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As a Business Analyst, requirement analysis is the most important part of your Job. It will help you determining the actual needs of stakeholders. At the same time, enable you to communicate with the stakeholders in a language they understand (like charts, models, flow-charts,) instead of complex text.

A requirement analysis has a

Specific Goal

Specific Input

Specific Output

Uses resources

Has a number of activities to be performed in some order

May affect more than one organization unit

Creates value of some kind for the customer



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Requirement Analysis Techniques

Requirement analysis techniques are mainly used to map the business workflow so that you can analyze, understand and make required changes to that workflow or process.

There are various requirement analyzing techniques that can be used as per the software development process like

Business process modeling notation (BPMN)

BPMN (Business Process Modeling & Notation) is a graphical representation of your business process using simple objects, which helps the organization to communicate in a standard manner. Various objects used in BPMN includes

Flow objects

Connecting objects

Swim lanes


A well design BPMN model should be able to give the detail about the activities carried out during the process like,

Who is performing these activities?

What data elements are required for these activities?

The biggest benefit of using BPMN is that it is easier to share, and most modeling tools support BPMN.

    UML (Unified Modeling Language)

    UML is a modelling standard primarily used for specification, development, visualization and documenting of software system. To capture important business process and artifacts UML provides objects like




    Class diagram

    There are 14 UML diagrams that help with modelling like the use case diagram, interaction diagram, class diagram, component diagram, sequence diagram, etc. UML models are important in the IT segment as it becomes the medium of communication between all stakeholders. A UML-based business model can be a direct input to a requirements tool. A UML diagram can be of two type’s Behavioral model and Structural model. A behavioral model tries to give information about what the system do while a structural model will give what is the system consist of.

      Flow chart technique

        Data flow diagram

        Data flow diagrams show how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. Components of data flow diagram includes





        A logical data flow diagram shows system’s activities while a physical data flow diagram shows a system’s infrastructure. A data flow diagram can be designed early in the requirement elicitation process of the analysis phase within the SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) to define the project scope. For easy analyzing a data flow diagram can be drilled down into its sub-processes known as “levelled DFD”.

          Role Activity Diagrams- (RAD)

          Role activity diagram is similar to flowchart type notation. In Role Activity Diagram, role instances are process participants, which has start and end state. RAD requires a deep knowledge of process or organization to identify roles. The components of RAD includes


          External events


          Roles group activities together into units of responsibility, according to the set of responsibility they are carrying out. An activity can be carried out in isolation with a role, or it may require coordination with activities in other roles.

          External events are the points at which state changes occur.

          States are useful to map activities of a role as it progresses from state to state. When a particular state is reached, it indicates that a certain goal has been achieved.

          RAD is helpful in supporting communication as it is easy to read and present a detailed view of the process and permitting activities in parallel.

            Gantt Charts

            A Gantt chart is a graphical representation of a schedule that helps to coordinate, plan and track specific tasks in a project. It represents the total time span of the object, broken down into increments. A Gantt chart represents the list of all task to be performed on the vertical axis while, on the horizontal axis, it list the estimate activity duration or the name of the person allocated to the activity. One chart can demonstrate many activities.

              IDEF (Integrated Definition for Function Modeling)

              IDEF or Integrated Definition for Function Modeling is a common name referred to classes of enterprise modeling languages. It is used for modeling activities necessary to support system analysis, design or integration. There are about 16 methods for IDEF, the most useful versions of IDEF are IDEF3 and IDEF0.

                Colored Petri Nets (CPN)

                CPN or colored petri nets are graphically oriented language for specification, verification, design and simulation of systems. Colored Petri Nets is a combination of graphics and text. Its main components are Places, Transitions, and Arcs.

                Petri nets objects have specific inscription like for

                Places: It has inscription like .Name, .Color Set, .Initial marking etc. While

                Transition : lt has inscription like .Name (for identification) and .Guard (Boolean expression consist of some of the variables)

                Arcs: It has inscription like .Arc. When the arc expression is assessed, it yields multi-set of token colors.

                  Workflow Technique

                  Workflow technique is a visual diagram that represent one or more business processes to clarify understanding of the process or to make process improvement recommendations. Just like other diagrams like flowcharting, UML activity and process map, the workflow technique is the oldest and popular technique. It is even used by BA for taking notes during requirements elicitation. The process comprises of four stages

                  Information Gathering

                  Workflow Modeling

                  Business process Modeling

                  Implementation, Verification & Execution

                    Object oriented methods

                    Object-oriented modeling method uses object oriented paradigm and modeling language for designing a system. It emphasis on finding and describing the object in the problem domain. The purpose of object oriented method is

                    To help characterizing the system

                    To know what are the different relevant objects

                    How do they relate to each other

                    How to specify or model a problem to create effective design

                    To analyze requirements and their implications

                    This method is applicable to the system which has dynamic requirements (changes frequently). It is a process of deriving use cases, activity flow, and events flow for the system. Object oriented analysis can be done through textual needs, communication with system stakeholder and vision document.

