Trending December 2023 # Procedure And Selection Of Underlying Fabric # Suggested January 2024 # Top 17 Popular

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Have you ever discovered a fabric that had the ideal colour but was too thin or flimsy for the item you were trying to make? Do you steer clear of certain pastel or white fabrics because you are aware that the seams will be visible on the right side? Well, these are only two of the many common sewing issues that underlining can quickly fix. Underlining is one of the main distinctions between couture and normal garment construction. Underlining transforms any handcrafted item of clothing into a designer-quality item and gives couture apparel its superior overall appearance.

The challenging part of your project will be over once you’ve experimented with different fabrics and discovered the ideal underlining cloth. First, preshrink both textiles completely before applying the underlining to your fashion cloth. Trim the underlining along the indicated hemline after cutting both the fabric and underlining from the identical pattern pieces. Pin the underlining to the fashion fabric; make adjustments for turn of cloth (fashion fabric thickness) along the lengthwise edges; hand-baste the pieces together (machine basting causes the fabric to draw up slightly, creating puckers in the finished garment’s seams; and the method of using dots of glue in the seam allowance to attach the underlining to the fashion fabric is quicker but stiffens seam allowances); and baste the darts at their centres to keep them from moving while sewing.

When sewing the garment, treat the pieces as one cloth after they have been basted together. To hide hand stitching and reduce transparency, underline. Stretch lace is given a modesty boost by the tricot bathing suit inside fabric (left). Hand stitching at the hemlines of soft cashmere or camel’s wool is concealed by cotton batiste (right). Without the underlining to stitch into, the fragile cashmere fibres would snap at the hem from the weight of the fabric. Underlining naturally adds more steps to the garment-making process, but the minor time investment pays off handsomely by allowing you to use more of your preferred materials.

Basic Requirements

The basic materials required for underlining are thread, pattern pieces, fashion fabric, underlining fabric, pins, and scissors.

Choosing the Best Fabric for Underlining

The underlining is chosen based on the following five factors: What exactly are you sewing? Does it fit the fabric’s weight that you have? Is it lighter or the same? (Preferably lighter or the same weight.) What impact do you hope to have? Are the fabric’s quality and stretch compatible or not? Do the care instructions for the outside fabric and the fabric used for the underlining or interlining match up? You can use an interlining to give your garment the necessary strength if you wish to sew a really closely fitted outfit from a thin fabric, like chiffon or thin polyester. A woollen garment, however, might not require underlining.

Generally speaking, underpinning materials ought to be lighter in weight and as soft as (or even softer than) the fabric of the garment. On the other hand, the quantity of support, the kind of structure, and the required drape determine the type of underlining to use. To avoid any stretching and to maintain the structure and shape of the garment, a tightly woven fabric is ideal. Pick a hue that complements the clothing’s fabric. It will show through if the fabric is either too light or too dark. Drape the chosen fabric and the fashion fabric over your hand to see if your choice is appropriate. Examine how they interact with one another to ensure that the underlining does not overpower the fabric of the garment and produces the desired drape and appearance.

Although a wide range of other fabrics can be used for this couture method, cotton batiste, silk organza, and light- to medium-weight cotton broadcloth are the most frequently used textiles for underlining. Underlining can be made from materials as basic or affordable as muslin or even thin fusible interfacing. Everything depends on the particular project you’re working on and the fabric you’re using.

Procedure for Underlining

It includes

Cut out the pattern pieces for your clothing as usual. Don’t mark the clothing fabric in any way.

Cut the identical pieces from the lining fabric.

Write the underlining with all the necessary markings.

To make the transferred markings visible, sew each underlining piece to the reverse side of each fashion fabric pattern piece. Verify the alignment of all the edges.

Along the grainline, securely pin the two pieces together in the middle of the joint.

To attach the underlining to the clothing fabric, hand-baste the two pieces together along the grainline. These will be taken down later. Take away the pins.

