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Risk is the probability of occurrence of an undesirable event.
Risk Analysis in Software Engineering is the process of analyzing the risks associated with your Testing Project.
For the success of your project, Risk should be identified and corresponding solutions should be determined before the start of the project. Risk Identification in Software Engineering helps you to identify probable risks in the early stages.
In this tutorial, we will discover the first step in Test Management process: Risk Analysis and Solution with the help of a case study.
In this topic, we will discover the first step in Test Management process: Risk Analysis in Software Testing and Solution with the help of a case study.
The Guru99 Bank will have two roles
Following features/modules will be available to these two different roles
Here is a little tour of the website
After reading the requirements documents, you may have realized that the website has too many functional and complex scenarios.
Here is the situation –
The Guru99 banking website has already finished the development phase. Now it starts the Testing phase. Sadly, you were not involved early during the requirements phase
Your boss needs you finish the testing in one month only with a limited budget, but expects great quality.
A team member who is an experienced engineer, tells you
In such case, what should you do?
A) It seems to be a big problem. We need to deal with ASAP!!!
B) I don’t care. We need to start working right now.
The project is a mess and took all of your resources and time. The employee’s workload increased drastically & they feel stressed and overloaded
– Your project is delayed so you could not release product on the decided deadline as you promised to your boss. As your team member said, the schedule of this project is too tight compare to the current resource allocation.
The above example illustrates the importance of Risk analysis in Test Management.
Risk management helps you in –
The risk, which was mentioned in above example, is just one of many potential risks that may occur in your project. You should identify them and make the decision to deal with them ASAP!!! So, the correct action in that example is action A.
Hence, Risk Analysis in Testing is importantHow to Perform Risk ANALYSIS?
It’s a 3-Step process
Identify the Risks
Analyze Impact of each Identified Risk
Take counter measures for the identified & Analyzed riskStep 1) Identify Risk
Risk can be identified and classified into 2 types in software product
Project risk can be defined as an uncertain event or activity that can impact the project’s progress. The impact has a positive or negative effect on the prospects of achieving project objectives.
There are primarily 3 categories of Project Risks
It is a risk related to your human resource or your Testing team. For example, in your project, lack of technically skilled members is a risk. Not having enough manpower to complete the project on time is another risk.
To identify the Organizational Risk, you should make a list of few questions and answer them as self-exercise. Here are some recommended questions.
Your project doesn’t have any organization risk
Your project doesn’t have any organization risk
Your project doesn’t have any organization risk
If you answer all the above questions, you will easily identify the potential risks, which may affect to your project.Technical Risk
Technical Risk is the probability of loss incurred during the execution of a technical process such as untested engineering, wrong testing procedure…etc. Here is an example of technical risk
Your task in this project is testing a banking website. You have to set up proper test environments which mirror real business environments. If the Test Environment is not setup properly, the product will be not be tested correctly and many defects will not be detected.Business Risk
The risk involves an external entity. It is the risk which may come from your company, your customer but not from your project.
The following picture shows you an example of business risk.
In such case, the Test Manager has to find out the solutions to deal with the risk such as:
Set priority for the testing phases, focus on testing the main features of website
Utilize a testing tool to increase the productivity of testing
Apply process improvement to reduce the management effort.Product Risk
Product risk is the possibility that the system or software might fail to satisfy or fulfill the expectation of the customer, user, or stakeholder. This Risk in Test Plan is related to the functionality of the product such as Performance Issues, Security Issues, Crash Scenarios, etc.
Following are examples of a few product risks –
The software is unreliable and frequently fails to work.
Software fail in ways that cause financial or other damage to a user or the company that uses the software.
The software has problems related to a particular quality characteristic such as security, reliability, usability, maintainability or performance.
Now back to your project, is there any product risk in the Guru 99 Bank website? To answer this question, you should follow the following steps
Once you are done with above 3 steps, take a small quiz below to identify product risks
CorrectStep 2) Analyze the impact of the risk occurring
In the previous topic, we already identified the risks which may hamper your project. Here is the list of risks identified:
You may not have enough human resource to finish the project on the deadline
The Testing environment may not be setup properly like real business environment.