                    The object has a state, and state changes are represented by behavior. So, when the object receives a message, state changes through behavior.

                      Gap Analysis

                      Gap Analysis is the technique used to determine the difference between the proposed state and current state for any business and its functionalities. It answers questions like what is the current state of the project? Where do we want to be? etc. Various stages of Gap Analysis include

                      Review System

                      Development Requirements




                      You're reading Requirements Analysis Techniques With Example: Complete Tutorial

                      Php Ajax Tutorial With Example

                      What is Ajax?

                      AJAX full form is Asynchronous JavaScript & XML. It is a technology that reduces the interactions between the server and client. It does this by updating only part of a web page rather than the whole chúng tôi asynchronous interactions are initiated by chúng tôi purpose of AJAX is to exchange small amounts of data with server without page refresh.

                      JavaScript is a client side scripting language. It is executed on the client side by the web browsers that support JavaScript.JavaScript code only works in browsers that have JavaScript enabled.

                      XML is the acronym for Extensible Markup Language. It is used to encode messages in both human and machine readable formats. It’s like HTML but allows you to create your custom tags. For more details on XML, see the article on XML

                      Why use AJAX?

                      It allows developing rich interactive web applications just like desktop applications.

                      Validation can be performed done as the user fills in a form without submitting it. This can be achieved using auto completion. The words that the user types in are submitted to the server for processing. The server responds with keywords that match what the user entered.

                      It can be used to populate a dropdown box depending on the value of another dropdown box

                      Data can be retrieved from the server and only a certain part of a page updated without loading the whole page. This is very useful for web page parts that load things like



                      Users visiting the site etc.

                      How to Create an PHP Ajax application

                      We will create a simple application that allows users to search for popular PHP MVC frameworks.

                      Our application will have a text box that users will type in the names of the framework.

                      We will then use mvc AJAX to search for a match then display the framework’s complete name just below the search form.

                      Step 1) Creating the index page

                      chúng tôi


                      “onkeyup=”showName(this.value)”” executes the JavaScript function showName everytime a key is typed in the textbox.

                      This feature is called auto complete

                      Step 2) Creating the frameworks page

                      chúng tôi

                      <?php $frameworks = array("CodeIgniter","Zend Framework","Cake PHP","Kohana") ; $name = $_GET["name"]; $match = ""; for ($i = 0; $i < count($frameworks); $i++) { if (strtolower($name) == strtolower(substr($frameworks[$i], 0, strlen($name)))) { if ($match == "") { $match = $frameworks[$i]; } else { $match = $match . " , " . $frameworks[$i]; } } } } echo ($match == "") ? 'no match found' : $match; Step 3) Creating the JS script


                      function showName(str){ if (str.length == 0){ document.getElementById("txtName").innerHTML=""; return; } if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari } else {// code for IE6, IE5 } } } }


                      “if (str.length == 0)” check the length of the string. If it is 0, then the rest of the script is not executed.

                      “if (window.XMLHttpRequest)…” Internet Explorer versions 5 and 6 use ActiveXObject for AJAX implementation. Other versions and browsers such as Chrome, FireFox use XMLHttpRequest. This code will ensure that our application works in both IE 5 & 6 and other high versions of IE and browsers.

                      Step 4) Testing our PHP Ajax application

                      Type the letter C in the text box You will get the following results.

                      The above example demonstrates the concept of AJAX and how it can help us create rich interaction applications.


                      AJAX is the acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML

                      AJAX is a technology used to create rich interaction applications that reduce the interactions between the client and the server by updating only parts of the web page.

                      Internet Explorer version 5 and 6 use ActiveXObject to implement AJAX operations.

                      Internet explorer version 7 and above and browsers Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Safari use XMLHttpRequest.

                      Ruby On Rails Tutorial For Beginners With Project & Example

                      What is Ruby?

                      Ruby is a high-level, interpreted and object-oriented programming language. It is a dynamic open-source language that has a great community behind it. Ruby was designed for simplicity and productivity. It encourages writing human first and computer second software code. It was created by Yukihiro Matsumoto in Japan in 1995.

                      What is Rails?

                      Rails is a development framework written in Ruby for building web applications. It was created as the foundation of Basecamp application and then released as an open-source software in 2004. Rails offers many in-built standard features and functionalities, which makes it a suitable option for MVP prototyping and development.