Each piece should have the underlining manually affixed to the fashion cloth within the seam allowances.

The regular garment construction process can now begin! Your project will result in clothing that appears to be high-end.


In conclusion, underlining makes finishing, stitching, and marking easier. To avoid over handling, the garment fabric, construction markings are applied to the underpinning fabric rather than the fashion fabric. As a result, the markings can be made more obvious, helping with a garment’s general design and fit. When sewing, the underlining serves as a holding surface for stitches that would otherwise be hidden on the right side of the garment or fastened to the fashion fabric.

Since underlining is essentially “fused” to each pattern piece, facings and hems can be attached to the underlining rather than the fashion fabric, resulting in no stitching visible on the garment’s right side. Just keep in mind that underlining differs from lining and interfacing. In actuality, they differ greatly. While lining serves only to conceal the interior of a garment that hangs separately from it, interfacing is utilised to lend rigidity and structure to certain areas of a garment.

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Feature Selection Techniques In Machine Learning (Updated 2023)


As a data scientist working with Python, it’s crucial to understand the importance of feature selection when building a machine learning model. In real-life data science problems, it’s almost rare that all the variables in the dataset are useful for building a model. Adding redundant variables reduces the model’s generalization capability and may also reduce the overall accuracy of a classifier. Furthermore, adding more variables to a model increases the overall complexity of the model.

As per the Law of Parsimony of ‘Occam’s Razor’, the best explanation of a problem is that which involves the fewest possible assumptions. Thus, feature selection becomes an indispensable part of building machine learning models.

Learning Objectives:

Understanding the importance of feature selection.

Familiarizing with different feature selection techniques.

Applying feature selection techniques in practice and evaluating performance.

Table of Contents What Is Feature Selection in Machine Learning?

The goal of feature selection techniques in machine learning is to find the best set of features that allows one to build optimized models of studied phenomena.

The techniques for feature selection in machine learning can be broadly classified into the following categories:

Supervised Techniques: These techniques can be used for labeled data and to identify the relevant features for increasing the efficiency of supervised models like classification and regression. For Example- linear regression, decision tree, SVM, etc.

Unsupervised Techniques: These techniques can be used for unlabeled data. For Example- K-Means Clustering, Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Clustering, etc.

From a taxonomic point of view, these techniques are classified into filter, wrapper, embedded, and hybrid methods.

Now, let’s discuss some of these popular machine learning feature selection methods in detail.

Types of Feature Selection Methods in ML Filter Methods

Filter methods pick up the intrinsic properties of the features measured via univariate statistics instead of cross-validation performance. These methods are faster and less computationally expensive than wrapper methods. When dealing with high-dimensional data, it is computationally cheaper to use filter methods.

Let’s, discuss some of these techniques:

Information Gain

Information gain calculates the reduction in entropy from the transformation of a dataset. It can be used for feature selection by evaluating the Information gain of each variable in the context of the target variable.

The Chi-square test is used for categorical features in a dataset. We calculate Chi-square between each feature and the target and select the desired number of features with the best Chi-square scores. In order to correctly apply the chi-squared to test the relation between various features in the dataset and the target variable, the following conditions have to be met: the variables have to be categorical, sampled independently, and values should have an expected frequency greater than 5.

Fisher score is one of the most widely used supervised feature selection methods. The algorithm we will use returns the ranks of the variables based on the fisher’s score in descending order. We can then select the variables as per the case.

Correlation is a measure of the linear relationship between 2 or more variables. Through correlation, we can predict one variable from the other. The logic behind using correlation for feature selection is that good variables correlate highly with the target. Furthermore, variables should be correlated with the target but uncorrelated among themselves.

If two variables are correlated, we can predict one from the other. Therefore, if two features are correlated, the model only needs one, as the second does not add additional information. We will use the Pearson Correlation here.

We need to set an absolute value, say 0.5, as the threshold for selecting the variables. If we find that the predictor variables are correlated, we can drop the variable with a lower correlation coefficient value than the target variable. We can also compute multiple correlation coefficients to check whether more than two variables correlate. This phenomenon is known as multicollinearity.

