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In Java, Array is an object. It is a nonprimitive data type which stores values of similar data type. The matrix in java is nothing but a multidimensional array which represents multiple rows and columns.
As per the problem statement we have to rotate the given matrix to 180 degrees. It means we have to interchange the rows of the given matrix in symmetric vertically.
Let’s deep dive into this article, to know how it can be done by using Java programming language.
To show you some instances Instance1Suppose the original matrix is
{ {10, 20, 30}, {40, 50, 60}, {70, 80, 90} }After rotating the matrix to 180 degrees:
{ {90, 80, 70}, {60, 50, 40}, {30, 20, 10} } Instance2Suppose the original matrix is
{ {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}, {7, 8, 9} }After rotating the matrix to 180 degrees:
{ {9, 8, 7}, {6, 5, 4}, {3, 2, 1} } Instance3Suppose the original matrix is
{ {11, 22, 33}, {44, 55, 66}, {77, 88, 99} }After rotating the matrix to 180 degrees:
{ {99, 88, 77}, {66, 55, 44}, {33, 22, 11} } AlgorithmStep 1 − Declare and initialize an integer type multidimensional array.
Step 2 − Declare two integer type variables to store the length of the rows and columns of a given matrix.
Step 3 − Take a nested for loop to rotate the matrix to 180 degree and store the new matrix into another empty matrix.
Step 4 − Print the resultant matrix as output.
SyntaxTo get the length of an array (number of elements in that array), there is an inbuilt property of array i.e length
Below refers to the syntax of it
array.lengthwhere, ‘array’ refers to the array reference.
Multiple ApproachesWe have provided the solution in different approaches.
By Using Static Initialization of Array Elements
By Using User Defined Method
Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.
Approach1: By Using Static Initialization of Matrix with pow() FunctionIn this approach, matrix elements will be initialized in the program. Then as per the algorithm replace the matrix elements by its square. Here we will make use of inbuilt Pow() function to get the square of an element.
Example public class Main{ public static void main(String[] args){ int[][] inputMatrix = { {10, 20, 30}, {40, 50, 60}, {70, 80, 90} }; int r = inputMatrix.length; int c = inputMatrix[0].length; int[][] rotatedMAt = new int[r][c]; for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ rotatedMAt[i][j] = inputMatrix[r  i  1][c  j  1]; } } System.out.println("Given Matrix:"); for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ System.out.print(inputMatrix[i][j] + " "); } System.out.println(); } System.out.println("Rotated 180 degree Matrix:"); for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ System.out.print(rotatedMAt[i][j] + " "); } System.out.println(); } } } Output Given Matrix: 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Rotated 180 degree Matrix: 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Approach2: By Using User Defined MethodIn this approach, array elements will be initialized in the program. Then call a user defined method by passing the array as parameter and inside method as per the algorithm rotate the matrix to 180 degrees.
Example public class Main{ public static void Rotate(int[][] inputMatrix){ int r = inputMatrix.length; int c = inputMatrix[0].length; int[][] rotatedMAt = new int[r][c]; for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ rotatedMAt[i][j] = inputMatrix[r  i  1][c  j  1]; } } System.out.println("Given Matrix:"); for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ System.out.print(inputMatrix[i][j] + " "); } System.out.println(); } System.out.println("Rotated 180 degree Matrix:"); for (int i = 0; i < r; i++){ for (int j = 0; j < c; j++){ System.out.print(rotatedMAt[i][j] + " "); } System.out.println(); } } public static void main(String[] args){ int[][] inpMatrix = { {22, 12, 54}, {2, 76, 23}, {124, 67, 34} }; Rotate(inpMatrix); } } Output Given Matrix: 22 12 54 2 76 23 124 67 34 Rotated 180 degree Matrix: 34 67 124 23 76 2 54 12 22In this article, we explored different approaches to rotate the matrix 180 degrees by using Java programming language.
You're reading Rotate The Matrix 180 Degree In Java?