                      It was created by David Heinemeier Hasson popularly known as DHH. It is one of the most influential and popular tools for building web applications. It is used by some of the favourite sites like Airbnb, Github, Shopify, etc.

                      In this Ruby on Rails tutorial for beginners, you will learn Ruby on Rails basics like:

                      Why Rails?

                      Here are pros/ benefits of using Rails:

                      Rails is packaged as a Ruby gem, and you can use it to build a variety of applications.

                      It allows you to build regular web applications, e-commerce applications, content management system, and more.

                      Rails is a full-stack framework that includes everything you need to create a database-driven web application, using the Model-View-Controller pattern.

                      This means that all the layers are built to work seamlessly together with less code. It requires fewer lines of code than other frameworks.

                      How to Download and Install Ruby on Windows

                      The installation process will depend on your operating system. You will go through installing Ruby on Windows, Mac, and Linux.

                      All you have to do is run the downloaded installer.

                      Check the first two checkboxes to make running Ruby scripts easier.

                      This step installs MSYS2, a building platform that features a package manager for easy Installation of packages on Windows.

                      Press Enter to install all the components as they are all required to have a smooth Ruby on Rails development environment to work with on Windows.

                      Installing Rails

                      You should have Ruby installed from the previous section, and now you are going to install Rails. You can install Rails using a package from RailsInstaller, but the problem with this is that you don’t get the latest version of the required packages.

                      If you have already have the latest Ruby and a baseline set of required RubyGems and extensions installed. All you need do now is run the following command at the command prompt to get Rails on your system: ‘gem install rails.’

                      It is a more common and preferred approach to developing on Windows. Rails community uses a Windows Subsystem for Linux that provides a GNU/Linux environment with command-line tools, utilities, and common applications directly on Windows.

                      Installing Ruby on Mac

                      Your Mac already has Ruby pre-installed on it. However, the pre-installed version might be old, and so you will need to install a new/latest version.

                      The easiest way to do this is by using a package manager such as Homebrew. You might first need to install Homebrew by running the command below at the Terminal.

                      This will display a warning and ask you to enter your password. Enter your Mac password (you won’t see the characters as you type). Just press ‘Enter’ when you are done typing your password. Then run this simple Homebrew command to install Ruby on your Mac.

                      brew install ruby

                      And also run this command:

                      To set this Ruby installation as the default Ruby to run on your system and not the pre-installed Ruby.

                      To confirm the Installation was successful, you can run the following at the Terminal

                      ruby --version

                      this will print the Ruby version number you have installed. The output will look something like

                      ruby 2.6.0p0 (2023-12-25 revision 66547) [x86_64-darwin18] Installing Ruby on Ubuntu (Linux)

                      The easiest way to get Ruby installed on your Ubuntu system is through the apt package manager. You need to run the following commands at the Terminal to install the latest Ruby from Ubuntu repositories.

                      sudo apt update – This will update the default Ubuntu repositories

                      sudo apt install ruby-full – It will download and installs the latest Ruby

                      To confirm the Installation was successful, you can run the following ‘ruby –version,’ this will print the Ruby version you have installed.

                      Installing Rails on Ubuntu (Linux)

                      You should follow the steps below to successfully install Rails on your Linux machine.

                      Step 1) Update your computer gem manager by running ‘gem update –system’ at the Terminal or command prompt.

                      Step 2) Run ‘gem install rails’ to install the latest version of Rails on your computer.

                      Step 3) You should install bundler gem for easy Rails application gem dependency management. Run ‘gem install bundler’ to get it.

                      Two principles of Rails

                      Rails follow basic software design principles and encourage you to use those principles too.

                      The two most common are:

                      Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) – this makes you write concise, consistent, and maintainable code.

                      Convention over Configuration – Rails is pre-configured to use sensible defaults that fit most common usage. This makes your application development fast, and you also have less code to maintain.

                      Rails – Project File Structures

                      With Rails now installed on your system lets create a Rails application! We will learn Ruby on Rails examples and how to create a Todo list application in this Ruby on Rails tutorial. Run the following command ‘rails new todo_app’ in your Terminal to create the application.

                      This command creates a directory named ‘todo_app’ in the current directory with the basic folder structure of a Rails web application, as shown in the Figure below:

                      You will go through the main directories in this Ruby on Rails example.

                      app – This directory groups using different subdirectories for the UI/layout (views and helpers), the controller (controllers files) and the models (business/application logic).

                      app/controllers – This directory stores controller files used by Rails to handle requests from the client.

                      app/assets – It contains static files, which is a need for the application’s front-end grouped into folders based on their type – JavaScript files, images, and stylesheets.

                      app/helpers – This subdirectory contains helper functions that make your application model, view, and controller logic focused, small and uncluttered.

                      app/models – This contains files

                      that model your application’s database. The model classes make working with the database very easy.

                      app/views – This hold template/layout files the user of your application interacts with. The templates are a combination of HTML and data from the database.

                      bin – It contains Rails scripts that starts your application. It can also include other scripts that you use to set up and upgrade the application.