Variance Threshold

The variance threshold is a simple baseline approach to feature selection. It removes all features whose variance doesn’t meet some threshold. By default, it removes all zero-variance features, i.e., features with the same value in all samples. We assume that features with a higher variance may contain more useful information, but note that we are not taking the relationship between feature variables or feature and target variables into account, which is one of the drawbacks of filter methods.

The get_support returns a Boolean vector where True means the variable does not have zero variance.

Mean Absolute Difference (MAD)

‘The mean absolute difference (MAD) computes the absolute difference from the mean value. The main difference between the variance and MAD measures is the absence of the square in the latter. The MAD, like the variance, is also a scaled variant.’ [1] This means that the higher the MAD, the higher the discriminatory power.

‘Another measure of dispersion applies the arithmetic mean (AM) and the geometric mean (GM). For a given (positive) feature Xi on n patterns, the AM and GM are given by

respectively; since AMi ≥ GMi, with equality holding if and only if Xi1 = Xi2 = …. = Xin, then the ratio

Wrapper Methods

Wrappers require some method to search the space of all possible subsets of features, assessing their quality by learning and evaluating a classifier with that feature subset. The feature selection process is based on a specific machine learning algorithm we are trying to fit on a given dataset. It follows a greedy search approach by evaluating all the possible combinations of features against the evaluation criterion. The wrapper methods usually result in better predictive accuracy than filter methods.

Let’s, discuss some of these techniques:

Forward Feature Selection

This is an iterative method wherein we start with the performing features against the target features. Next, we select another variable that gives the best performance in combination with the first selected variable. This process continues until the preset criterion is achieved.

This method works exactly opposite to the Forward Feature Selection method. Here, we start with all the features available and build a model. Next, we the variable from the model, which gives the best evaluation measure value. This process is continued until the preset criterion is achieved.

This method, along with the one discussed above, is also known as the Sequential Feature Selection method.

Exhaustive Feature Selection

This is the most robust feature selection method covered so far. This is a brute-force evaluation of each feature subset. This means it tries every possible combination of the variables and returns the best-performing subset.

Embedded Methods

These methods encompass the benefits of both the wrapper and filter methods by including interactions of features but also maintaining reasonable computational costs. Embedded methods are iterative in the sense that takes care of each iteration of the model training process and carefully extract those features which contribute the most to the training for a particular iteration.

Let’s discuss some of these techniques here:

LASSO Regularization (L1)

Regularization consists of adding a penalty to the different parameters of the machine learning model to reduce the freedom of the model, i.e., to avoid over-fitting. In linear model regularization, the penalty is applied over the coefficients that multiply each predictor. From the different types of regularization, Lasso or L1 has the property that can shrink some of the coefficients to zero. Therefore, that feature can be removed from the model.

Random Forests is a kind of Bagging Algorithm that aggregates a specified number of decision trees. The tree-based strategies used by random forests naturally rank by how well they improve the purity of the node, or in other words, a decrease in the impurity (Gini impurity) over all trees. Nodes with the greatest decrease in impurity happen at the start of the trees, while notes with the least decrease in impurity occur at the end of the trees. Thus, by pruning trees below a particular node, we can create a subset of the most important features.


We have discussed a few techniques for feature selection. We have purposely left the feature extraction techniques like Principal Component Analysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Linear Discriminant Analysis, etc. These methods help to reduce the dimensionality of the data or reduce the number of variables while preserving the variance of the data.

Apart from the methods discussed above, there are many other feature selection methods. There are hybrid methods, too, that use both filtering and wrapping techniques. If you wish to explore more about feature selection techniques, great comprehensive reading material, in my opinion, would be ‘Feature Selection for Data and Pattern Recognition’ by Urszula Stańczyk and Lakhmi C. Jain.

Key Takeaways

Understanding the importance of feature selection and feature engineering in building a machine learning model.

