility to return the property to the landlord in possession.

The tenant is required to reveal any important information that raises the value of the property. For instance, if the tenant discovers a gold mine on the leased property, he is required to inform the landlord because this materially raises the property’s value.

The tenant is only permitted to use the property in the manner that a prudent person would use their own. He must refrain from taking any action that will permanently harm the property or cause it harm. The renter is permitted to do modest repairs and upkeep to the property, but he is not permitted to make any significant changes.

Without the landlord’s approval, the tenant is not allowed to erect any long-term structures on the leased property. The landlord has the right to remove any permanent constructions made by the tenant without causing any damage to the leased property.

The tenant is required to return possession to the landlord at the term’s expiration or early termination of the lease. After the lease term has ended, it is the tenant’s responsibility to give the landlord their possession back.

The court may order the tenant to pay damages as well as mesne profits (earnings of an estate received by the tenant in wrongful possession and which are recoverable by the landlord upon an action) to the landlord if the tenant maintains the occupation after the term has expired.


A lease agreement is created when the right to use or possess a piece of property is transferred. The individual to whom the lease is made is referred to as the tenant, and the person who leases the property is referred to as the landlord. Numerous obligations are associated with the titles of landlord and tenant on the parts of both parties. The rights and obligations are adhered to by both parties to safeguard each other’s interests in the absence of any local ordinances, traditions, or written agreements to the contrary.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Is rent included in liabilities?

Ans. In normal circumstance, the answer is “yes”, rent is generally included in liabilities on a company’s balance sheet. Liabilities for most households will include money owed in taxes, bills that must be paid, rent or mortgage payments, money owed for loan interest and principal, and so forth.

Q2. Is lease an asset or liability?

Ans. On the balance sheet, the lessor lists the lease as a leased asset, and the income and cash flow statements list each lease payment as income. Due to their interest as a possible owner of the asset and their needed payment, the lessee records the lease as both an asset and a liability on the balance sheet.

Q3. What is long-term lease liabilities?

Ans. A long-term liability is the present value of a lease payment that lasts longer than one year. Deferred tax liabilities are viewed as long-term liabilities when they normally stretch to subsequent tax years.

Q4. What are the 2 types of leases?

Ans. The two types of lease are – operating leases and capital leases both have unique effects on a company’s taxes and accounting.

What Makes Dogetti, Bitcoin And Ethereum Popular?

The Trailblazers In The Crypto Community: Dogetti, Bitcoin, and Ethereum

In the highly competitive crypto market, a strong brand narrative plays a crucial role in shaping the image of a cryptocurrency. Crypto enthusiasts are often in search for the latest cryptocurrency to invest in, the top industry leaders – Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) have been at the forefront of the market for a long time.

Dogetti (DETI) is the latest meme coin that is creating a buzz within the crypto community with its successful presale.

The Game Changer: Bitcoin

Bitcoin (BTC), the first and most renowned cryptocurrency, has a powerful brand narrative that revolves around decentralization and financial sovereignty. Its founder, known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, introduced Bitcoin as a peer-to-peer electronic cash system, aiming to disrupt traditional financial systems.

Bitcoin’s brand narrative emphasizes trustlessness, security, and the democratization of wealth, attracting investors who value financial autonomy and the potential for high returns.

Bitcoin’s key innovation lies in its ability to enable peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries such as banks or payment processors. This feature empowers individuals to send and receive funds directly, quickly, and with low transaction fees, regardless of geographical boundaries.

Whether you’re sending money to a friend next door or conducting cross-border transactions, Bitcoin offers a borderless and efficient payment solution.

Ethereum: The Innovator

Ethereum, often referred to as the pioneer of smart contracts, has crafted a brand narrative focused on innovation, programmability, and the creation of decentralized applications (DApps).

Ethereum’s founder, Vitalik Buterin, envisioned a blockchain platform that goes beyond digital currency, enabling developers to build a wide range of decentralized applications. Ethereum’s brand narrative appeals to investors interested in the potential of blockchain technology, decentralized finance (DeFi), and the growth of the crypto ecosystem.