                      Config – This holds configuration files – database.yml, chúng tôi chúng tôi etc. that your application needs to run.

                      DB – This directory contains files/scripts that are used to manage your application database.

                      lib – This directory contains an extended module for your application.

                      log – This contains log files – server.log, chúng tôi chúng tôi and chúng tôi etc., that are used for debugging or monitoring your application.

                      public – This directory contains static files and compiled assets, such as HTML files, Javascript files, images, and stylesheets.

                      test – This directory holds test files you write to test your application functionality.

                      tmp – This directory contains temporary files like cache and pid files.

                      vendor – This directory contains third-party libraries.

                      Gemfile – This file specifies what your basic gem requirements are to run your web application. You can group the gems into development, test or production and Rails will know when to include each gem.

                      Gemfile.lock – Unlike the Gemfile that explicitly lists the gems you want in your application, chúng tôi additionally contains other gems that those you list in the Gemfile depends on that are then automatically installed to satisfy the dependencies.

             – You use this file to share essential detail about your application, such as what the app does, how to go about installing and run the application.

                      Rakefile – This file contains various rake tasks definitions, which helps in automating everyday administration tasks of your application.

             – This is a Rack configuration file that provides an interface to the webserver to start your application.

                      Change directory to the ‘todo_app’ directory Rails generated and run ‘rails server’ to start the application. Type localhost:3000 in the address bar of your web browser, you should see the Figure below if all went well.

                      This is the default homepage of your application, and you will change this in the later section of this Ruby on Rails tutorial. You can stop the server by pressing ‘Ctrl-C’.

                      Rails – Generate commands

                      The Rails generate command makes use of templates to create a whole lot of useful things in your application. You can use these generators to save a lot of time.

                      It helps by writing boilerplate code, code that is necessary for your web application to work. You can run ‘rails generate’ by itself at the command prompt or Terminal to see a list of available generators as shown below:

                      You can also run ‘rails generate “command”‘ to see a description of what the command does. It offers convenient options that can be run with the command and usage example. The Figure below shows the output of running‘ rails generate controller’:

                      You will use the rails generate scaffold command to automatically create the model, view, and controller for the todo list application you are building. Run‘ rails generate scaffold todo_list title:string description: text’ in your Terminal (check you are still in the todo_app directory).

                      This will create a full CRUD (Create, read, update, and delete) web interface for the TodoLists table.

                      Rails – routing

                      The Rails routing system, rails router, handles all incoming requests to your web application. It does this by examining the URL of the incoming requests and then maps each request to the controller action responsible for handling it, using special syntax specified in the routes file (config/routes.rb).

                      The routes file helps in controlling every URL aspect of your web application. Rails by default use a RESTful design based on the REST architectural style, that provides a mapping between HTTP verbs and requests (URLs) to controller actions.

                      The routes file was generated when you ran ‘rails new’ in an earlier section of this tutorial. Continuing with the Todo application that you are building, run the following‘ rails db:migrate’ (you will get to know what this does shortly)

                      In your command line, make sure you are still at the root of the application (the todo_app directory).

                      This is the Todo lists view that the scaffold command generated and it is controlled by the TodoListsController’s index action.

                      Rails was able to map the various requests (URLs) to the corresponding TodoListsController’s action using the route definition in config/routes.rb.

                      If you take a peek at this file, you see a single line ‘resources: todo_lists’, is Rails default way of writing restful routes. This single line creates seven routes all mapping to the TodoLists controller.

                      By convention, each controller’s action also maps to a specific CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operation in the database.

                      You can run ‘rake routes’ in your command line to see the various routes available in your application. The Figure below shows the output of running ‘rails routes’ in your command line/terminal.

                      Rails – views

                      The View layer is one of the components of the MVC paradigm and is responsible for generating HTML response for each request to your application. Rails by default use ERB (Embedded Ruby) which is a powerful templating system for Ruby.

                      ERB makes writing templates easy and maintainable by combining plain text with Ruby code for variable substitution and flow control. An ERB template has .html, .erb or .erb extension.

                      You will mostly use a combination of two tag markers only, each of which causes the embedded code to be processed and handled in a particular way.

                      Each controller in your Rails application has a corresponding subdirectory in app/views, and each action/method in a controller has a corresponding .html and .erb file in this directory.

                      Take a look at app/views of the todo app you are building. You will find a subdirectory named ‘todo_lists’ inside this subdirectory chúng tôi files with names corresponding to the actions/methods in the TodoLists controller.