Java Menu Driven Program To Perform Matrix Operation
Array in Java is called as a non primitive data type which stores a fixed number of single type values. It is called a onedimensional array. Whereas matrix refers to a rectangular array or TwoDimensional array.
In this article, we will see how to perform different matrix operations like addition, subtraction, and multiplication by using Java Menu driven program. We will be implementing the application using a switch case.
To show you some instances Instance1 Suppose we have inserted two different matrices of 2 rows and 3 columns. Then we will perform matrix addition and print the result. Let the matrix be: First Matrix: 2 3 5 9 8 7 Second Matrix: 6 4 8 9 5 4 Matrix after addition: 8 7 13 18 13 11 Instance2 Suppose we have inserted two different matrices of 2 rows and 3 columns. Then we will perform matrix subtraction and print the result. Let the matrix be: First Matrix: 2 3 5 9 8 7 Second Matrix: 6 4 8 9 5 4 Matrix after Subtraction: 4 1 3 0 3 3 Instance3 Suppose we have inserted two different matrices of 2 rows and 3 columns. Then we will perform matrix multiplication and print the result. Let the matrix be: First Matrix: 2 3 5 9 8 7 Second Matrix: 6 4 8 9 5 4 Matrix after Multiplication: 12 12 40 81 40 28 SyntaxTo calculate the matrix addition, subtraction and multiplication we use a for loop with some basic logic.
Following is the syntax for “for loop” −
for (statement 1; statement 2; statement 3) { } AlgorithmStep1 − Ask the user to input the two matrices.
Step2 − Display the menu.
Step3 − Ask the user to enter their choice.
Step4 − Use a switch case to go to the choice and perform the operation.
Step5 − Print the result.
Let’s see the program to understand it clearly.
Exampleimport
java
.
util.
*
;
public
class
Main
{
public
static
void
main
(
String
args[
]
)
{
Scanner
s=
new
Scanner
(
System
.
in)
;
int
p,
q,
m,
n;
System
.
out.
(
"Enter number of rows in first matrix: "
)
;
p=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
System
.
out.
(
"Enter number of columns in first matrix: "
)
;
q=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
System
.
out.
(
"Enter number of rows in second matrix: "
)
;
m=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
System
.
out.
(
"Enter number of columns in second matrix: "
)
;
n=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
int
a[
]
[
]
=
new
int
[
p]
[
q]
;
int
b[
]
[
]
=
new
int
[
m]
[
n]
;
int
c[
]
[
]
=
new
int
[
m]
[
n]
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"Enter all the elements of first matrix:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
q;
j++
)
{
a[
i]
[
j]
=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
}
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"Enter all the elements of second matrix:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
m;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
b[
i]
[
j]
=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
}
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"First Matrix:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
q;
j++
)
{
System
.
out.
(
a[
i]
[
j]
+
" "
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
""
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"Second Matrix:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
m;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
System
.
out.
(
b[
i]
[
j]
+
" "
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
""
)
;
}
mainLoop:
while
(
true
)
{
System
.
out.
println
(
"n***Menu***"
)
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"1. Matrix Addition"
)
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"2. Matrix Subtraction"
)
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"3. Matrix Multiplication"
)
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"4. Terminate the program"
)
;
System
.
out.
println
(
"Enter action number (14): "
)
;
int
command;
if
(
s.
hasNextInt
(
)
)
{
command=
s.
nextInt
(
)
;
s.
nextLine
(
)
;
}
else
{
System
.
out.
println
(
"nILLEGAL RESPONSE. YOU MUST ENTER A NUMBER."
)
;
s.
nextLine
(
)
;
continue
;
}
switch
(
command)
{
case
1
:
if
(
p==
m&&
&
q==
n)
{
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
for
(
int
k=
0
;
k<
q;
k++
)
{
c[
i]
[
j]
=
a[
i]
[
j]
+
b[
i]
[
j]
;
}
}
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"Matrix after addition:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
System
.
out.