The Rise of The Alpha: Dogetti

As a meme token, Dogetti leverages comical and lighthearted elements to capture the attention of investors. By incorporating amusing themes and engaging with the community through memes and interactive content, Dogetti creates a sense of belonging and excitement among its supporters.

What sets Dogetti apart from traditional meme tokens is its emphasis on utility and practical application. While meme tokens often serve as purely speculative assets, Dogetti aims to add tangible value to its token holders.

This is achieved by integrating utility features within its ecosystem, such as governance participation, charity initiatives, or unique functionalities that align with its meme-driven narrative. By combining entertainment with real-world utility, Dogetti attracts investors seeking both amusement and potential long-term value.

Dogetti’s unique approach enables it to engage and retain investors in several ways. Its humorous and community-oriented content fosters a strong emotional connection, generating a sense of loyalty and belonging among its community members.

By regularly interacting with the community, sharing updates, and involving them in decision-making processes, Dogetti cultivates an engaged and supportive investor base. The launch of their exciting presale ending bonus “500FAMILY” gives an exciting 500% bonus, this means that with every $100 purchase, you’ll receive $600 dollars worth of tokens.

Moreover, Dogetti’s focus on practical utility provides investors with a clear purpose and potential benefits beyond speculative trading. This approach enhances investor confidence and encourages long-term holding, as investors recognize the value and usefulness of the token beyond its meme-driven nature.

In the competitive crypto market, a utility-based crypto coin can make a significant difference in attracting and retaining investors. While Bitcoin and Ethereum established their narratives around decentralization, financial autonomy, and technological innovation, Dogetti has carved its own path by embracing humor, community engagement, and practical utility.

By infusing entertainment with real-world value, Dogetti engages investors on multiple levels, creating a strong emotional connection and fostering long-term loyalty with the incredible 2% reflection protocol.

9 Of The Most Popular Messaging Apps In 2023

Popular messaging apps are a great way for businesses to talk to their customers one-on-one and provide fast customer service.

Want to slide into your customer’s DMs? There’s an app for that.

Social messaging apps are now essential communication tools. And not just for individual social media users — for brands, too.

Social media is a great way to get your message out onto the sweet, sweet worldwide web, but if you’re looking for a more intimate connection with your fans and followers — and a way to offer best-in-class social media customer service — it’s time to get acquainted with the most popular messaging apps.

Reduce response time (and your workload)

Manage all your messages stress-free with easy routing, saved replies, and friendly chatbots. Try Hootsuite’s Inbox today.

Book a Demo

What are social messaging apps?

Social messaging apps are programs on your phone or computer that allow you to chat privately with one or many other users. Many include video chat.

Unlike SMS and text messages, you are connected via the internet, not through phone reception. As long as you’ve got delicious WiFi or 3G access on tap, you can message to your heart’s desire.

Social messaging apps are often connected to social media platforms so that you can send messages to other social media users. For instance, Messenger is a social messaging app that is tied to Facebook — if someone is asking for customer service help on a Facebook post on your Business Page, you can take the conversation out of the public eye and into a private conversation on Messenger to resolve.

So discrete! So sophisticated! Miss Manners would be delighted.

Bonus: Get a free, easy-to-use Customer Service Report Template that helps you track and calculate your monthly customer service efforts all in one place.

9 most popular messaging apps in 2023

In 2023, there are almost too many ways to get in touch with someone. (Thank goodness it’s no longer possible to Poke someone on Facebook or we’d be downright overwhelmed.)

The good news is it’s not necessary to be on every social messaging app. Instead, think about what your specific target market uses most and focus your attention there. But it’s good practice for social media marketers to understand the full landscape of options, so here’s a breakdown of the nine most popular social messaging apps for 2023.