                      Rails – ActiveRecord, Active Record Pattern, and ORM

                      ActiveRecord is the Ruby implementation of the Active Record pattern, which is a simple pattern where a class represents a table, and an instance of the class represents a row in that class.

                      ActiveRecord is popularly referred to as an ORM (Object Relational Mapping), a technique that allows you to manage your database using a language you’re most comfortable with. It is database agnostic thus you can easily switch between databases (for example SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle, etc.). This suite more for your application requirement with the same code/logic.

                      So, if you want to get an array containing a listing of all the todo lists in your application, so, instead of writing code to initiate a connection to the database, then doing some sort of SQL SELECT query, and converting those results into an array.

                      For that, you just need to type ‘TodoList.all’ and Active Record gives you the array filled with TodoList objects that you can play with as you like.

                      All you need do is set up the right configuration in config/database.yml, and Active Record will work out all the differences between the various database system. So when you switch from one to the other, you don’t have to think about it.

                      You focus on writing code for your application, and Active Record will think about the low-level details of connecting you to your database. Active Record makes use of naming conventions to create the mapping between models and database tables.

                      Rails pluralize your model class names to find the corresponding database table. So, for a class TodoList, ActiveRecord will create a database table called TodoLists.

                      Rails – Migrations

                      Rails migration is simply a script that you use to edit your application database. It is used to set up or change your database and avoids manually writing SQL code to do that.

                      It uses Ruby to define changes to database schema and makes it possible to use version control to keep your database synchronized.

                      Rails Migrations use a Ruby Domain Specific Language (DSL). This acts as an abstraction and makes it possible to use or change your database engine based on your requirements.

                      They can be shared with anyone working on the application and can also be rolled back to undo any changes to the database. This is a high safety mechanism as you don’t have to bother about doing permanent damage to your database.

                      Rails – ActiveRecord Associations

                      A connection between two ActiveRecord models is known as an association. Association makes it much easier to perform operations on the different records in your code. It can be divided into four categories: –

                      One to One: – This indicates that a record contains precisely one instance of another model. A good example is user profile. A user has only one profile. It uses has _one keyword.

                      One to Many: – This is the most common association, and it indicates that one model has zero or more instances of another model. Your use has a _many keyword to denote this association.

                      Many to Many: – This association is a bit more complicated, and ActiveRecord provides two ways to handle it. Using the has_and_belongs_to_many and has_many, which gives you access to the relation that is defined in a separate table.

                      Rails – ActiveRecord Validations

                      Validation helps to ensure that you have correct data because working with wrong data is an awful thing and could cost you your money and business.

                      Validation also provides an extra layer of security for your application against malicious users from gaining access to information in your database. Rails offer you a nice API of validation helpers in ActiveRecord to keep your database clean, secure, and free of errors.

                      ActiveRecord validations run on model objects before saving to the database, making them more reliable and also best practice to follow in building your application.

                      The following ActiveRecord methods evoke validations when used or called on model objects – create, create!, save, save!, update, and update!. The ones with a bang (create!, save! and update!) raise an exception if a record is invalid while thothen’t’tt’t’t.

                      The most common ActiveRecord validation helpers at your disposal are:-

                      Presence:– This checks that the field is not empty.

                      uniqueness: ensures unique value for a field, e.g., username

                      Length:- To enforce a limit on character length of a field

                      You can also create your custom validation by using the validate method and passing it the name of the custom validation method.

                      You can check the model’s error object to find out why a validation. Hopefully, you have some ideas to make your application more constrained and more secured to only allow secure data into your database.

                      Rails – ActionController

                      The Rails controller is the center of your web application. It facilitates and coordinates the communication between the user, the models, and the views.

                      Your controller classes inherit from the ApplicationController, that contains code that can be run in all other controllers and it inherits from ActionController class.

                      The controller provides the following to your application:

                      It routes external requests to internal actions

                      It manages to cache, giving performance boosts to your application

                      It manages helper methods that extend view templates capabilities. It also manages user sessions, giving them a smooth experience using your app.

                      Rails – Configurations

                      You can configure the various components such as initializers, assets, generators, middlewares, etc. By using your Rails application initializers and configuration files in the config directory. Files like config/application.rb, config/environments/development.rb and config/environments/test.rb etc. You can also have custom settings configure for your application.

                      Rails – Debugging

                      As you build out your application, there will come a time you will need/have to debug your code. Rails make this easy using the byebug gem. You can start a debugging session by putting the ‘byebeg’ keyword anywhere in your application code.

                      This will temporarily stop execution at that point. The byebug gem gives you several commands to use. The most useful ones are:

                      next: command that enables you to go to the next line of code, skipping all methods invoked by the execution of the current line.

                      step: this is similar to ‘next’ command but will make you step into each invoked.

                      break: this stops the code execution.

                      continue continues execution code.