Your project budget may cut by half because of business situation
This website may lack security functions
Next, you should analyze these risks.
Each risk should be classified on the basis of following two parameters
The probability of occurrence
The impact on the project
Using the matrix below, you can categorize the risk into four categories as High, Medium, and Low or values 3,2, 1
Has very high probability to occur, may impact to the whole project
50% chance to occur
Low probability of occurrence
Cannot continue with project activity if it is not solved immediately
Cannot continue the project activity if it is not solved
Need to solve it but it is possible to take alternative solution for a while
Consider the following Risks
Priority = Probability* Impact
Project deadline not met
Based on the above priority you can take the Risk Mitigation in Testing or counter measures mentioned in below table
Risk Management Method
Take mitigation action immediately and monitor the risk every day until its status is closed.
Monitor the risk every week at internal progress meeting
Accept the risk and monitor the risk on milestone basis.
It’s now time for an exercise, we have 4 risks identified in the Guru99 Banking project. Classify them yourself
Risk High Medium Low Status
You may not have enough human resource to finish the project at the deadline
The testing environment may not be setup properly like real business environment
Your project budget may cut by half because of business situation
This website may lack security features
Incorrect.Step 3) Take COUNTERMEASURES to mitigate the risk
This activity is divided into 3 parts
The project manager needs to choose strategies that will reduce the risk to minimal. Project managers can choose between the following four risk response strategies
Back to the 4 risks identified earlier, we have to find the Risk and Mitigation in Testing or countermeasure to avoid or eliminate them.
B) The Testing environment may not be setup properly like real business environment
C) Your project budget may cut by half because of business situation
D) This website may lack security features
Select the talented and experienced member to join the Project Team
Create the training course to skill up the member, help them to improve the productivity
This risk could be avoided if you do the following activities
Ask the development team for their help to build up the test environment
Prepare all the equipment or materials (Server, database, PC..) needed for setting up environment
This risk is a critical; it may prevent the whole project from proceeding. In that case, you should do
Re-define the project scope, identify what will be tested and what will be ignored in such case
Negotiate with customer about the term of project to fit for the project budget
Improve the productivity of each project phase such as testing, making test specs,…If you can save time, you can save cost
This risk is considered as Medium priority, because it doesn’t affect to the whole project and could be avoided. You can request the development team to check and add these functions to the website.Register Risk
All the risk must be recorded, documented and acknowledged by project managers, stakeholder and the project member. The risk register should be freely accessible to all the members of the project team.
There’re some useful to register risk such as Redmine, MITRE… etc.Monitor and Control Risk
Risks can be monitored on a continuous basis to check if any changes are made. New risk can be identified through the constant monitoring and assessing mechanisms.
For better risk management, you can refer Risk Management template include in this article
You're reading Project Risk Analysis & Solutions In Software Testing
For a project-oriented organization, the success of a project is key to the company’s success. Completing the project with minimal resources, a skilled workforce, and the allotted budget are a few things that help a company achieve its organizational goals. And while schedule, cost, deadlines, resources, and budget are all crucial for success, the biggest and more important factor that can be the difference between the success and failure of a project is risk.
Every project, irrespective of its size and nature, carries some form of risk. It might vary depending on the type of project you are working on. The risk might also change based on how your project progresses. It’s important that you monitor the risk throughout the project lifecycle. Some risks bring new opportunities for the company, while others are a threat that might lead to negative consequences. Identifying the risks, evaluating them based on the potential consequences, and, most importantly, establishing the ways to mitigate those risks is important in ensuring the successful completion of different projects.What is Project Risk?
Risks are uncertainty. As mentioned above, you can only guess whether a certain risk has a positive or negative impact on your organization. This also allows you to better equip yourself with the tools needed to deal with risks when they crop up in the middle of the project. Remember, the risk affects one or more of your project objectives. You need to evaluate the risk beforehand to understand better whether it’s worth taking the risk or if you should just leave the part that has any chance of leading to negative consequences.