WhatsApp is the most-used social messaging app in the world, with more than 2 billion global users. It’s a great way to reach a huge swath of people and use conversation to deliver personal experiences—hopefully speeding up the buyer journey along the way.

With WhatsApp, you can use chatbots to answer customer FAQs, set up automated push notifications, or respond personally to questions to create an intimate shopping experience.

WhatsApp may be the most popular app in the world, but it does have a smaller reach in certain regions. Before you go all-in on a WhatsApp experience, make sure it’s a good fit for your own customer base. Check out some fascinating stats about WhatsApp here.


Messenger has a huge reach in the U.S. and Canada, so if the North American market is important to your business, Messenger may be the best social messaging app for you. (Though that’s not to say global brands can’t benefit: over 1.3 billion users around use Messenger to stay connected with friends and family — and businesses.)

Messenger can be set up with conversational chatbots. Facebook’s Shopping feature can be integrated into Messenger too, allowing users to complete a purchase directly in the chat.

Another cool feature of Messenger is that your response time is showcased right on your Facebook Business page, so consumers know exactly what level of customer service to expect. Explore Facebook Messenger stats here.


WeChat is the super-star of China’s app world. It has more than one billion users and is used by 78% of 16 to 64-year-olds in the country. It features thousands and thousands of add-on programs and features within it. The company has tried to launch the platform outside of China but hasn’t got much traction.

If China is a big part of your target market, WeChat is a must for your business.

WeChat is also used as a payment tool, making it a natural fit for conversational commerce. Businesses can market on WeChat either by requesting an Official Account or partnering with third parties.

If you have an Official Account, you can create content on WeChat and directly interact with and sell to your followers and customers.

Over 100 countries (including Canada) can now apply for an Official Account, even if they don’t hold a Chinese Business License.

Learn more about using WeChat for business here.


QQ is another messaging app primarily used in China, though it almost seems tiny compared to WeChat, with a mere 574 million users. (The two are owned by the same parent company, Tencent.)

It’s more popular with a younger demographic, so if Gen Z is of interest to your brand, this may be a social messaging tool to explore. QQ also features games and blog services.


As of 2023, Snapchat is still one of the top 15 most-used social media platforms in the world. Though most famous for its disappearing videos and photos, U.S. businesses can use Snap as a text-based chat tool as well… and one that will connect you directly to a prime audience of Gen Z shoppers.

Snapchatters can swipe up on a story to visit a business’s website or download an app, or they can also swipe up to call or text the business from their mobile device.

Users are 60% more likely to make an impulse purchase on this platform, so this seems like a pretty great spot to have a conversation. Snap’s new desktop feature makes it possible to manage your chats from your computer, not just your phone.

New to Snapchat? Dive into our Snapchat beginners’ guide here.

Google Business Messaging

Google My Business Messaging is a free messenger tool that helps customers get in touch with you in real-time, straight from your Google Business Profile listing.

The pro? Potential customers can chat with you right from your Google Maps or Google Search listing. The cons? This isn’t a tool they’re necessarily using to contact their family and friends, so the usage isn’t exactly as familiar and comfortable as using a more common app.

Still, it probably can’t hurt to set up Google My Business Messaging. Messages can come right to your phone or desktop so you can easily respond to queries wherever you are.

More on setting up your Google Business Profile here.

Instagram DMs

Instagram is a photo- and video-sharing app on the surface, but it’s also emerged as an extremely popular chat tool, too. Businesses that have a presence on this app — which, by the way, boasts 1.22 billion global users — are likely going to have more than a few followers sliding into their DMs. So you may as well prepare a customer service strategy for dealing with them.

Forty-four percent of Instagram users shop on the app weekly, so that’s a great reason to want to make yourself available for chit-chat. Instagram also has helpful quick-reply tools that make it simple to address frequently asked questions.

Messages on Instagram can be text-based or photos and videos (which can include effects and captions).

For brands and creators, sending direct messages can be a good way to build personal relationships with followers, reach out to potential partners, or provide support to customers with questions or feedback.