                      There are other debugging gems available such as ‘pry’, and they all provide similar functionalities but slightly different syntax. Debugging gems should not be used in production as this pose’s risks to your application and bad experience to your application users.

                      There are log files that you can inspect for errors in production and handle them. Also, you should follow a TDD (Test-driven development) approach when developing your application to ensure everything works well before deploying to production.


                      Ruby is a pure object-oriented programming language

                      Ruby has an elegant syntax that is both easy to read and write.

                      Rails is a development framework, written in Ruby, for building web applications

                      The installation process will depend on your operating system.

                      Rails is packaged as a Ruby gem, and you can use it to build a variety of applications.

                      You will create a Todo list application in this tutorial, run the followincomm’n’n’ ‘rails netoda’p’p’p’ in youR Terminal to create the application.

                      The Rails generate command makes use of templates to create a whole lot of useful things in your application.

                      The Rails routing system, rails router helps you to handles all incoming requests to your web application.

                      The View layer is one of the components of the MVC paradigm and is responsible for generating HTML response for each request to your application.

                      ActiveRecord is the Ruby implementation of the Active Record pattern.

                      Rails migration is simply a script that you use to edit your application database.

                      A connection between two ActiveRecord models is known as an association.

                      Validation helps to ensure that you have correct data because working with wrong data is an awful thing and could cost you your money and business.

                      The Rails controller helps you to facilitates and coordinates the communication between the user, the models, and the views.

                      Rail helps you to configure the various components such as initializers, assets, generators, middlewares, etc.

                      Sqoop Tutorial: What Is Apache Sqoop? Architecture & Example

                      What is SQOOP in Hadoop?

                      Apache SQOOP (SQL-to-Hadoop) is a tool designed to support bulk export and import of data into HDFS from structured data stores such as relational databases, enterprise data warehouses, and NoSQL systems. It is a data migration tool based upon a connector architecture which supports plugins to provide connectivity to new external systems.

                      An example use case of Hadoop Sqoop is an enterprise that runs a nightly Sqoop import to load the day’s data from a production transactional RDBMS into a Hive data warehouse for further analysis.

                      Next in this Apache Sqoop tutorial, we will learn about Apache Sqoop architecture.

                      Sqoop Architecture

                      All the existing Database Management Systems are designed with SQL standard in mind. However, each DBMS differs with respect to dialect to some extent. So, this difference poses challenges when it comes to data transfers across the systems. Sqoop Connectors are components which help overcome these challenges.

                      Data transfer between Sqoop Hadoop and external storage system is made possible with the help of Sqoop’s connectors.

                      Sqoop has connectors for working with a range of popular relational databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQL Server, and DB2. Each of these connectors knows how to interact with its associated DBMS. There is also a generic JDBC connector for connecting to any database that supports Java’s JDBC protocol. In addition, Sqoop Big data provides optimized MySQL and PostgreSQL connectors that use database-specific APIs to perform bulk transfers efficiently.

                      Sqoop Architecture

                      In addition to this, Sqoop in big data has various third-party connectors for data stores, ranging from enterprise data warehouses (including Netezza, Teradata, and Oracle) to NoSQL stores (such as Couchbase). However, these connectors do not come with Sqoop bundle; those need to be downloaded separately and can be added easily to an existing Sqoop installation.

                      Why do we need Sqoop?

                      Analytical processing using Hadoop requires loading of huge amounts of data from diverse sources into Hadoop clusters. This process of bulk data load into Hadoop, from heterogeneous sources and then processing it, comes with a certain set of challenges. Maintaining and ensuring data consistency and ensuring efficient utilization of resources, are some factors to consider before selecting the right approach for data load.

                      Major Issues:

                      1. Data load using Scripts

                      The traditional approach of using scripts to load data is not suitable for bulk data load into Hadoop; this approach is inefficient and very time-consuming.

                      2. Direct access to external data via Map-Reduce application

                      Providing direct access to the data residing at external systems(without loading into Hadoop) for map-reduce applications complicates these applications. So, this approach is not feasible.

                      3. In addition to having the ability to work with enormous data, Hadoop can work with data in several different forms. So, to load such heterogeneous data into Hadoop, different tools have been developed. Sqoop and Flume are two such data loading tools.

                      Next in this Sqoop tutorial with examples, we will learn about the difference between Sqoop, Flume and HDFS.

                      Sqoop vs Flume vs HDFS in Hadoop

                      Sqoop Flume HDFS

                      Sqoop is used for importing data from structured data sources such as RDBMS. Flume is used for moving bulk streaming data into HDFS. HDFS is a distributed file system used by Hadoop ecosystem to store data.

