You are reading the article Researchers Used Crispr To Encode A Movie Into Dna updated in December 2023 on the website Minhminhbmm.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Researchers Used Crispr To Encode A Movie Into Dna
This week scientists announced something kind of weird: Using the gene editing technique CRISPR, they encoded a series of images and a GIF into the DNA of E. Coli. Scientists have actually been encoding images and basic pieces of information into bacteria for years. But encoding a movie represents a big storage upgrade. In the future, the researchers say, this will help enable them to employ bacteria as tiny video cameras, capturing information in places humans can’t get to.
“What we want this system to be used for, eventually, is not to encode information that we already have, but for a way for cells to go out and gather information that we don’t have access to,” says Seth Shipman, a neuroscientist at Harvard University and lead author of the study. “If we could have them collect data and then store that data in their genomes, then we might have access to completely new types of information.”
DNA, made up of the molecular components that carry the genetic codes for life, is also an excellent medium for storing data. Shipman and his team used a relatively new gene editing technique called the CRISPR-cas, employing two proteins to insert information into the DNA of the bacteria E. Coli. The information they inserted was in the form of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA). The entire code, when sequenced and read, corresponds to the individual pixels of each image or each frame in a video sequence. Their work was published today in the journal Nature.
The GIFs above are taken from Eadweard Muybridge’s Human and Animal Locomotion. The GIF on the left is the original (created from the movie file) while the one on the right was reconstructed after researchers encoded the information into DNA. Seth Shipman
The study’s success is noteworthy for a number of reasons. First, it shows that scientists are getting a pretty good grasp of how the CRISPR-Cas system works and how to apply it. But it also shows that we can now encode, upload, and read data that follows a specific time—just as a movie camera is able to tell us not just what happened, but how long it happened for.
“If we are going to have these cells out in the environment collecting data, we need to be able to pull back out the timing that they get things just as you would with any recording device,” says Shipman. For example, he says, you could imagine having modified bacteria with sensors meant to catch a certain pollutant in the environment. When the bacteria sensed the contaminant, they’d take note in their genomes. But when we examined them later looking for data, we’d need to know when the pollution had been “spotted” in order to track it properly.
These little genetically altered timekeeping microbes could also be used to better understand the human body, including one of our most mysterious organs—our clever noggins. Shipman has a vision, with the help of this technology, of having every cell in the brain recording what’s going on as the organ functions. That could help scientists understand what happens inside the brain during basic daily tasks, something that’s still relatively mysterious in neuroscience. Potentially, specially encoded microbes could even be used to detect disease by noting early changes in cell structure and function.
But that’s all at least a few years into the future. For now, Shipman says, he and his team need to figure out how to enable the bacteria to collect specific information on their own. In this study the scientists knew exactly what information was going in—after all, they put it in themselves. Now, the researchers are focused on getting the system to encode something that they don’t already know. Their ultimate goal is to turn these bacteria into microscopic video cameras, observing you and the world around you. It might sound a little creepy, but it would also be incredibly useful.
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Turning a Personal Tragedy Into a Life-Saving Mission SED alum launches nonprofit to prevent dating violence
Malcolm Astley (SED’82) and Mary Dunne with their daughter, Lauren, at her high school graduation. She was murdered by an ex-boyfriend weeks later. Photo courtesy of Malcolm Astley
Malcolm Astley spent his childhood trying to understand what makes people tick. His parents were mental health practitioners, so dinnertime at the Astley house touched on such difficult questions as, “What makes people violent?” Astley (SED’82) continued to pursue these questions at the School of Education, where he earned a doctorate in counseling and human development. “My solution was to aim toward prevention, with the view that if educational institutions could be shaped appropriately, they could head off a lot of problems,” says Astley, a former Lexington, Mass., elementary school principal and a member of the Wayland School Committee. “It’s ironic that I’ve ended up in this position.”
Heartbreakingly ironic, because on the evening of July 3, 2011, Astley’s 18-year-old daughter Lauren paid a visit to her ex-boyfriend and never came home. Nathaniel Fujita, who Lauren’s friends said was struggling after the couple’s breakup, is serving a life sentence for murder, and Astley is left grappling with how his only child could be dead, why Fujita killed her, and how to prevent this kind of tragedy from happening to someone else.