Line is a popular social messaging app in Japan (92 million users live there, out of a total of 178 million worldwide), that also offers far more than just a chat function. With the app, you can send money to friends, shop online, stream music, or order a taxi — a super-app, much like China’s WeChat.

Line features a timeline and homepage, similar to Facebook or Instagram, allowing users to follow the posts of their friends and brands. “Official Channels” are where companies can share updates with followers.

Line users can create group chats with up to 500 people and also create bulletin boards for discussion, making it a great app for brands to connect with relevant communities and fandoms.

One of Line’s most unique features is the popularity of stickers. Digital illustrations are often sent back and forth via chat and happen to be a huge revenue stream for Line. Brands interested in being on Line might want to consider releasing their own sticker pack, or at least learning how users frequently put gifs stickers to use.


There are 70 million interactions on Viber every hour and users in 190-plus countries. So if you haven’t heard of Viber yet, it might be time to listen up.

Viber also allows businesses to segment existing and prospective customers to be more specific with messaging. Purchases can be made directly on Viber as well.

Why use social messaging apps for your business?

Okay, you know what a social messaging app is. You know which social messaging apps are pop-u-lar. But if you’re going to commit to using social messaging apps for your business, you probably want to know the why.

We gotchu: here are the reasons your brand may want to embrace social messaging.

Customers are already on these social messaging apps

If you want to have a conversation with someone, you need to be where they are. You can’t chat up that cutie at the cocktail party if she’s hanging in the kitchen and you’ve gotten yourself trapped in the ensuite (again), right?

A predicted 3.51 billion people worldwide will be using messaging apps in 2025 — WhatsApp alone already has more than two billion of those active users.

Social messaging apps are what everyday people are using to message their friends and families. Why not make their lives a little easier and be available there, too?

It’s a speedy way to offer service

Ninety percent of consumers say that speedy resolution is the most important thing in a positive customer service experience. But if you’re understaffed or overwhelmed by messages, it may actually be a struggle to keep up with the speed social media users expect from chat apps — because those messages are coming in fast and furious. For instance, on Facebook Messenger, 20 billion messages are exchanged between customers and businesses every single month.

Tech like conversational chatbots can step in to fill that gap and field common questions, so you can save the (hu)man power for tackling more intricate customer service issues. More about the benefits of chatbots here.

Tap into the power of conversational commerce

Having an actual conversation with someone is a classic IRL sales tool — ‘conversational commerce’ is the digital equivalent.

Conversational commerce refers to the sweet spot between shopping and messaging apps. Consumers can use social messaging tools to get recommendations, ask questions, get support, and chat with company reps.

They might be messaging with a real human being or a conversational AI chatbot, but either way, it’s a new way of shopping that’s extremely lucrative for businesses. Global spending via conversational commerce channels is predicted to reach $290 billion in the next two years.

If your brand wants a piece of that pie, it’s time to enter the chat.

Connect with customers — and critics — one on one

Running a business with an online presence means that you have a potentially global reach… which also can make it tricky to have a personal conversation in the same way you could in a brick-and-mortar shop or even over the phone.

The rise of social messaging apps has given brands a direct line to every single far-flung follower.

This offers an amazing opportunity to build intimacy and loyalty with special customers, brand ambassadors, or potential partners… and a chance to connect directly with your critics to diffuse tense situations outside of the public eye.

If you’re facing a social media crisis or have an upset customer blasting all your posts, social messaging tools can help you reach out directly in hopes of turning a tantrum into a conversation.

An app for all your social media messages in one place

Okay, you’ve digested all this delicious information, and you’re ready to dive into using social messaging apps for your brand.

Pro tip: Juggling multiple conversations across multiple platforms managed by multiple people and teams is hard. You’re going to want a unified social inbox to keep everything neat, tidy, and easy.

And, if we may be so bold, we know that Hootsuite Inbox is just the tool for the job.