Familiarizing with different feature selection techniques, including supervised techniques (Information Gain, Chi-square Test, Fisher’s Score, Correlation Coefficient), unsupervised techniques (Variance Threshold, Mean Absolute Difference, Dispersion Ratio), and their classifications (Filter methods, Wrapper methods, Embedded methods, Hybrid methods).

Evaluating the performance of feature selection techniques in practice through implementation.

Frequently Asked Questions Related

Top 10 Pim Software Vendors In 2023 & Selection Criteria

There are various benefits to expanding your brand and product lines, And as companies realize these benefits, they continue to offer more1. However, there are always two sides to every story; while some product line expansions are steady and healthy, others can be aggressive and damaging to the business if not well managed2. Poor product information management (PIM) is also why product expansion strategies fail for many businesses3.

PIM software can help overcome such problems by making the process more efficient; however, picking the right tool is the first step towards such benefits. Since this process can be overwhelming, we recommend getting a clear view of the PIM software landscape before making any decisions.

This article explores the PIM software landscape by presenting data-driven criteria for selecting the right product information management solution and comparing the top 10 vendors on the market. 

What are the must-haves and nice-to-haves in a PIM solution?

Once you have done the groundwork required to integrate PIM software into your processes, which includes:

Getting everybody on board, 

Getting your data governance team involved,

Cleaning up and digitizing your existing product data,

You are ready to explore the PIM software options. 


Consider the following factors while shopping for a PIM tool.

1. Who will be using the PIM solution?

One of the first things you need to consider is who will be using the PIM software; the answer to this can help you decide on the features that will be required.

The number of users: First, you need to look for how many users will be using the tool. This is important because some PIM systems charge by the number of users, while others charge by the SKU. Also, consider if you will be adding users to the package in the future.

Types of users: Since everyone will use the software differently, they might need different role-based permissions. You can look for role-based access rights that can ensure data security and quality while evaluating the solutions.

User skillset: Based on your employees’ level of digital dexterity and the amount of further training required, you can choose the PIM  tool’s complexity level. 

2. What PIM functionalities will be required from the solutions?

Another factor that requires attention is the data functionalities needed for the tool.

Data onboarding: Most data fed into a PIM system comes from suppliers or vendors; therefore, it is important that the PIM software has automated data onboarding features (regulatory processes) and a central repository.

Data quality control: We have discussed how preprocessing data is important before feeding it into any PIM system. However, discrepancies can still occur after the data is fed; therefore, having built-in correction capabilities are also necessary for a good PIM tool.

Flexible and configurable: The needs for a PIM vary from organization to organization, and the finest PIM systems can adapt to meet both your business’s present and future needs. Data management is improved, and product catalogs and launches are made simpler with a PIM that lets you configure your product layouts into grids, trees, or hierarchies. Consider the level of customization offered by the tool.

Digital asset management: As unstructured data becomes more popular, often the data being managed in a PIM software is heavy and rich in nature (images, videos, audio clips, etc.) and requires digital asset management or DAM capabilities. Therefore, having a PIM tool with DAM capabilities can be beneficial.

Other integrations: PIMs can not operate in isolation. A PIM tool should ideally act as a central hub for product data, gathering information from and distributing it to a range of interconnected sources and systems, including ERP, CRM, logistics, accounting, and invoicing systems, among others. Choose a PIM with connectors that can sync with external applications and databases after taking into account the systems your PIM needs to communicate with.

Multiple language support:

3. What data distribution challenges will the PIM software tackle?

Every business has a different structure with challenges related to sharing and distributing data between other departments. To ensure those issues are tackled by the PIM tool, consider the following factors:

Maintenance is one of the most important factors when selecting a PIM tool. Here is why:

Maintenance costs: Bug fixes, upgrades, and support services will most likely be included in the regular maintenance process of your PIM. Think about the cost of upgrades; large-scale software will cost more to upgrade but can provide greater feature customization. Support levels might range from a self-help manual to a round-the-clock call center facility. 