                      Sqoop has a connector based architecture. Connectors know how to connect to the respective data source and fetch the data. Flume has an agent-based architecture. Here, a code is written (which is called as ‘agent’) which takes care of fetching data. HDFS has a distributed architecture where data is distributed across multiple data nodes.

                      HDFS is a destination for data import using Sqoop. Data flows to HDFS through zero or more channels. HDFS is an ultimate destination for data storage.

                      Sqoop data load is not event-driven. Flume data load can be driven by an event. HDFS just stores data provided to it by whatsoever means.

                      In order to import data from structured data sources, one has to use Sqoop commands only, because its connectors know how to interact with structured data sources and fetch data from them. In order to load streaming data such as tweets generated on Twitter or log files of a web server, Flume should be used. Flume agents are built for fetching streaming data. HDFS has its own built-in shell commands to store data into it. HDFS cannot import streaming data

                      How To Use Variables Sas Rename With Example?

                      Introduction to SAS Rename

                      The SAS rename is the feature for changing the variable’s name or the variable list already declared in the SAS input data set or in the data step created by the new set of variables. It allows you to replace old variable names in programming statements by changing one or more variables written into the output directory.

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                      Overview of SAS Rename

                      The rename is a type of function that can be used for more than one variable in a SAS dataset, and SAS users will refer to it as such. Renaming column variables will use the datas like NHANES, but the code of the data registration is not correctly called for the column names. This is nearly impossible for the recoding data columns. It decodes the datas by using the more straightforward format that assists and is associated with the sequence number of the SAS issues and the spaces between the original data content and duplicate contents.

                      We can enclose the text from the data label using the single and double quotation Rename option, which tells SAS to change the name of the two variables from within the parentheses as long as the space separates each pair of the old and new variables.

                      How to Use Variables SAS Rename?

                      We can use the rename function with the SAS dataset for the column variables from the NHANES data, but the data code is registered incorrectly. The specified column names are so long, and it’s nearly impossible to recode the data from one format to another more straightforward format. Respondent and correct sequence numbers to the ID with SAS having issues on the spaces from the original name to the duplicate name with exact sequence steps.

                      Steps to create the variable SAS rename:

                      1. Navigate to the below link.

                      3. After successfully logging in, type the below code for creating the data set and Proc SQL.

                      4. data First;

                      5. input emp_id $ emp_name $ emp_dob $;

                      6. datalines;

                      7. 1234 Raman 10051989

                      8. 5 Srew 1234521

                      9. 6 rtw 10454

                      10. ;


                      12. proc sql;

                      13. insert into First

                      14. set emp_id=1234,

                      15. emp_namename=’Raman’,

                      16. emp_dob=10051989

                      18. the title “Welcome To My Domain”;

                      19. select emp_name format=$20.,

                      20. emp_id format=$15.,

                      21. emp_dob format=comma15.0

                      22. from First;


                      It helps create the dataset along with PROC SQL with the variable declaration.

                      Then by using the below code to change the variable or column name like emp_name, it is changed to name by using the below code.


                      data First; set First; rename emp_name = Name; run;


                      The name is successfully changed and displayed on the output tab.

                      SAS Rename Statement

                      The SAS rename statement is specified with the new names for the required variables in the output console for SAS data sets; it is valid in the DATA step. The statement category is the CAS, denoted by the data and information, and it’s declared using the Declarative type. Rename parameters like old and new names with the specified arguments and enable the name change for one or more variables on the list that will combine the variables and variable lists. The new variable name is declared by the user end. Then, it will be executed and written into the output directory dataset by using the old variable names in programming statements for the current data step. Rename the values and apply them to all the output data sets.

                      Generally, the Rename statement, which affects the datasets, is already opened in the output mode, which must continue to rename the old variable names in the programming statements for the current DATA step. After the output data is created, the SET statement’s new variable names rename the input data set variables. We can set and use the new names in the programming statements of the current data step of renaming the variables, which helps to write the datas in the file management task. Using the datasets procedure or accessing the variables through the SAS windowing interface for the method is more straightforward and does not require data step processing. Using the change statement, we can call the datasets procedure for renaming the variables for setting the same library in the SAS.

                      Example of SAS Rename

                      Given below is the example of SAS Rename:


                      DATA Second; INPUT Rollno $ ID $ Name $; DATALINES; 001 9184321123 Siva 002 9212434 Raman 003 9351251 Sivaraman ; RUN; PROC SQL; CREATE TABLE bckup AS SELECT * FROM Second; QUIT; PROC PRINT vars = bckup; RUN;



                      data Second; set Second; rename ID = MobileNumber; run;


                      The above codes are the primary example for renaming the variables, columns, and data types.