With Hootsuite Inbox, you can bridge the gap between social media engagement and customer service — and manage all of your social media messages in one place. This includes:

Private messages and DMs

Public messages and posts on your profiles


Emoji reactions

… and more.

The all-in-one agent workspace makes it easy to 

Track the history of any individual’s interactions with your brand on social media (across your accounts and platforms), giving your team the context needed to personalize replies

Add notes to customers’ profiles (Inbox integrates with Salesforce and Microsoft Dynamics)

Handle messages as a team, with intuitive message queues, task assignments, statuses, and filters

Track response times and CSAT metrics

Book a free demo

Plus, Inbox comes with handy automations:

Automated message routing

Auto-responses and saved replies

Automatically triggered customer satisfaction surveys

AI-powered chatbot features

In other words: it’s a universal inbox that compiles all your public and private messages to make sure you never miss a thing. Try out a free 30-day trial here and see for yourself, or learn more about Hootsuite Inbox here.

FAQs about popular messaging apps What is the most widely used messaging app?

WhatsApp is the most popular global messenger app. In January 2023, WhatsApp had 2 billion monthly active users. WeChat is in distant second place, with just 1.2 billion monthly active users; Facebook Messenger rolls in to snag third place with 988 million.

Source: Statista

Which is the No. 1 chatting app?

WhatsApp is the number one most popular chatting app in the world, according to Statista research. With 2 billion monthly active users, it’s the most-used social messaging app across the globe.

That being said, different regions of the world tend to prefer different apps. For instance, in China, WeChat dominates the market, while the social messaging tool LINE is popular in countries like Japan and Taiwan.

What do Americans use instead of WhatsApp?

Facebook Messenger is the most-used social messaging app in the U.S., with 52% of the messaging app market share. WhatsApp is the second-most popular social messaging app in the country, used by 26% of American chatters.

Source: Statista

Which messaging app is used in Canada?

The most popular messaging app in Canada is Facebook Messenger. Seven out of 10 Canadians use Facebook itself, and 62% of those users are also on the Messenger app.

Find more global statistics about Facebook Messenger here.

Manage all your messages stress-free with easy routing, saved replies, and friendly chatbots. Try Hootsuite’s Inbox today.

Get a Free Demo

Save time on social messaging with automated responses, smarter workflows, and friendly chatbots — all in the Hootsuite Inbox.

Understanding Popular Smartphone Display Technology

Nokia Clear Black Display

TFT LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display)

It is a variant of LCD using thin film transistors. TFT LCD Is an Active Matrix LCD, which means every pixel, is attached to a transistor or capacitor, which in turn actively maintains the state of the pixel. The pixels, which are smallest controllable elements of a picture, are arranged in a two dimensional grid. Today all LCD displays are TFT LCD displays. These are most common type of cell phone displays and are often referred to as LCD displays only. Merely knowing that the display type is LCD doesn’t tell you anything about its quality. You can find wide range in quality when it comes to LCD displays. Cheap ones have poor resolution, dull colors and poor viewing angles (for clear visibility you have to be positioned exactly in front of them). Expensive LCD displays will give you high resolution images with extremely wide viewing angles. All LCD require a light source, whose light is reflected by the pixels thus they are thicker than AMOLED screens.

Basic Construction of LCD [VIDEO]

as shown in the video Light can only pass through filters when the molecules of liquid twist by 90 degree or perpendicular to the plane and thus align light waves so as to allow them to pass through the polarizing filter. This switching of Liquid crystal forms the basis of difference between Conventional Twisted Nematic (TN) TFT LCD and IPS LCD.


Apart from these there are many other LCD Derived screen technology being used these days like LG’S NOVA used in Optimus Black which offers much brighter colors at lower power consumption rate.

Retina Display

AMOLED (Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) Diplay

AMOLED is a display technology where display type is OLED and the technology used for addressing pixels in active matrix. These displays are being used by many manufacturers in their flagship devices including Samsung and are significantly sleeker than LCD displays. This technology has now evolved for use in low power, low cost, big size (up to 40 inch) displays. Unlike LCD display this type of display doesn’t require back light and is thus thinner than LCD.