(
c[
i]
[
j]
+
" "
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
""
)
;
}
}
else
{
System
.
out.
println
(
"Addition would not be possible"
)
;
}
break
;
case
2
:
if
(
p==
m&&
q==
n)
{
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
for
(
int
k=
0
;
k<
q;
k++
)
{
c[
i]
[
j]
=
a[
i]
[
j]

b[
i]
[
j]
;
}
}
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"Matrix after Subtraction:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
System
.
out.
(
c[
i]
[
j]
+
" "
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
""
)
;
}
}
else
{
System
.
out.
println
(
"Subtraction would not be possible"
)
;
}
break
;
case
3
:
if
(
p==
m&&
q==
n)
{
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
for
(
int
k=
0
;
k<
q;
k++
)
{
c[
i]
[
j]
=
a[
i]
[
j]
*
b[
i]
[
j]
;
}
}
}
System
.
out.
println
(
"Matrix after Multiplication:"
)
;
for
(
int
i=
0
;
i<
p;
i++
)
{
for
(
int
j=
0
;
j<
n;
j++
)
{
System
.
out.
(
c[
i]
[
j]
+
" "
)
;
}
System
.
out.
println
(
""
)
;
}
}
else
{
System
.
out.
println
(
"Multiplication would not be possible"
)
;
}
break
;
case
4
:
System
.
out.
println
(
"Program terminated"
)
;
break
mainLoop;
default
:
System
.
out.
println
(
"Wrong choice!!"
)
;
}
}
}
Output Enter number of rows in first matrix: 2 Enter number of columns in first matrix: 2 Enter number of rows in second matrix: 2 Enter number of columns in second matrix: 2 Enter all the elements of first matrix: 1 2 3 4 Enter all the elements of second matrix: 5 6 7 8 First Matrix: 1 2 3 4 Second Matrix: 5 6 7 8 ***Menu*** 1. Matrix Addition 2. Matrix Subtraction 3. Matrix Multiplication 4. Terminate the program Enter action number (14): 1 Matrix after addition: 6 8 10 12 ***Menu*** 1. Matrix Addition 2. Matrix Subtraction 3. Matrix Multiplication 4. Terminate the program Enter action number (14): 2 Matrix after Subtraction : 4 4 4 4 ***Menu*** 1. Matrix Addition 2. Matrix Subtraction 3. Matrix Multiplication 4. Terminate the program Enter action number (14): 3 Matrix after Multiplication: 5 12 21 32 ***Menu*** 1. Matrix Addition 2. Matrix Subtraction 3. Matrix Multiplication 4. Terminate the program Enter action number (14): 4 Program terminatedIn this article, we explored how to perform matrix operations in Java by using a menu driven approach.
How To Insert The Degree Symbol In Microsoft Word
Sometimes you may want to insert the degree symbol in Microsoft Word to show temperature readings rather than typing the word “degrees.” However, this may not be as easy as it sounds because you won’t find the degree symbol on your keyboard.
There are actually several great ways to do this, including using your keyboard. Even though you don’t see the symbol, it doesn’t mean there isn’t a way to type it. We focus on Windows here but do provide solutions for macOS and Linux too.
1. Use the Symbol Menu in WordMicrosoft Word and Libre Office come with a builtin special characters menu that you can use to insert the degree sign. To access the symbols menu in Word, simply follow the steps below:
You can go a step further, and if you often use the degree symbol you can create your own shortcut to insert it (we’re going to go with Alt + o, because isn’t a degree symbol a kind of tiny ‘o’?).
2. Using Copy and PasteIf you rarely use the degree symbol in Microsoft Word, it’s hard to remember keyboard shortcuts or how to open special menus. If this is the case, you can use a simple trick to avoid having to remember anything: copy and paste.
The Wikipedia List of Unicode Characters is a great place to start. Simply use your browser’s search feature to search for the name of the symbol, then copy the symbol and paste it into Word.
For frequently used symbols, create a Word doc with just those symbols listed, then copy and paste. To make it easier to use, type the name of the symbol beside it. You will have your own copy and paste resource right on your desktop. This works for all operating systems.