                      Here the Rename option uses the dataset option to pass the input dataset along with the variable SET statement and the output dataset.

                      Create a table on the proc sql using the rename keyword; we can rename the old value to a new value.


                      The SAS Rename is the type of option that can be used in the dataset option for both the input dataset, which passed the SET statement, and the output dataset. The Rename option will follow the keep and drop options using the existing variable name.

                      Recommended Articles

                      This is a guide to SAS Rename. Here we discuss the introduction, how to use variables SAS rename? And examples, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

                      Mvc Architecture In Java With Jsp Application Design Example

                      What is MVC?

                      MVC is an architecture that separates business logic, presentation and data. In MVC,

                      M stands for Model

                      V stands for View

                      C stands for controller.

                      MVC Architecture Diagram

                      Model Layer

                      This is the data layer which consists of the business logic of the system.

                      It consists of all the data of the application

                      It also represents the state of the application.

                      It consists of classes which have the connection to the database.

                      The controller connects with model and fetches the data and sends to the view layer.

                      The model connects with the database as well and stores the data into a database which is connected to it.

                      View Layer

                      This is a presentation layer.

                      It consists of HTML, JSP, etc. into it.

                      It normally presents the UI of the application.

                      It is used to display the data which is fetched from the controller which in turn fetching data from model layer classes.

                      This view layer shows the data on UI of the application.

                      Controller Layer

                      It acts as an interface between View and Model.

                      It intercepts all the requests which are coming from the view layer.

                      It receives the requests from the view layer and processes the requests and does the necessary validation for the request.

                      This requests is further sent to model layer for data processing, and once the request is processed, it sends back to the controller with required information and displayed accordingly by the view.

                      Advantages of MVC Architecture

                      Easy to maintain

                      Easy to extend

                      Easy to test

                      Navigation control is centralized

                      Example of JSP Application Design with MVC Architecture

                      In this example, we are going to show how to use MVC architecture in JSP.

                      We are taking the example of a form with two variables “email” and “password” which is our view layer.

                      This mvc_servlet is controller layer. Here in mvc_servlet the request is sent to the bean object which act as model layer.

                      The email and password values are set into the bean and stored for further purpose.

                      From the bean, the value is fetched and shown in the view layer.


                      <%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"

                      Explanation of the code:

                      View Layer:

                      Code Line 10-15: Here we are taking a form which has two fields as parameter “email” and “password” and this request need to be forwarded to a controller, which is passed in chúng tôi method through which it is passed is POST method.


                      package demotest; import; import javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher; import javax.servlet.ServletException; /** * Servlet implementation class Mvc_servlet */ public class Mvc_servlet extends HttpServlet { private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L; /** * @see HttpServlet#HttpServlet() */ public Mvc_servlet() { super(); } protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { String email=request.getParameter("email"); String password=request.getParameter("password"); TestBean testobj = new TestBean(); testobj.setEmail(email); testobj.setPassword(password); request.setAttribute("gurubean",testobj); RequestDispatcher rd=request.getRequestDispatcher("mvc_success.jsp"); rd.forward(request, response); } }

                      Explanation of the code:

                      Controller layer

                      Code Line 14:mvc_servlet is extending HttpServlet.

                      Code Line 26: As the method used is POST hence request comes into a doPost method of the servlet which process the requests and saves into the bean object as testobj.

                      Code Line 34: Using request object we are setting the attribute as gurubean which is assigned the value of testobj.

                      Code Line 35: Here we are using request dispatcher object to pass the success message to mvc_success.jsp


                      package demotest; import; public class TestBean implements Serializable{ public String getEmail() { return email; } public void setEmail(String email) { = email; } public String getPassword() { return password; } public void setPassword(String password) { this.password = password; } private String email="null"; private String password="null"; }

                      Explanation of the code:

                      Model Layer:

                      Code Line 7-17: It contains the getters and setters of email and password which are members of Test Bean class

                      Code Line 19-20: It defines the members email and password of string type in the bean class.


                      <%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" <% TestBean testguru=(TestBean)request.getAttribute("gurubean"); out.print("Welcome, "+testguru.getEmail());

                      Explanation of the code:

                      Code Line 12: we are getting the attribute using request object which has been set in the doPost method of the servlet.

                      Code Line 13: We are printing the welcome message and email id of which have been saved in the bean object


                      When you execute the above code, you get the following output:



                      In this article, we have learnt about the MVC i.e. Model View Controller architecture.

                      JSP plays the role of presentation of the data and controller. It is an interface between model and view while model connects both to the controller as well as the database. Main business logic is present in the model layer.

                      Update the detailed information about Requirements Analysis Techniques With Example: Complete Tutorial on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!