The power consumed in AMOLED display is dependent on what is shown on the screen. it will consume more power when black text is shown on white screen as compared to when white text is shown of black screen. Whereas, LCD displays have constant power consumption rate. This also means black screen will use very low electricity and you will get darker blacks instead of dark grey in various LCD and you will save substantial power if you keep your background color closer to black.

Samsung addressed this problem by using the traditional RGB display in Super AMOLED Plus technology in Samsung Galaxy S2 but reverted back to pentile display with Samsung Galaxy S3(Super AMOLED HD). Samsung claimed that using pentile display didn’t save it any manufacturing cost and the reason for using it was to obtain higher resolution. It also claimed that this display was much more durable.

Super AMOLED HD displays have a resolution of 720 x 1280 Display. It also uses a different algorithm to further reduce the effect of pentile display. Samsung has designed these displays to appear similar to RGB displays when applied at high resolution format.



How To Protect Yourself Against Gameover Zeus And Other Botnets

The U.S. Department of Justice announced today that the Gameover Zeus (GOZ) botnet has been taken down in an effort dubbed “Operation Tovar.” The action was the result of a multinational effort between government agencies, law enforcement, and private companies to shut down the massive botnet responsible for more than $100 million in losses for victims. The cooperation necessary to take down the botnet is impressive, but there will be more, and it’s important for individuals to understand how to avoid falling victim to these threats.

CrowdStrike is one of the private companies that was heavily involved in Operation Tovar, and it worked with the United Kingdom’s National Crime Agency, the FBI, Europol, global law enforcement, and other players in the private sector. Adam Meyers, VP of intelligence at CrowdStrike, described the results of Operation Tovar. “Over 500,000 infected machines were effectively disconnected from criminal control,” he said. “The actors behind GOZ and Cryptolocker, which were both impacted by the recent actions, have done significant damage against unsuspecting victims.”

The U.S. Department of Justice announced that “Operation Tovar” has taken down the Gameover Zeus botnet. 

Dwayne Melancon, CTO of Tripwire, praised Operation Tovar. “I think this is an excellent opportunity to make progress against a huge Internet threat,” he said. “Taking out the command-and-control servers of a botnet is a monumental task, and this effort will make a significant difference and at least allow us to regain a foothold.”

Melancon also cautioned, however, that botnets are extremely resilient, and he believes it won’t be long before a new command-and-control structure fills the void. Even if it’s not this botnet, there will be other botnets, so the question really is, “How can users avoid getting compromised by a botnet?”

“Consumers and businesses should use the free tools, Microsoft is a good place to start, to see if they have botnet malware on their systems,” said Lamar Bailey, director of security research for Tripwire. “If they do, they should remove it as soon as possible and apply all patches necessary to protect against reinfection.” 

Bailey also recommends that users patch their operating systems and applications on a regular basis to guard against malware like Cryptolocker and run vulnerability detection scans to identify holes that could be exploited by attackers.

Block email attachments containing executable files or ZIP files with executable files like EXE and SCR.

Use vulnerability mitigation software to make up for unpatched software and avoid getting hit by exploit kits. The Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) has a proven track record of protecting from attacks—including rare zero-days—before software patches are even available. Also, EMET can be managed in corporate environments using Group Policies.

Install antivirus software. Although not perfect, antivirus software can still catch a large percentage of malware and reduce noise. Free antivirus software such as Microsoft Security Essentials or AVG Free are just as good as commercial offerings, so don’t feel like you have to pay money to get a good product.

For organizations with security staff, I recommend learning how to do manual analysis so incidents can be fully investigated to uncover what the existing security tools don’t reveal. Being unaware that passwords have been stolen can result in dire consequences such as wire fraud or data theft as we saw in the recent eBay incident where attackers used employee credentials to login and make their way to the database.

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