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The $RUBY token has been listed and made available for trade on the Coinsbit cryptocurrency exchange just yesterday. Coinsbit, one of Europe’s largest and award-winning crypto exchanges, listed the native $RUBY token to its 1.5 million registered platform users on the 24th of March.
Coinsbit dropped the news of the two RUBY trading pairs available through its social media accounts, a normal practice of the centralized exchange, with some further trading competitions and bounty events rumored to be in the works. The Coinsbit exchange offering represents the second-largest since Ruby Play Network began its string of listings on March 15th. chúng tôi offers 2 trading pairs for $RUBY. Users can buy & sell $RUBY and trade with BNB or USDT pairings.
Ruby is now available to trade on Coinsbit with BNB and USDT pairings open
More on the Coinsbit launch and early indications
Since the listing went live on Coinsbit, about 24 hours ago according to the current time, $RUBY has increased 5% in price. Multiple exchanges and staking platforms are now offering various offers including staking, farming, and $RUBY trading across a variety of markets. The 5% increase does come as a bit of a surprise, certainly being different from the normal trend seen in cryptocurrency.
Typically in these cases the chart reflects the opposite, with many traders known to “sell the news” as projects list crypto tokens on exchanges such as Coinsbit for the very first time. The return of games like Spin2Win and RubySweeper, both currently being reconditioned, could play a part in the continued usage and utility of RUBY, with games that users can play daily and use their RUBY outside of merely buying and selling – seemingly within the next phase of plans for the Ruby Play Network as a whole.
Other Ruby Play Network news
Further gaming propositions have already been mentioned from the Ruby Play Network, as the platform focus has been clearly said to be expansion and growth of the gaming partnerships and offerings on RPN now and consistently in the future. Additionally, a transition is being implemented to more consumer-focused messaging, with the emphasis being given to bringing attention to the gaming and other opportunities present on the Ruby Play Network and with its partners.
Blockchain gaming partner – Strawberry – has provided liquidity to multiple platforms for $RUBY live staking to begin. The XPortal offers staking by Strawberry, with other staking options also being offered on ApeSwap Jungle Farms and ACY Finance respectively – through this cross-purpose partnership.
Next steps for Ruby Play Network
The transition of RUBY tokens to multisig wallets for automation, greater security and transparency, has already begun. The move to the smart protocol-coded wallets allows for tokens allocated to adoption mining and vested tokens to be scheduled and viewed publicly on the blockchain ledger.
The continued growth and collaboration with Strawberry look to be a key motivation for the platform. Strawberry Sweeps social casino pays out in BTC, USDT and Ethereum, with players also being rewarded in $RUBY in exchange for time in play. The Strawberry social casino is due to be rolled out to further regions and markets in the near future, providing some further gaming utility to wider Ruby Play Network users.
The adoption mining model has seen an increase in usage on the network, with traffic to the platform up 50 times compared to 4 months ago. How the platform leverages and engages with this user base is where the success will lie going forward. Keep up-to-date with all things $RUBY via the Twitter, Telegram and Discord channels.
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Ruby on Rails 2.1 – Routes System
Rails parses the URL to determine the controller, action, and parameters for the request. With Rails routing, parts of the URL can specify additional parameters, and the entire routing process is under your control. Routing rules work the same on any web server.
The config/routes.rb file is at the heart of the Rails routing system. This file contains rules that try to match the URL path of a request and determine where to direct that request. The rules are tested in the order they are defined in the file. The first rule to match a request’s URL path determines the fate of that request.
The routing system actually does two things −
It maps requests to action methods inside the controllers.
It writes URLs for you for use as arguments to methods like link_to, redirect_to, and form_tag.
Thus, the routing system knows how to turn a visitor’s request URL into a controller/action sequence. It also knows how to manufacture URL strings based on your specifications.
Consider the following route installed by Rails when you generate your application −map.connect ':controller/:action/:id'
This route states that it expects requests to consist of a :controller followed by an :action that in turn is fed some :id.}
Thus the default routing (if you don’t modify the routing rules) is −
The following code block will set up book as the default controller if no other is specified. It means visiting ‘/’ would invoke the book controller.end
You can also define a default action if no action is specified in the given URL −map.connect ':controller/:action/:id', end
Now, you can all edit methods inside the book controller to edit book with ID as 20 as follows −http://localhost:3000/2 Route Priority
Routes have priority defined by the order of appearance of the routes in the chúng tôi file. The priority goes from top to bottom.