3. Use the Keyboard ShortcutUsing a keyboard shortcut is the easiest method to insert symbols into a document. The only problem is you’ll need to remember some rarely used short codes. You can always keep a Notepad document on your desktop for easy reference. Fortunately, with this method, you just need to hit a combination of keys to insert the degree sign anywhere in a Word document.
To insert the degree sign, first make press the Num key to enable Num Lock and make those number bad work as numbers rather than their alternative functions.
Then simply follow these two steps:
Select where you want to insert the degree symbol in Microsoft Word.
While holding down the Alt key, use the keypad to type “0176.” Release the Alt key, and the degree sign will appear.
Note: for this method to work, the Num Lock on your keyboard MUST be OFF. If it’s ON, the keyboard will not accept numerical input.
If you’d like to know how to insert other symbols using this method, Alt Codes lists most every symbol code.
For macOS, use this keyboard shortcut instead: Option + Shift + 8. Option + K gives you a slightly different degree symbol, so try both to see which looks best for your needs.
Linux uses Unicode versus Alt Codes: Ctrl + Shift + U followed by 00B0. Hit Enter and the degree symbol will appear. Use this guide to learn different ways to insert special characters in Linux.
4. Use Character MapTo use this method, follow the steps below.
Open your Start menu and type “Character Map” in the search box. Hit Enter. This searches your computer for the Character Map program.
For macOS users, you have a similar feature called Character Viewer. Use Control + Command + Space to bring up the viewer. You can insert accents, special characters, emojis, and mathematical symbols.
Inserting a degree symbol in Microsoft Word only takes seconds once you know how to do it. No matter which method you prefer, you can finally skip typing out “degrees” and insert the symbol instead. Plus, once you’ve learned to do this, you’ll be able to insert other types of symbols, too.
For more Wordrelated pointers, read our guide on how to display one page at a time in Microsoft Word. You might also want to learn how to add YouTube or offline videos to Word documents. For many features, you sometimes need to install older versions of the .NET framework for Windows. We have you covered there, too.
Crystal Crowder
Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.
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Meet In The Middle In Java
We are provided with an array and a sum value; the problem statement is to calculate the maximum subset sum which does not exceed the given sum value. We cannot apply the brute force approach here because the structure of the array A and similarly the subset sum of the later subset is calculated and stored in array B. Finally the 2 subproblem are merged such that their sum is less than or equal to given sum.
Approach used in the below program is as follows −
Create an array of data type long and a variable of data type long and set it to 10. Call the function as calculateSubsetSum(arr, arr.length, given_Sum)).
Inside the method, calculateSubsetSum(arr, arr.length, given_Sum))
Call the method as solve_subarray(a, A, len / 2, 0) and solve_subarray(a, B, len – len / 2, len / 2)
Calculate the size of A and B and then sort the array B using the sort() method.
Start loop FOR from i to 0 till i less than size of an array A. check IF A[i] less than equals to given_Sum then set get_lower_bound to calculate_lower_bound(B, given_Sum – A[i]). Check, IF get_lower_bound to size_B OR B[get_lower_bound] not equals to (given_Sum – A[i])) then decrement get_lower_bound by 1.
Check IF B[get_lower_bound] + A[i]) greater than max then set max to import java.lang.*; import java.io.*; public class testClass{ static long A[] = new long[2000005]; static long B[] = new long[2000005]; static void solve_subarray(long a[], long x[], int n, int c){ for (int i = 0; i < (1 << n); i++){ long sum = 0; for (int j = 0; j < n; j++){ if ((i & (1 << j)) == 0){ sum += a[j + c]; } } x[i] = sum; } } static long calculateSubsetSum(long a[], int len, long given_Sum){ solve_subarray(a, A, len / 2, 0); solve_subarray(a, B, len – len / 2, len / 2); int size_A = 1 << (len / 2); int size_B = 1 << (len – len / 2); Arrays.sort(B); long max = 0; for (int i = 0; i < size_A; i++){ if (A[i] <= given_Sum){ int get_lower_bound = calculate_lower_bound(B, given_Sum – A[i]); get_lower_bound–; } max = B[get_lower_bound] + A[i]; } } } return max; } static int calculate_lower_bound(long a[], long x){ int left = 1, right = a.length; while (left + 1 < right){ right = m; } else{ left = m; } } return right; } public static void main(String[] args){ long arr[] = { 21, 1, 2, 45, 9, 8 }; long given_Sum = 12; }
The Role Of Java Logging In App Development
Java Logging is crucial to app development because it ensures Java applications work as intended. Logging involves recording events and messages an application generates during its runtime. These messages are used to spot errors, monitor performance, maintain compliance, and debug issues with Javabased applications.