Usually, managers work with stakeholders and their teams to make a risk management plan. The first step in mitigating any kind of risk is developing a risk management plan. You need to document each step you should take to reduce the risk or deal with it as efficiently as possible. Risk management, basically, refers to the process of handling the risk such that your end result sare not affected. Simply put, risk management is the process of identifying, evaluating, and mitigating risks through a series of steps.Project Risk Management Steps
These six steps will help you plan risk management proactively so that when something uncertain occurs, you know how to handle that.Risk Identification
The first step in risk management is to identify potential risks that can have positive or negative consequences on your project outcome. Talking to your team and conducting regular meetings with stakeholders and supervisors will help you understand the risks that might occur.
For example, when you are working on a project with a tight deadline, there is a risk of delaying the delivery because of the national holidays. You can create a list of project risks based on previous projects. Work with your team to figure out all things that can go wrong or might affect your project’s outcome. It’s best to use your intuition to avoid missing out on anything.Risk Analysis
Risk analysis is pretty complex. You need to gather information about the project, evaluate the past project to get a better understanding of what may cause problems in executing the existing project, and work with your team at all steps.
Certain risks, like violating your state’s legal requirements or corporate laws, can result in the termination of the project and a hefty penalty. Even worse, these issues can shut your company down permanently. That’s why identification and analysis of such risks before starting a project are critical. You can use quantitative and qualitative risk analysis to determine the impact the risk has on your business.Prioritize Risks
Prioritizing risks requires gathering information about the level of impact a risk can have on your project or the organization as a whole. These steps involve risk classification as — low, medium, and high. It’s easier to decide on the actions you can take if these risks occur and the resources you are going to need to address them.
Some risks require immediate addressing, or they will impact the success of the project. Some risks might affect your work schedule but don’t necessarily pose a big threat to your project outcome. Some risks have no impact on your project’s success at all. While these are critical, you already have the resources and plan to deal with them. These can be categorized as low-priority risks.Assign Risks to Your Team
Once you have created the list of potential risks, assign them to your team. Each employee should be assigned a particular risk based on their area of specialization and their involvement in the project. This reduces the manager’s burden. You can have peace of mind knowing that when a risk occurs, your team will take care of it and address the problem the way you had planned. You can also create a team for risk management. This team will handle all sorts of risks in all projects.Creating a Risk Management Strategy
The next step is identifying whether the risk will have a positive or negative impact on the project outcome. Based on this, you need to come up with a risk mitigation strategy. You must work with your stakeholders to create a strong risk management strategy that helps you handle small to complex risks effectively and ensure that they don’t impact your organizational objectives.Monitoring the Risk
Your job doesn’t end with creating a risk mitigation strategy. While that’s pretty much all that you need to manage stress and address them as and when required, you never know if your strategy will be effective as your project progresses. There’s always a chance you might face different risks when you start working on a project. When implementing a risk mitigation strategy, you need to monitor its progress throughout the project’s lifecycle and develop new risk management plans when necessary.
A transparent risk management process where your entire team knows the project status and the risks it presents will help you deal with the project risks efficiently. Follow the above six steps to implement the best risk management strategy for future projects.
Risk Retention is the process where an individual or a company accepts the financial risks and does not act on them before they actually occur. These risks may be too small for which paying attention before could be too early. Some other risks are so big that taking any action on them is impossible due to the costs. These all fall under the risk retention philosophy.
Risk-retention helps companies avoid negligible risks while paying more interest to operations. It is a valuable strategy applicable to budgeting and prioritization. Risk acceptance is a part of a risk management policy in which small and insignificant risks are considered bearable.Explanation
A business is always surrounded by many risks and managers are interested in mitigating them. However, in some cases, the risks are avoidable because they will have a very low impact on the business. If the cost of managing risk is bearable, managers choose to let them remain as it is rather than acting on them instantly.
Risks may arise from a variety of reasons, such as overly aggressive competition, natural disasters, unexpected market conditions and variability of prices, and credit risk, etc. These are risks that cannot be controlled by businesses even if they choose to minimize them. Therefore, these risks are retained rather than acting on them.
It is natural that managers would be interested in mitigating the various risks that may arise with insurance. However, the cost of insurance may be too high in some instances so that they are better retained rather than insuring them altogether. These risks are also considered to be acceptable risks.
Limitations of risk retention come with the company’s ability to meet the demands of the risk financially. It may lead to the risk managers and strategists take special considerations regarding risk retention.Risk Management Policies
There are numerous other approaches to risk management than risk retention.