The last route in that file is at the lowest priority and will be applied last. If no route matches, 404 is returned.Modifying the Default Route
You can change the default route as per your requirement. In the following example, we are going to interchange controller and action as follows −# Install the default route as the lowest priority. map.connect ':action/:controller/:id'
Now, to call action from the given controller, you would have to write your URL as follows −http://localhost:3000/action/controller/id
It’s not particularly logical to put action and controller in such sequence. The original default (the default default) route is better and recommended.The Ante-Default Route
The ‘ante-default’ route looks as follows −map.connect ':controller/:action/:id.:format'
The .:format at the end matches a literal dot and a wildcard “format” value after the id field. That means it will match, for example, a URL like this −http://localhost:3000/book/show/3.xml
Here, inside the controller action, your params[:format] will be set to xml.The Empty Route
Here are some examples of fairly common empty route rules −
Here is the explanation of the above rules −
Rails 2.0 introduces a mapper method named root which becomes the proper way to define the empty route for a Rails application, like this −
Defining the empty route gives people something to look at when they connect to your site with nothing but the domain name.Named Routes
As you continue developing your application, you will probably have a few links that you use throughout your application. For example, you will probably often be putting a link back to the main listings page. Instead of having to add the following line throughout your application, you can instead create a named route that enables you to link to a shorthand version of that link −
You can define named routes as follows. Here instead of using connect, you are using a unique name that you can define. In this case, the route is called home. The rest of the route looks similar to the others you have created.
Now, you can use this in the controllers or views as follows −
Here, instead of listing the :controller and :action to which you will be linking, you are instead putting the name of the route followed by _url. Your user shouldn’t notice any difference. Named routing is merely a convenience for the Rails developer to save some typing. The above case can be written without the named route as follows −Pretty URLs
Routes can generate pretty URLs. For example −map.connect 'articles/:year/:month/:day', # Using the route above, the url below maps to:
To obtain more detail on Routes, please go through ActionController::Routing.
What is Ruby?
Ruby is a high-level, interpreted and object-oriented programming language. It is a dynamic open-source language that has a great community behind it. Ruby was designed for simplicity and productivity. It encourages writing human first and computer second software code. It was created by Yukihiro Matsumoto in Japan in 1995.
What is Rails?
Rails is a development framework written in Ruby for building web applications. It was created as the foundation of Basecamp application and then released as an open-source software in 2004. Rails offers many in-built standard features and functionalities, which makes it a suitable option for MVP prototyping and development.
It was created by David Heinemeier Hasson popularly known as DHH. It is one of the most influential and popular tools for building web applications. It is used by some of the favourite sites like Airbnb, Github, Shopify, etc.
In this Ruby on Rails tutorial for beginners, you will learn Ruby on Rails basics like:Why Rails?
Here are pros/ benefits of using Rails:
Rails is packaged as a Ruby gem, and you can use it to build a variety of applications.
It allows you to build regular web applications, e-commerce applications, content management system, and more.
Rails is a full-stack framework that includes everything you need to create a database-driven web application, using the Model-View-Controller pattern.
This means that all the layers are built to work seamlessly together with less code. It requires fewer lines of code than other frameworks.How to Download and Install Ruby on Windows
The installation process will depend on your operating system. You will go through installing Ruby on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
All you have to do is run the downloaded installer.
Check the first two checkboxes to make running Ruby scripts easier.
This step installs MSYS2, a building platform that features a package manager for easy Installation of packages on Windows.
Press Enter to install all the components as they are all required to have a smooth Ruby on Rails development environment to work with on Windows.Installing Rails
You should have Ruby installed from the previous section, and now you are going to install Rails. You can install Rails using a package from RailsInstaller, but the problem with this is that you don’t get the latest version of the required packages.
If you have already have the latest Ruby and a baseline set of required RubyGems and extensions installed. All you need do now is run the following command at the command prompt to get Rails on your system: ‘gem install rails.’