The Java logging framework has different sets of APIs to log messages at various levels of severity, namely INFO, WARNING, and SEVERE. These log messages can be written to different targets like a remote server, a file, or a console.
App developers can use the logging framework to configure the logging behavior of Javabased applications, such as the log level and the format and destination of the log messages. They can also filter and format log messages according to different criteria like their source or severity level. To gain indepth knowledge on this concept, read this Java logging series of guides.
Importance of Java LoggingDevelopers often rely on Java logging when building and testing their Javabased applications. Here are some benefits of the process:
Identifying errors and troubleshooting
Java logging is essential for identifying errors that prevent a Javabased application from running as intended. Whenever such an application develops an error or exhibits strange behavior, developers can examine the log to determine what went wrong and diagnose the problem.
Compliance and audit trails
The process is crucial for audits and compliance because log messages detail all the actions that occur during an application’s runtime. This allows senior developers to audit the application and ensure it is programmed to function according to the development plan.
Performance monitoring
Java logging is invaluable for app performance monitoring because developers can use it to measure how long some actions take. This provides a basis for app optimization and allows developers to improve their applications.
Security overview
Logging helps security efforts by recording failed login attempts, security breaches, and user activity within an application. Cybersecurity professionals can analyze this data and use their findings to develop more robust app security measures to prevent the recurrence of previous security incidents.
Java Logging FrameworkThis framework provides a standardized way to record and manage log messages in Javabased applications. Java logging frameworks consist of numerous components that work in tandem to facilitate the logging process. Here are some of the important ones:
Logger
As the central component of a Java logging framework, loggers are responsible for receiving log messages and forwarding them to the appropriate handler to be processed. They are defined by a hierarchical naming convention reflective of the structure of the application in question. Developers use this to control the granularity of the logging output by making adjustments to the log levels at different levels of the hierarchy.
There are different types of Java loggers available, and these are the most widely used:
Java Logging (java.util.logging)
This is the default logging framework that accompanies the Java Development Kit and performs the basic logging functions.
Log4j
Logback
Logback has similar functionality to Log4j but is faster, more efficient, and has additional features.
Handler
Handlers process the log messages from the logger and send them to their appropriate output destination. The destination can be a console output, database, file, or socket. Several logging frameworks have builtin handlers, while others permit developers to create custom ones.
Formatter
This component formats log messages before being forwarded to the handler. Formatters format the time and date stamps, class names, message texts, and log levels of log messages so handlers can process them appropriately.
Filter
Filters determine the log messages that the handler processes. They filter log messages based on criteria like class name, log level, and keywords.
Tips for Efficient Java LoggingDevelopers should consider the following tips to ensure effective Java logging in their applications:
Define log levels
Defining log levels will ensure messages are logged at the right severity level. The widely used levels are DEBUG, ERROR, INFO, FATAL, and WARN.
Use descriptive log messages
Log messages should be descriptive enough for developers to understand. They should contain relevant information like class, method, time stamp, level of severity, and text.
Do not log sensitive information
Logging sensitive information like credit card numbers, social security numbers, and passwords can compromise an app’s security. As a resultevelopers should avoid logging them.
Use contextual information
Contextual information like request IDs, user IDs, and session IDs are helpful to developers when tracing the sequence of events that led up to an error they are investigating, so they should use it.
Implement log rotation
Log rotation is used to prevent log files from growing too large. Large log files make it difficult to investigate application errors, so configuring their maximum size and age simplifies the process.