In response to Lauren’s death, Astley and Mary Dunne—Lauren’s mother—established the Lauren Dunne Astley Memorial Fund shortly after her murder. The nonprofit works to promote educational programs and legislation that raise awareness about healthy teen relationships and that prevent dating violence. “It was an effort to put something in the place of something so dear that had been lost,” says Astley, his voice catching. “And that’s what humans rightly do—try to keep creating in the midst of destruction.”
The fund’s top priority is developing and passing legislation that requires K–12 education on healthy selves and healthy relationships in Massachusetts public schools. Such education can have a significant impact: research from the National Institute of Justice shows that classroom- and school-level interventions, including teaching about healthy relationships and encouraging students to report incidents to school officials, led to a 32–47 percent reduction in sexual violence victimization and perpetration in 30 New York City public schools. In Massachusetts, funding for healthy relationship education was cut following the recession in the early 2000s, Boston magazine reported. In cooperation with state legislators, Astley’s fund proposes incorporating safe relationships education into existing anti-bullying legislation. “The schools’ plates are so full,” Astley acknowledges. “But this ought to be number one, in my view.”
The fund’s second and related priority is to support awareness and prevention by training guidance counselors, helping boys and men find positive solutions to dating violence, and sponsoring related arts presentations in Massachusetts schools and venues. Two of these presentations are “You the Man,” a one-man show depicting various male characters’ responses to a partner violence situation, and “The Yellow Dress,” a one-woman show about a high school girl murdered by her boyfriend.
The fund also sponsored a performance of “You the Man” at Wayland High School. Assistant Principal Allyson Mizoguchi says the show hit the mark where previous performances and assemblies on the topic hadn’t. One male student told her, “I liked how the performer told the story; it was much better than being lectured to.”
Repeatedly talking about Lauren’s death isn’t easy, but Astley says it’s good for him. “It’s a way of grieving, and trying to heal and prevent agony for other young women and their families and communities. That in some way helps balance Lauren’s death and absence.” Looking back on all that people have achieved in human rights over the centuries, he told Rothman’s students, makes him hopeful about saving other young people from Lauren’s and Nathaniel’s fates. “I’m quite optimistic,” he told them, “despite the edge in my voice.”
Julie Rattey can be reached at [email protected].
A version of this story was originally published in the fall 2013/winter 2014 edition of @SED.
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For many consumers these days, a Mac of any type can be a really difficult purchase to make. Some individuals find the price too difficult to look past. This makes some people feel that there are no alternatives toward getting a Mac, with some refurbished models still considered quite high. However, there is a great alternative to purchasing a Mac – get an iPad. Today, we will go over the steps to make an iPad the best Mac alternative that it can possibly be. From products to applications, you can find yourself with a “Mac-Pad” in no time.The Hardware
A great option to look into is Apple’s refurbished service. Many consumers cringe at the sight of the word, refurbished, but it is really not as bad as you may think. Refurbished, for those who don’t know, simply is when a gadget is returned to Apple and prepared for resell. This can range on the best side as a consumer wanting a different color iPad, and on the worst side, it being an iPad with a glitch that was fixed like new by Apple.
It’s important to remember that you aren’t really sacrificing anything with such a purchase. For $419 currently for a regular $499 iPad with WiFi and 16GB, you are saving some money. In addition, Apple has the previous model, the iPad, that garners even more deals. In addition, it’s important to remember that the iPad 3 is expected to at least be announced in the coming month. With reports of the possibility that Apple will keep the iPad 2 on the market at a lower price, you can find yourself with a better deal if you wait a bit longer.The Cases: ZaggMate and ZaggFolio
The most important aspect of using your iPad as a Mac is to have the right casing. At the moment, the best company providing the most authentic iPad keyboard casing is Zagg. They have two models, the ZaggMate for the iPad 1 and the ZaggFolio for the iPad 2. Both models use Bluetooth to connect your iPad with the keyboard. The iPad itself is supported on a built-in stand, offering a laptop-feel angle. The case also has iPad specific keys and access to iPad controls like silence and volume rocker. If the $99 price tag is a little much for you, Apple also offers bluetooth keyboards for $49.99. These are the same keyboards used for iMacs, offering the exact feel as a desktop. However, you must purchase a case separately, which in the end will equal out the price.The Applications
In addition to the hardware, you must also have the software for your iPad to match. The exact software you would need differs. Here is a nice list of almost every application on my Mac right now that has an iPad equivalent. I found a match for just about each application.