Select a tool with significant support for your solution’s setup and maintenance if your business is new to PIM practices.

Scalability and pricing: While some vendors charge based on the SKU with the option of adding more users without paying anything in the future, others charge more and provide unlimited SKUs. Some vendors also offer a range of price plans with the option of adding or removing features in the future. 

Select the best pricing and scalability strategy based on the size and type of your business and your projected future growth.

Training offered by vendor: Some solutions can be difficult to use or might require additional skills. In such cases, you need to check if the vendor offers any training for your employees.

Which Vendors offer PIM solutions?

This section highlights the top 10 product information management or PIM software vendors on the market.


We will not be regularly updating the table above (Figure 1); however, you can check our data-driven and regularly updated list of product information management (PIM) software vendors to find the best option for your business.

The checklist has been created based on vendor claims.

The software vendor list is sorted based on number of employees

Table 1. PIM vendor checklist of specific features Table description

Our analysis identified that most vendors offer the following features:

Integration: All vendors offered integration capability with other systems, such as ERP, using connectors and APIs.

Scalability: All vendors offered scalable solutions. However, Censhare PIM offers modular solutions with a pay-per-module system.

Free trial/versions: Our analysis identified that While most vendors offer free trials or demos, only a few (Plytix PIM, Akeneo PIM) offer free versions.

Automation: We identified that all vendors offered automated workflows.

Digital asset management: All companies offered digital asset management (DAM) services, either as a built-in feature in the PIM tool or as an add-on feature.

Further reading

If you still need help finding a vendor or have any questions, feel free to contact us:


Shehmir Javaid

Shehmir Javaid is an industry analyst at AIMultiple. He has a background in logistics and supply chain management research and loves learning about innovative technology and sustainability. He completed his MSc in logistics and operations management from Cardiff University UK and Bachelor’s in international business administration From Cardiff Metropolitan University UK.





How To Delete A Selection In Photoshop – Brendan Williams Creative

Deleting the contents of a selection in Photoshop is basically a necessity these days. Whether you’re replacing a sky, making a meme, or creating new marketing materials, every savvy internet user will need to learn how to select a background and delete it eventually. Luckily, It’s pretty easy to do! 

These are the two options you have when deleting the contents of a selection in Photoshop, but there are some important steps to make this process even easier. So let’s get into how to delete the contents of a selection more in-depth, remove backgrounds, deselect selections, and more.

How to Delete A Selections Contents in Photoshop

In this example, I will remove the black background from this rose. First, you will learn how to select the rose itself, and then you will learn two different ways to remove the background of the image.

Step 1: Selecting The Object

In the toolbar to the left of your screen, select the Object Selection Tool (W) . If you don’t see the Object Selection Tool, select and hold the Magic Wand Tool or Quick Selection Tool to reveal it.

Before we select the rose, let’s go over some of the settings.

Don’t let all these options overwhelm you! I will only cover the options that matter for this task.

Photoshop’s AI will automatically select the object in the foreground. This works best when there is a simple background.

You know your object has been selected when you see the “marching ants” moving around your selection. This is the one time ants are a good thing!

Step 2: Refine The Selection If Needed

The first thing you might notice is that the selection is not perfect. Photoshop’s AI is excellent, but you may have to adjust and tweak the selection a bit. For my rose, I need to add the leaf.

To correct this, I will select the Object Selection Tool (W) again.

In the Options Bar, select the Add to Selection option or hold down the Shift key to activate it.

This setting will allow you to expand your selection. Then open the Mode Menu and choose either Rectangle or Lasso.

Select the Lasso Option and draw around the part of the object that you want to add.

Now the selection includes what you just added and feels more complete.

Photoshop’s AI will also miss little spots here and there. For example:

With you’re Lasso Tool still selected, simply draw around the trouble spots.

Sometimes the AI will select something you don’t want in your final selection. Like this little awkward piece of the rose here.