EndnoteHow To Find The Surface Area Of Hemisphere In Java?
A hemisphere refers to the exact half of a sphere. Means if we divide a sphere in two equal parts then we will get two hemispheres. Hemisphere is a threedimensional geometrical shape which has one flat face.
There are many practical examples of hemispheres. The earth divided into 2 equal parts results 2 hemispheres i.e. Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere.
The area occupied by the outer surface of a threedimensional object is called the surface area.
Formula to calculate surface area of hemisphere −
Mathematically it can be represented as
$$mathrm{Surface :Area := :2pi:r^2}$$
$$mathrm{Surface :Area := :2pi:r^2}$$
Mathematically it can be represented as
Volume = 2 * pi * r * rWhere, ‘r’ refers to the radius of the hemisphere
In this article we will see how we can find the surface area of the hemisphere by using Java programming language.
To show you some instances Instance1Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 4.5.
Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere.
surface area = 127.234Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 127.234
Instance2Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 3.5
Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere
surface area = 76.96Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 76.96
Instance3Suppose radius(r) of hemisphere is 5
Then by using surface area formula of hemisphere
surface area = 157.07Hence, the surface area of hemisphere is 157.07
SyntaxIn Java we have a predefined constant in Math class of chúng tôi package i.e. chúng tôi which gives us the pie value which is approximately equal to 3.14159265359.
Following is the syntax for that
Math.PITo get the power of any number raised to the power of another number in Java we have inbuilt java.lang.Math.pow() method.
Following is the syntax to get power of 2 by using the method −
double power = chúng tôi (inputValue,2) Algorithm
Step 1 − Get the radius of the hemisphere either by initialization or by user input.
Step 2 − Find the surface area of the hemisphere by using the surface area formula.
Step 3 − Print the result.
Multiple ApproachesWe have provided the solution in different approaches.
By Using Static Input
By Using User Input
By Using User Defined Method
Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.
Approach1: By Using Static InputIn this approach, the radius value of the hemisphere will be initialized in the program. Then by using the algorithm we will find the surface area.
Examplepublic
static
void
main
(
String
[
]
args
)
{
double
radius
=
10
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Given radius of hemisphere : “
+
radius
)
;
double
surfaceArea
=
2
*
Math
.
PI
*
radius
*
radius
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Surface area of hemisphere is : “
+
surfaceArea
)
;
}
}
Output Given radius of hemisphere : 10.0 Surface area of hemisphere is : 628.3185307179587 Approach2: By Using User Input ValueIn this approach, the user will be asked to take the input of the radius value of the cone. Then by using the surface area formula of the cone, find the surface area. Here we will make use of the Java inbuilt pow() method.
Examplepublic
static
void
main
(
String
[
]
args
)
{
double
radius
=
6
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Given radius of hemisphere : “
+
radius
)
;
double
surfaceArea
=
2
*
Math
.
PI
*
Math
.
pow
(
radius
,
2
)
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Surface area of hemisphere is : “
+
surfaceArea
)
;
}
}
Output Given radius of hemisphere : 6.0 Surface area of hemisphere is : 226.1946710584651 Approach3: By Using User Defined MethodIn this approach, the radius value of the hemisphere will be initialized in the program. Then we call a user defined method to find the volume by passing the radius value of the hemisphere as a parameter. Then inside the method by using the surface area formula, find the surface area of the hemisphere.
Examplepublic
static
void
main
(
String
[
]
args
)
{
double
radius
=
5.5
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Given radius of hemisphere : “
+
radius
)
;
findSurfaceArea
(
radius
)
;
}
public
static
void
findSurfaceArea
(
double
radius
)
{
double
surfaceArea
=
2
*
Math
.
PI
*
Math
.
pow
(
radius
,
2
)
;
System
.
out
.
println
(
“Surface area of Hemisphere is : “
+
surfaceArea
)
;
}
}
Output Given radius of hemisphere : 5.5 Surface area of Hemisphere is : 190.0663555421825In this article, we explored how to find the surface area of a hemisphere in Java by using different approaches.
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