Avoid − Avoiding refers to changes in business and management policies to avoid the risks altogether. This is a good policy to contain the bigger risks.
Transfer − Transfer is the process of passing the risks to another party, such as in the case of insurance.
Mitigation − The impact of a risk is minimized in the case of mitigation. The risks are dealt with as and when they arise with various policies in mitigation.
Exploitation − Good risks that are good signs of business are retained and exploited. For example, the growth of the business may require more staff which can be exploited by hiring more employees.Upsides of Risk Retention
Risk-retention strategies do not depend on insurance. The reason for this is that the long-term costs of insurance is more than the cost of the risks when it occurs. Therefore, the companies save substantially from risk retention.
In case insurance is put in place, the premiums outweigh the actual costs of risks. This is so because the risk profile considered for an individual company is different from the individual average values used while calculating the premiums.Downsides of Risk Retention
Risk retentions are fully dependent on the manager’s decision rather than on the market perspective. Therefore, there is a chance of increased losses in case of risk retention rather than any other way of mitigating it.
Apart from the risks considered and insured any other financial losses are also considered to be accepting risks. This increases the portfolio of risks that are unforeseen.Points to Note
Risk Retention means accepting the risks rather than acting on them.
Businesses retain both bigger and smaller risks.
There are various ways of mitigating the risks businesses face.
In the project-based learning community, we use the metaphor that projects are the main course, not the dessert. Previously, I’ve written about how to integrate PBL across subjects into “full course” projects. With effective teamwork, teachers can cook up a full-course meal project that integrates and creates connections for students to make learning even more meaningful.
5 Steps to Improve PBL Integration
1. Determine the recipe: As a team meets to plan an integrated project, they should bring their various ingredients: the standards and learning targets that guide their curriculum. One effective strategy is to cut these into strips and put them on a table and create an affinity map where teachers identify strong connections between content learning standards in different disciplines.
For example, a world language teacher and a social studies teacher might have content that overlaps with oral communication, so they could label that connection “similar content.” A math teacher and a science teacher might find that their standards both connect to “adult world” work such as exponential equations related to illnesses and disease. It’s important to look for authentic connections and possibilities.
In this process, certain standards (ingredients) will be omitted, and that’s OK. It’s important to have the norm of “authentic fit” so that the integration is meaningful to students. At the same time, the norm of “being open to possibilities” helps teachers plan flexibly, so that opting out of integration isn’t the default. Instead, teachers can continue to look for authentic connections.
This process can lead to generating possible project ideas. An example of this is the Making the Grade project in math and English, which focused on math standards related to statistics and ratio and proportion, as well as English standards related to multimedia and crafting arguments. In it, students use their math skills to analyze and design new grading policies for their school and try to persuade teachers to use them.
Another example was in a humanities project on historical fiction. In it, teachers found connections between civics standards in social studies, speaking and listening in English, and creative production standards in media arts. Students were asked to write an excerpt for a historical fiction for World War II. They created sample book covers and marketing materials and then pitched the idea to a panel of experts.
2. Measure the ingredients: Once the recipe starts to become finalized around meaningful ingredients and project ideas, it’s time to determine the amount of time and effort each discipline can offer. One misconception for integrated projects is that all disciplines and courses must devote the same amount of time. I have seen this lead to resentment among team members who come to believe that individual members are not equally committed to the work.
On the contrary, focusing on authentic connections will lead to greater commitment where the integration is meaningful and not forced. Here, individual team members need to be honest about how much they can devote to the project. It may be that a technology teacher can devote up to three weeks, while a world language teacher can offer one or two weeks. That is perfectly OK. What is most important is that teachers come to a shared understanding of their roles and responsibilities in the project.
3. Appoint a head chef and sous-chefs: Sometimes, it is appropriate to select a leader, or head chef, for the project. This is often the teacher devoting the most time to the project. This is not intended to create a hierarchy but instead to provide clear leadership.