It is a more common and preferred approach to developing on Windows. Rails community uses a Windows Subsystem for Linux that provides a GNU/Linux environment with command-line tools, utilities, and common applications directly on Windows.Installing Ruby on Mac
Your Mac already has Ruby pre-installed on it. However, the pre-installed version might be old, and so you will need to install a new/latest version.
The easiest way to do this is by using a package manager such as Homebrew. You might first need to install Homebrew by running the command below at the Terminal.
This will display a warning and ask you to enter your password. Enter your Mac password (you won’t see the characters as you type). Just press ‘Enter’ when you are done typing your password. Then run this simple Homebrew command to install Ruby on your Mac.brew install ruby
And also run this command:
To set this Ruby installation as the default Ruby to run on your system and not the pre-installed Ruby.
To confirm the Installation was successful, you can run the following at the Terminalruby --version
this will print the Ruby version number you have installed. The output will look something likeruby 2.6.0p0 (2023-12-25 revision 66547) [x86_64-darwin18] Installing Ruby on Ubuntu (Linux)
The easiest way to get Ruby installed on your Ubuntu system is through the apt package manager. You need to run the following commands at the Terminal to install the latest Ruby from Ubuntu repositories.
sudo apt update – This will update the default Ubuntu repositories
sudo apt install ruby-full – It will download and installs the latest Ruby
To confirm the Installation was successful, you can run the following ‘ruby –version,’ this will print the Ruby version you have installed.Installing Rails on Ubuntu (Linux)
You should follow the steps below to successfully install Rails on your Linux machine.
Step 1) Update your computer gem manager by running ‘gem update –system’ at the Terminal or command prompt.
Step 2) Run ‘gem install rails’ to install the latest version of Rails on your computer.
Step 3) You should install bundler gem for easy Rails application gem dependency management. Run ‘gem install bundler’ to get it.Two principles of Rails
Rails follow basic software design principles and encourage you to use those principles too.
The two most common are:
Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) – this makes you write concise, consistent, and maintainable code.
Convention over Configuration – Rails is pre-configured to use sensible defaults that fit most common usage. This makes your application development fast, and you also have less code to maintain.Rails – Project File Structures
With Rails now installed on your system lets create a Rails application! We will learn Ruby on Rails examples and how to create a Todo list application in this Ruby on Rails tutorial. Run the following command ‘rails new todo_app’ in your Terminal to create the application.
This command creates a directory named ‘todo_app’ in the current directory with the basic folder structure of a Rails web application, as shown in the Figure below:
You will go through the main directories in this Ruby on Rails example.
app – This directory groups using different subdirectories for the UI/layout (views and helpers), the controller (controllers files) and the models (business/application logic).
app/controllers – This directory stores controller files used by Rails to handle requests from the client.
app/helpers – This subdirectory contains helper functions that make your application model, view, and controller logic focused, small and uncluttered.
app/models – This contains files
that model your application’s database. The model classes make working with the database very easy.
app/views – This hold template/layout files the user of your application interacts with. The templates are a combination of HTML and data from the database.
bin – It contains Rails scripts that starts your application. It can also include other scripts that you use to set up and upgrade the application.
Config – This holds configuration files – database.yml, chúng tôi chúng tôi etc. that your application needs to run.
DB – This directory contains files/scripts that are used to manage your application database.
lib – This directory contains an extended module for your application.
log – This contains log files – server.log, chúng tôi chúng tôi and chúng tôi etc., that are used for debugging or monitoring your application.
test – This directory holds test files you write to test your application functionality.
tmp – This directory contains temporary files like cache and pid files.
vendor – This directory contains third-party libraries.
Gemfile – This file specifies what your basic gem requirements are to run your web application. You can group the gems into development, test or production and Rails will know when to include each gem.
Gemfile.lock – Unlike the Gemfile that explicitly lists the gems you want in your application, chúng tôi additionally contains other gems that those you list in the Gemfile depends on that are then automatically installed to satisfy the dependencies.
Readme.md – You use this file to share essential detail about your application, such as what the app does, how to go about installing and run the application.
Rakefile – This file contains various rake tasks definitions, which helps in automating everyday administration tasks of your application.
config.ru – This is a Rack configuration file that provides an interface to the webserver to start your application.