Skype for iPad
This is the obvious replacement of my Skype for Mac. All of the key features are still present with the iPad version. All you have to do is sign in with your Skype account and you can get a call started in no time. Individuals with the iPad 2 will be able to have a video conference with the iPad version of this application as well. You can hold calls with both other Skype for iPad users and Skype for Mac users (and Windows). If you want to make it into a mobile phone, a feature your laptop can’t do out of the box, then you can pay a bit more and enable landline calling with Skype. This is a Skype for Mac feature as well.iMovie for iPad
I’m a bit surprised at how many people don’t know about iMovie for iOS, but it does exist. iMovie for iOS offers many of the same features that is on the Mac. All you have to do is drag and drop media into the timeline, tap and drag to extend or shorten clips. With an addition of photos and music, you can create a great project right on your iPad. Want to narrate a funny event? No problem, just tap to record audio, and then add it into your project. Once done, you can export your high definition project to YouTube and various other social networking websites.Pages for iPad
Pages for iPad allows you to create beautiful documents for print and sharing on your iPad. Apple offer you with various beautiful templates to create a unique document. You can add text, change color, and even add some photos to brighten up the document. Interrupted while making your creation? No problem, iCloud will save everything you were doing and will allow you to continue when you can. You can also create charts within the application, allowing you to show the data in your paper in a much better way. Once done, you can export you document to various word processing programs, even including Word, or you can make it available online for viewing. At $9.99, this is a much economical option compared to Microsoft Office for Mac.Keynote for iPad
Keynote is Pages for iPad’s friendly cousin. Where Pages excels in documents, Keynote impresses with slideshows and power points. You can create amazing presentations right from your iPad with Keynote for iPad. Just like with Pages, Keynote allows you to use various templates, add images and text, and even add other types of media into your project. You can have your project on an automatic loop or have it manually change slides. Your presentation can be exported afterwards to Powerpoint, as a PDF, and more. If you want a desktop quality presentation on your iPad, Keynote is for you.Internet Service
The subject that differs the iPad from a laptop is the subject of Internet. The iPad has the option out of the box to either have a Wi-Fi or 3G option. A majority of modern laptops only have the option of Wi-Fi. Unless you have a data card, this is usually the only option you are presented with when on your laptop.Some Advantages and Drawbacks
Ari Simon has been a writer with Make Tech Easier since August 2011. Ari loves anything related to technology and social media. When Ari isn’t working, he enjoys traveling and trying out the latest tech gadget.
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Using DNA language models, it is simple to spot statistical trends in DNA sequences
Large language models (LLMs) are trained on a vast quantity of data and learn from statistical relationships between letters and words to anticipate what follows next in a phrase. For instance, the popular generative AI program ChatGPT’s LLM, GPT-4, is trained on many petabytes (several million gigabytes) of text.
By spotting statistical patterns in DNA sequences, biologists are using the power of these LLMs to reveal fresh insight into genetics. Similar to nucleotide language models, DNA language models are trained on a large number of DNA sequences.
The phrase “the language of life” as it relates to DNA is frequently used. A genome is a collection of DNA sequences that make up an organism’s genetic makeup. In contrast to written languages, the only letters in DNA are A, C, G, and T, which stand for the nucleoside adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Even though this genetic language appears straightforward, its grammar is still a mystery to us. DNA language models can help us better grasp genomic grammar one rule at a time.Versatile Prediction
The capacity of ChatGPT to handle various jobs, from creating poetry to copy-editing an essay, gives it incredible strength. Models of DNA language are also flexible. Their uses include estimating the functions of various genomic regions and the interactions between multiple genes. Language models may also enable new analysis techniques by inferring genome properties from DNA sequences without requiring “reference genomes.”
For instance, a computer trained on the human genome was able to forecast the locations on RNA where proteins are most likely to interact. The “gene expression” process requires this interaction—transforming DNA into proteins. The amount of RNA translated into proteins is constrained by the binding of specific proteins to RNA. These proteins are thought to mediate gene expression in this manner. Because the form of the RNA is essential to these interactions, the model had to be able to predict where in the genome these interactions would occur and how the RNA would fold.
The ability of DNA language models to generate novel mutations in genomic sequences also enables researchers to forecast how these changes may occur. For instance, researchers used a language model at the genome size to forecast and retrace the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Distant Genomic Action
Biologists have recently realized that portions of the genome that were once thought of as “junk DNA” interact with other parts of the genome unexpectedly. A quick way to discover more about these concealed interactions is by using DNA language models. Language models can find relationships between genes in distant genome regions by spotting patterns over lengthy spans of DNA sequences.
Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, offer a DNA language model with the capacity to learn the impacts of genome-wide variants in a recent preprint published on bioRxiv. These variations, single-letter alterations in the genome that cause illnesses or other physiological effects, are typically only discovered through pricy research investigations called genome-wide association studies.
It was trained using the genomes of seven species of plants from the mustard family and is known as the Genomic Pre-trained Network (GPN). Not only can GPN be modified to identify genome variations for any species, but it can also accurately name the various components of these mustard genomes.
Researchers created a DNA language model that could recognize gene-gene interactions from single-cell data in work just published in Nature Machine Intelligence. Understanding how genes interact at the single-cell level will provide fresh insights into illnesses with intricate pathways. This enables researchers to link genetic variables that drive disease development to variances between specific cells.Hallucination into Creativity
A mobile hotspot is an invaluable connectivity option when you need internet access quickly but can’t get on Wi-Fi. Turning your Galaxy smartphone into a mobile hotspot takes less than a minute and will allow you to connect multiple devices, including laptops, Chromebooks and tablets.Your own private Wi-Fi access point
When you turn your smartphone into a mobile hotspot, you are essentially creating your own Wi-Fi access point using your phone’s mobile data. If you don’t have access to Wi-Fi or don’t want to connect to unsecure public Wi-Fi networks, turning on your mobile hotspot can let you (and those you choose to invite) stay connected and productive on your other computing devices. However, it’s important to limit who can connect to your hotspot by using a password so someone else doesn’t burn through all your mobile data or try to intercept sensitive information passing through the hotspot.Turning on mobile hotspot
On the latest Galaxy devices, including the Samsung S22 series and Samsung Z series smartphones, turning on the mobile hotspot feature is as simple as pulling down your Quick Panel and tapping Mobile Hotspot. On Galaxy S22 Ultra and Z Fold4, you can even use the Samsung S Pen to do so. On some earlier Galaxy devices, you may need to open Settings and tap into the Connections menu.Configure your mobile hotspot
If you are using the feature for the first time, open the Mobile Hotspot menu to configure your settings before turning your hotspot on. Here are some recommended steps to configure your hotspot:
Change the name of your hotspot to make it easily recognizable to you and anyone you plan to invite to use it.
Unless you want everybody nearby to have access to your hotspot, you should set a strong password that will be required for any devices attempting to connect. While you can change security from WPA2 to “open,” it’s strongly recommended to keep a password on your hotspot to protect you and any friends or colleagues connecting. As WPA3 support becomes more widespread, consider opting for that upgraded security protocol.
The latest Galaxy devices have an Auto Hotspot feature that allows you to automatically share your phone’s internet connection with other devices signed into your Samsung account or part of your account’s family group. You can invite specific people to join that group.
Another helpful configuration is to set a timeout on your hotspot to preserve battery life and enhance security. This can be accessed in the options menu at the top right. The hotspot will turn off after a designated period of time during which there are no connected devices.
For extra security, you can hide your hotspot so other users can’t try to connect to it. This setting is found in the options menu under Configure Mobile Hotspot.Sharing your mobile hotspot
In addition to using the family sharing feature within Auto Hotspot, you can also quickly share mobile hotspot access using a QR code. Once your hotspot is turned on, just tap the QR code icon at the top right and your colleague or friend can scan it on their device. With the QR code, they’ll be able to connect immediately, without even entering your password.Wi-Fi tethering
Many Galaxy devices also enable Wi-Fi sharing. Although you may primarily use a mobile hotspot when you don’t have Wi-Fi access, there may be instances where your device is connected to Wi-Fi and you want to share that connectivity with other devices. One benefit of Wi-Fi sharing via your phone is that you do not have to directly share the original Wi-Fi access point’s password. To do this, go into the options menu at the top right and turn on Wi-Fi Sharing.Using a mobile hotspot for business
Mobile hotspots can keep employees productive while on the go. For example, if you send a field worker to visit an offsite building, they can easily stay connected to the main office with a mobile hotspot. Even if they go to a location without Wi-Fi access, they can set up a mobile hotspot in a few steps and continue working online as if nothing is different. This equates to less downtime and backtracking in the short term and higher levels of productivity in the long run.Can foldables really save your business money?
See how much your company could save by replacing legacy tech with foldables. Calculate savings
Sign up for a Samsung Business Account to get exclusive offers, including volume pricing discounts, on Samsung Galaxy Z Fold4 and Galaxy Z Flip4 today. And see how much your company could save by replacing legacy tech with foldables using this simple cost calculator.