Some of the responsibilities of the leader might include the following:
Schedule and facilitate team meetings
Serve as chief documentarian of the project, from planning to implementation
Refine student-facing documents based on feedback
Be the point of contact with administrators and parents
Coordinate critique and collaboration opportunities across disciplines
For example, students recently participated in a Chinese school tour project, where they used both their Chinese and English language skills to create a tour of their school and incorporated technology to support the creation of their tour products. In this scenario, the world language teacher assumed the role of head chef. The English and technology teachers acted as sous-chefs in support, bringing in presentation standards and video production standards to the project.
4. Plan the serving order: As teachers continue to plan student projects, they need to consider how all the courses will be served. Projects might run concurrently, where the same project would be taught across subjects at the same time. Concurrent scheduling allows for co-teaching, common launches and critiques, and other collaborative opportunities. However, it is only appropriate if teachers are able to devote an equal amount of time to the project.
Another model would be to structure the project periodically, where a project moves between subjects. For example, a project might begin in math class during the first eight weeks before then being taught in science the second eight weeks and art class the third eight weeks. While this may limit collaboration, students do get an experience that builds upon itself in rigor and application.
Many schools combine these models, where courses devote differing amounts of time on the project, and there is more freedom to jump in and out of the project. The project may run for the entire semester in English but then alternate between world languages, math, and technology over time. Here, a few side dishes might be offered at the same time alongside one main course.
5. Don’t eat too much: Health is important, and all of us need to reflect on how much we can “eat” in a project. We don’t want to get too full. We should listen to our students and seek their feedback on the project to see if it is overwhelming or too much. Be honest and open and encouraging with students to ensure that the project can truly be an exciting full-course meal.
The project began in 1990 and was completed in 2003, costing approximately $3.8 billion and involving hundreds of scientists worldwide.Human genome project goals
The human genome project was completed in 2003 and had four main goals−
To read and decode one percent of the genome
To sequence at least 90% of the protein-coding genes in the human genome
To identify and map at least 10% of all human genes
To understand how the information encoded in DNA is converted into proteins.Methods of the human genome project
The Human Genome Project is a global scientific endeavor aimed at understanding and mapping our minds. It was started in 1990, and the project is anticipated to be completed in 2005.
The Human Genome Project has three phases− 1) sequencing, 2) analysis and 3) technology development. The sequencing phase aims to assess all three billion base pairs in the human genome. The analysis stage involves the interpretation of data produced by the sequencing phase. The technology stage involves the development of bioinformatics and DNA chip technologies to aid in the analysis process.The process of the human genome project
Scientists hope to uncover cures for many diseases and other ailments by studying genes and proteins. Although it took 13 years and $3 billion dollars to complete, the project has already discovered many important things about human genetics.Features
Identifying all human genes (sequencing) and determining their functions
Determining the order of bases in the DNA strand
Discovering the sequences in which genes are found on chromosomes.
The human genome is composed of twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes that are responsible for the production of proteins. Genes are essentially the blueprints for our bodies, and they determine everything from hair color to blood type to our risk for developing certain diseases.
The human genome project was one step closer to understanding how genetics work on a molecular level, which could potentially lead to new treatments/treatments for genetic diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, and cancer. It also helps us better understand how humans came into being in the first place and why they look and act (and get sick) the way they do.Applications of HGP
The human genome project is a massive undertaking with numerous global benefits. Understanding the function of our DNA will allow researchers to develop new treatments for genetic diseases, create designer drugs that target specific ailments, and possibly even unlock the secrets of longevity. However, many people mistakenly believe that understanding DNA is the same as understanding life itself. In reality, it is only one small step on the long road to truly understanding life.Results
Most people agree that the results of the Human Genome Project have been a success. Researchers deciphered the entire human genome and made it available to be used for scientific, medical, and business purposes.
The project has helped researchers understand how genetic mutations lead to certain diseases and has made it easier for scientists to develop new ways of preventing those mutations from occurring in the first place. While many experts believed that the project would lead to new treatments, cures, and preventative measures within a few years, others argued that the effects would take much longer to become apparent−if they ever did at all.