With the Lasso Tool, draw around what you want to be subtracted from the selection, and viola!

I also don’t like this stem, so I will repeat the step above to remove it from the selection.

Once you’re done adding and subtracting, your selection is now complete.

Step 3: Delete the Background

There are two ways for you to delete the background. The destructive way and the non-destructive way.

This will select everything except the object you originally selected.

Then, simply hit the delete key to remove the background. You will know it worked when the background becomes a checkerboard pattern.

However, this is a destructive way that will destroy the pixels that were selected. Making it very hard to redefine your selection. That’s because the selected pixels are permanently removed and cannot be recovered unless you undo.

It may seem the same as the destructive way, but it’s not. The pixels that disappear are not destroyed but hidden. That’s because the selection is applied to a layer mask, therefore “hiding” the selected pixels rather than deleting them permanently. 

Step 4: Refine the Edges

If you look closely at the outline of the rose so far, you’ll notice that some of the black background is still showing on parts of the perimeter of the selection. Let’s touch that up now.

Then select the Brush Tool (B) and set your foreground color to black. Painting with black will hide pixels you don’t want to be shown. Painting with white will reveal the pixels that were hidden.

There’s no set brush size for this task; it all depends on the size of the project you’re working with. I’m going to choose a small-sized brush, and adjust it up and down as I need to using the [ or ] bracket keys.

The same thing goes with the settings of the brush itself. Don’t let the number of options overwhelm you. Just tweak each setting here or there and experiment while you are painting. Mainly focus on tweaking the Opacity, Flow, and Smoothing.

Adjust the opacity to bring the transparency of your brush strokes up or down

Adjust the flow to gradually build up the thickness of your overlapping strokes

Adjust the smoothing to create a smoother or rougher stroke

Take your time and paint over all the trouble spots. If you mess up, remember that you can bring pixels back by painting over them with white.

With those four steps, you have removed the background from your image, and you can now use your transparent background as you need. It may have taken longer than you thought this first time, but keep doing the process and you’ll be able to remove backgrounds in your sleep!

How To Delete The Outside Of A Selection In Photoshop

Sometimes you want to select something not to delete it, but to preserve it so you can delete everything else around it. Here’s how to select an object, invert the selection and hide the pixels you don’t want to be seen.

Step 1: Create A Selection

Let’s select these birds sitting on a bowl:

First, add a new layer with the New Layer Button.

Drag the New Layer below the original layer.

Now select the Object Selection Tool (W).

Step 2: Invert The Selection

Your subjects are now selected, but your job is not over yet. If you were to delete the pixels now, the birds would be deleted and not the background. It would look like this:

That’s not what we want. Instead, let’s invert the selection.

Step 3: Delete The Selection Contents

From here, there are two ways to delete this selection. The easiest way is to press the Delete Key while the image layer is selected. All the pixels selected will be destroyed in this case. The keyword here being “destroyed”, as you can’t bring those pixels back later.

Step 4: Touch Up The Layer Mask If Needed

Now the pixels are hidden with the mask instead of being permanently deleted. This is essential for when the selection isn’t quite perfect, as you can easily touch it up.

If you need to refine your mask, select the Brush Tool (B) and make sure the background color is white and your foreground color is black.

In this case, I will bring the brush size down to about the size of the bird’s leg since it was removed from the selection previously.

I’ll also ensure my brush opacity is set to 100%.

Now I’ll brush over where the leg should be with white set to my foreground color and the layer mask selected. Alternatively, you can set black to your foreground color to remove any unwanted parts of your selection from the mask. With your foreground and background color set to white and black, you can press X to quickly swap between them while painting.

In this case, the area around the birds beak was not removed. I can touch this up by painting black over this area with the image layer mask selected.

Before After

How To Delete A Selection

Deleting the contents of a selection is simple. However, there’s a step afterward that can be tricky for those new to Photoshop.

First, let’s select the Object Selection Tool (W).