If you want to buy a used Mac to save a bit of money, the best place to do so is directly from Apple’s Online Refurbished Store. We’ve bought used Macs from just about everywhere under the sun before, from friends, coworkers, Craigslist, and eBay, but nothing beats the official Certified offerings from Apple. Why? Apple Certified Refurbished products have been thoroughly tested, cleaned, and any defective item has been replaced. For portables, Apple Refurbs usually get brand new batteries too. You can read more about the official refurb process here, but we’ll elaborate on six main reasons why we think buying refurbished is the way to go when buying anything in the used Mac market.
1: Competitive Pricing
Apple certified refurbs are often cheaper than buying on the used market from places like Craigslist and Ebay. For example, a base model 2011 MacBook Air 11″ from the Apple Refurb Store is $749, but the average price on Craigslist is closer to $800. Yes, there are outliers on both Craigslist and Ebay, but those lower prices can come with hidden costs. Was the ebay/craigslist item thoroughly tested before being resold? Were any faulty items replaced? Does it have a full manufacturers warranty? The answer to those questions is probably not, so though you may be saving $50 or so by finding a screaming deal, that could come back to bite you if the hard drive fails a few months later and there’s no longer a valid warranty.
Even the newest Macs are usually available as certified after a month or two from the refurb store thanks to returns. You’ll typically save at least 15% off the sticker price grabbing one of these rather than getting the same thing new.2: Full 1 Year Warranty – Same As Brand New
Other than the discount, this is arguably the most important aspect: You will get the exact same 1 year warranty with a refurb as you would with a brand new Apple product, even if the refurbished item is a few model years behind. You’ll also get the exact same great service when calling Apple or when going to the Genius Bar at an Apple Store, there’s no difference in service at all. This alone is worth going the certified route, in our view.3: Eligible for AppleCare Extended Warranties
Speaking of warranties, official refurbs are eligible for the full 3 year extended warranty through AppleCare. Macs acquired on the used market are only able to buy the extended warranty if it was purchased within the past calendar year.4: Free & Fast Shipping
Apple always offers free basic shipping, and even the free shipping is fast. Sure, a lot of Ebay sellers also give you free shipping, but if you’ve done a fair amount of shopping on Ebay you know not all sellers ship free, ship and pack items well, let alone ship items quickly. Apple’s shipping on refurbs is very quick, usually going out the same or next day as the order, and everything is very well packed. Speaking of packing, scroll down below to see what the packaging looks like, and how well protected a MacBook ships.5: Usually Eligible for OS X Up-To-Date Program
Almost all Macs currently being sold on the Refurb Store are eligible for a free upgrade to OS X Mountain Lion through the update program. If the Mac you’re buying used elsewhere is still on Snow Leopard or Lion, you’ll be out at least $30. Don’t forget to factor that cost in. Plus, with the Up-to-Date program offering, your Apple ID gets the OS X Update, meaning you can install it to your other Macs too by downloading it again through the App Store.6: Random Upgrade Lottery
Just like playing the lottery, don’t ever buy from the refurb store expecting to get lucky, but it’s not unheard of for some refurbished Apple gear to come upgraded with better hardware than what you paid for. For the lucky few, you can sometimes get more RAM, a better processor, or an upgraded hard drive. Again, this is never something you should count on or bet on, but it does make for a very pleasant surprise if you do get lucky.What About Downsides?
Of course there are a few things that aren’t so great, here are the primary reasons you may not want to go refurb:
Not configurable, what you see is what you get and that’s usually the stock configurations
Choice and supply is limited to what’s listed on the Refurbished Store, you’ll find greater diversity elsewhere
You don’t get the same shiny Apple box as a brand new product, bummer for the box collectors out there
The “New Mac Smell” is not as strong, only the biggest Mac fans can understand this one…
Sales tax is enforced, unlike buying on the private marketWhat Does an Apple Certified Refurbished Unboxing Look Like?
Admittedly, the unboxing of a refurb isn’t quite as exciting as a brand spanking new Apple item, but when you save $400+ from new, do you really care? Here are a few shots of a refurbished MacBook Air and what the packaging looks like.
Once you pull the computer out, everything else is the same as getting a brand new device. It’s wrapped in plastic, the keyboard and screen has a cover/protector separating the two, and the cords are wrapped in plastic as usual. At this point it’s basically impossible to tell it apart from a brand new Mac. No complaints!
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