Though there is still much more work to be done, it is clear that the Human Genome Project has provided invaluable information about our genetic makeup and presents healthcare professionals with potential opportunities to prevent or treat diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Thanks to this project, millions of people have benefited from its findings.Conclusion
The Human Genome Project was a large, expensive undertaking with the goals of mapping and sequencing the human genome. The project was completed in 2003, and the results have been used in a variety of ways to improve human health. The project has also helped researchers to better understand the biology of a variety of diseases.FAQs
1. What is the Human Genome Project?
Ans: It was the goal of the Human Genome Project, a multinational endeavor to discover the sequence of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. Work on the project started in 1990 and was completed in 2003.
2. What does “sequencing” mean?
Ans: Sequencing is the process of determining the order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid). A single strand of DNA is made up of two chains, called polynucleotide chains, and each chain contains one strand of deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA).
Each nucleotide has three components− a phosphate group, a pentose sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose), and one of four bases− adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). Phosphate and pentose sugars are always present in equal numbers. The four bases are present in different amounts. For example, one chain may have 20 A’s but only 10 C’s.
3. What are the benefits of knowing our DNA?
Ans: The Human Genome Project has yielded many benefits, including−
New ways to diagnose diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease
New treatments for diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other illnesses
Better ways to predict people’s response to drugs like antibiotics and chemotherapy.
4. What are the benefits of sequencing an organism’s genome?
Ans: Sequencing an organism’s genome provides valuable insights into its genetic structure, function, and evolution, the knowledge that can be used to develop new treatments for disease and improve our understanding of biology in general. For example, human geneticists have already identified more than 1,000 disease-related genes based on their association with human diseases or traits such as height or earwax consistency/color.
In a blog post titled, Toward a More Intelligent Search: Bing Multi-Perspective Answers, Bing announced they are now incorporating a technology often referred to as sentiment analysis into their version of what Google calls Featured Snippets.
Sentiment Analysis is the ability to understand whether content has a negative or positive sentiment. The implications of how this may affect SEO are far ranging, especially if Google rolls out their version of it.
A criticism Google’s often received is that their featured snippets are sometimes biased by the question asked. Danny Sullivan recently addressed this shortcoming in Google’s featured snippets:
“…people who search for “are reptiles good pets” should get the same featured snippet as “are reptiles bad pets” since they are seeking the same information: how do reptiles rate as pets? However, the featured snippets we serve contradict each other.
This happens because sometimes our systems favor content that’s strongly aligned with what was asked.”
Engineers at Bing were asking similar questions and doing something about it. According to Bing’s announcement:
“There are many questions that don’t have just one answer, but multiple valid perspectives on a given topic. Should I repeat my search with the word “bad” or “good” in it every time I wanted to get a comprehensive picture of a topic and hear the other side? How would I even know how and when to do that? Should I assume that this single answer Bing returned for me was the best or the only answer? Is that the most authoritative page to answer my question?
“…we believe that your search engine should inform you when there are different viewpoints to answer a question you have, and it should help you save research time while expanding your knowledge with the rich content available on the Web.”How to Rank for Intelligent Snippets?
Bing offers clues about what signals they are looking for in sites they rank for intelligent snippets. Here are some of the attributes of the sites they rank:
Authoritative and high quality
Relevant to the topic
Content is easy to crawl and index
Good user experience on the web page
Here are the clues Bing’s announcement disclosed:
The way it works is, when you issue a question:
1. Their Web Search and Question Answering engine selects candidates from web pages.
2. They organize the candidates in clusters to determine similarity and sentiment
3. Bing ranks the most relevant passages from the web pages from each sentiment based cluster
These results are currently limited to a few. However Bing will be rolling out more results in the near future. These kinds of results are also coming to the United Kingdom soon as well.
“This is just the beginning. We will expand this functionality to address many more questions you have, increase coverage, and expand beyond the US, starting with the United Kingdom in the next few months.”How Will This Affect SEO?
Sentiment analysis can play a role in helping search engines understand if a review is negative or positive. So if someone links to a web page with a negative sentiment (as in a negative review), then the search engine will know this is negative and may decide not to count the link or to count it as a negative vote. This may be especially useful for local SEO but it can conceivably creep into regular search as well.
The fact that Bing has confirmed they are using sentiment analysis is big news. That Google has announced their intentions to add it to featured snippets is very important. The big question of course is if this kind of technology will be used in other areas of search.
Images by Shutterstock, modified by author
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