To delete the contents, simply press the Delete Key.

Super simple stuff, right? The problem though is if you select any other tool or do basically anything else in Photoshop at this point, it will only affect the inside of your selection. You will need to deselect the selection.

The second is using the keyword shortcut Control + D (Win) or Command + D (Mac).

It may seem cumbersome at first, but deselecting will eventually become second nature and lead to a much smoother workflow. It’s important to do this after you’re finished with a selection so all your adjustment tools going forward will adjust the entire image, rather than the contents of the selection.

Show Cumulative Totals Unaffected By Date Slicer Selection In Power Bi

In this blog post, you’ll learn how to show data from specific time frames as filtered by a date slicer without affecting the overall Cumulative Totals. This is based on a query on the Enterprise DNA Members-Only Support Forum. For sure, you’ll find this quite useful when facing a scenario similar to the example that will be given below. You may watch the full video of this tutorial at the bottom of this blog.

I have answered this query in the support forum, but I want to show you how I was able to put it all together.

What this member wants to do is to show only the Cumulative Total for a specific time period without affecting any of the original results.

So let’s say the member only wants to show the totals for January, February and March.

We’re hoping that the Cumulative Total for those specific months will be shown while the Cumulative Total for the rest of the year remains on the visualization as well.

Of course, without the right logic, every time the date slicer is moved, the entire report page shifts as well. That’s the problem that I’m going to solve here.

To start off, I set up a similar scenario. As expected, everything in my visualization changed when I selected four months on my date slicer.

Since I only want to change a specific part of the visualization, I would need to create a brand new date table. This table is going to dictate the individual result that I need. I called the new table Filter Dates, which is an exact replica of the original Dates table.

I did not build any relationships between the new date table and the other core tables in the model. That’s because we’re only trying to filter a single result in this scenario.

Also, note that we don’t want all the other data to be affected by any changes to the date slicer. A relationship here would make our attempt ineffective.

To make sure I don’t confuse the new date table with the original one, I named this Filter MonthYear.

Now that there’s a new date table, I’m going to change the slicer on my report page. Again, this is the filter that has no connection to the rest of my model.

Note that you also have to set a Max Filtered Date in the particular selection that you’re making.

A Max Filtered Date makes the formula work. So if the Date you entered into the date slicer is less than or equal to the Max Filtered Date, you would get the Cumulative Total you’re looking for. If not, you get a BLANK.

When you look at the visualization, you’ll see that I now have an entire area here where there are no results. This reflects the data that turned out BLANK.

Now, we can retain the year’s totals from a budgeting perspective. But at the same time, we can also manipulate the time frame that we want in our individual results.

Hopefully, you find some value in the technique I showed for similar scenarios you’ll be facing. Just remember that the key thing here is to solve all this right inside the model. Otherwise, you’ll create issues on other parts of your report pages.

Always look at the logic you’re adding into your formula. This way, you can pinpoint which part of your model you’re making an impact to. In this case, we’ve succeeded in making the Cumulative Totals dynamic based on the new date slicer we created.

All the best,


Uses Of Boron And Aluminium


Uses of Boron and Aluminium are mainly consists of applications in textile sector and in the preservation of wood. Boron is a very uncommon compound in this world because of the trace formation of stars and the big bang in the solar system. The Atomic number is five for boron in chemistry and the aluminium atomic number is thirteen.

Aluminium is available in igneous rocks as micas, feldspars and feldspathoids in form of aluminosilicate. The hydrate aluminium oxide is the primary element of bauxite from there aluminium is mainly formed. Boron is commonly found in nature as a form of boric acid and boric acid.

What is Boron?

Boron is a black colour element that is a lustrous metalloid, crystalline in nature. The compound’s chemical symbol is B and five is the atomic number of this element. The compound can alter its colour from black to brown at the time it was amorphous in the state.

The element has five protons and amount of neutrons is six and the number of electrons amount is five. Valence shells need some electrons and it also helps to create a covalent bond. The borax in mineral form, boron carbide and boric acid is formed from the reaction.

Boron: Structure

Boron consists of protons in the amount of five and all are charged positively. The neutrons quantity is six and they formed the nucleus of the compound. The elements of the electrons are surrounding around the cells and are available in the shells of electrons.

Figure 1: Atomic structure of Boron

The properties of the compound that are chemical and physical are stable for the electrons. The element can be found in the periodic table’s second number and the chemical group number is thirteen. The compound is available in block number P in the periodic table.

Boron: Properties

The chemical and physical properties are discussed below in detail.

The point of boiling of the element is 4275K and the element’s melting point is 2365K.

The potential of ionisation is -8.298eV and 10.811u is the atomic mass of the element.

The electronegativity of the element is 2.04.

The element can make two stable isotopes and they are 11B(19.9%) and 10B(80.1%).

The element’s rate of oxidation depends on the crystallinity, purity, temperature and size of the particular element. The element reacts in the presence of air and temperature in a proper way for reaction. The element is burning itself in the presence of temperature and boron trioxide is the result of the reaction.

Hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid are highly reactive with the elements with the crystalline form of the element. The elements slowly react with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid in concentrated form.

Boron: Usage

The element is used in various forms like, borates, borazine, boric acid etc. The usage of the elements is described below −

The element is utilized to obstruct the reaction between nitrate as well as aluminium and also obstruct the formation process of amide.

The compound is used to make glasses and ceramics.

Perborate is made from the element that is used majorly as a detergent.

The elements are used for margarine and fish preservation.

The elements are used in the textile sector and it also used in the preservation of wood.

Definition of Aluminium

Figure 2: Atomic structure of Aluminium

SM358, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The element is quite silvery in colour and the chemical number of the element is thirteen. The element can be found in nature in various forms but not in metal form. The element can be found in animal bodies, rocks and many more. The chemical name of this element is AI and the element’s name comes from the Latin word. The word alumen represents another form and that is called aluminium potassium sulphate. The chemical formula of the element is $mathrm{KAl(SO_2)_{212}H_2O}4$ and potash alum is another name for this element.

Aluminium: Properties

The element is made from a sixteen-kilometre crust of the earth with a concentrated state and keeps 8% weight at the time of its formation. The two compounds like, silicon and oxygen are the two elements that are close to aluminium. The properties of the elements are described below −

The power of the atom in the element is 13 and the weight of the atom is 26.9815384

The point of boiling is 2467 degrees and 2.70 is the gravity of the element.

The valence of the element is 3 and the chemical name is aluminium.

Aluminium: Usage

The usage of the element is described below −

The elements are used to produce foil, coil, cans and other packing materials.

The element is used for preparing bodies of cars, spacecraft, aircraft, cycles and many more.

The elements are also used for making home appliances.

The making of alloy that is used for coins is also made of aluminium.

The element is also used for preparing paints, wires and reflective surfaces.


Boron and aluminium are the main discussable things in the above article. Boron is a very uncommon element and five is the chemical number of the element. Aluminium is commonly used for producing home appliances and various purposes of industry. Both elements have very high commercial values and both use hugely for preparing daily usage and industry-related products. The properties of both elements are discussed in detail in the above article. The structure and uses are also discussed in the above article.


Q1. What is the main usage of the Amorphous boron?

Ans. The Amorphous boron is commonly used in the production of rocket oil where it acts as an igniter. In addition, they can also be used in the generation of pyrotechnic flares as they can give flares of distinctive green colours.

Q2. How Trihalides is formed?

Ans. Trihalides is formed as the result of the halogenation procedure. The reaction involved in the formulation of Trihalides is

$$mathrm{2B + 3Br_2:rightarrow:2BBr_3}$$

Q3. What are the elements needed for making aluminium?

Ans. The element is made with the help of bauxite and aluminium oxide. The other process is to apply aluminium oxide with 50% amount and bauxite in high quality.

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