Change directory to the ‘todo_app’ directory Rails generated and run ‘rails server’ to start the application. Type localhost:3000 in the address bar of your web browser, you should see the Figure below if all went well.
This is the default homepage of your application, and you will change this in the later section of this Ruby on Rails tutorial. You can stop the server by pressing ‘Ctrl-C’.Rails – Generate commands
The Rails generate command makes use of templates to create a whole lot of useful things in your application. You can use these generators to save a lot of time.
It helps by writing boilerplate code, code that is necessary for your web application to work. You can run ‘rails generate’ by itself at the command prompt or Terminal to see a list of available generators as shown below:
You can also run ‘rails generate “command”‘ to see a description of what the command does. It offers convenient options that can be run with the command and usage example. The Figure below shows the output of running‘ rails generate controller’:
You will use the rails generate scaffold command to automatically create the model, view, and controller for the todo list application you are building. Run‘ rails generate scaffold todo_list title:string description: text’ in your Terminal (check you are still in the todo_app directory).
This will create a full CRUD (Create, read, update, and delete) web interface for the TodoLists table.Rails – routing
The Rails routing system, rails router, handles all incoming requests to your web application. It does this by examining the URL of the incoming requests and then maps each request to the controller action responsible for handling it, using special syntax specified in the routes file (config/routes.rb).
The routes file helps in controlling every URL aspect of your web application. Rails by default use a RESTful design based on the REST architectural style, that provides a mapping between HTTP verbs and requests (URLs) to controller actions.
The routes file was generated when you ran ‘rails new’ in an earlier section of this tutorial. Continuing with the Todo application that you are building, run the following‘ rails db:migrate’ (you will get to know what this does shortly)
In your command line, make sure you are still at the root of the application (the todo_app directory).
This is the Todo lists view that the scaffold command generated and it is controlled by the TodoListsController’s index action.
Rails was able to map the various requests (URLs) to the corresponding TodoListsController’s action using the route definition in config/routes.rb.
If you take a peek at this file, you see a single line ‘resources: todo_lists’, is Rails default way of writing restful routes. This single line creates seven routes all mapping to the TodoLists controller.
By convention, each controller’s action also maps to a specific CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operation in the database.
You can run ‘rake routes’ in your command line to see the various routes available in your application. The Figure below shows the output of running ‘rails routes’ in your command line/terminal.Rails – views
The View layer is one of the components of the MVC paradigm and is responsible for generating HTML response for each request to your application. Rails by default use ERB (Embedded Ruby) which is a powerful templating system for Ruby.
ERB makes writing templates easy and maintainable by combining plain text with Ruby code for variable substitution and flow control. An ERB template has .html, .erb or .erb extension.
You will mostly use a combination of two tag markers only, each of which causes the embedded code to be processed and handled in a particular way.
Each controller in your Rails application has a corresponding subdirectory in app/views, and each action/method in a controller has a corresponding .html and .erb file in this directory.
Take a look at app/views of the todo app you are building. You will find a subdirectory named ‘todo_lists’ inside this subdirectory chúng tôi files with names corresponding to the actions/methods in the TodoLists controller.Rails – ActiveRecord, Active Record Pattern, and ORM
ActiveRecord is the Ruby implementation of the Active Record pattern, which is a simple pattern where a class represents a table, and an instance of the class represents a row in that class.
ActiveRecord is popularly referred to as an ORM (Object Relational Mapping), a technique that allows you to manage your database using a language you’re most comfortable with. It is database agnostic thus you can easily switch between databases (for example SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle, etc.). This suite more for your application requirement with the same code/logic.
So, if you want to get an array containing a listing of all the todo lists in your application, so, instead of writing code to initiate a connection to the database, then doing some sort of SQL SELECT query, and converting those results into an array.
For that, you just need to type ‘TodoList.all’ and Active Record gives you the array filled with TodoList objects that you can play with as you like.
All you need do is set up the right configuration in config/database.yml, and Active Record will work out all the differences between the various database system. So when you switch from one to the other, you don’t have to think about it.
You focus on writing code for your application, and Active Record will think about the low-level details of connecting you to your database. Active Record makes use of naming conventions to create the mapping between models and database tables.
Rails pluralize your model class names to find the corresponding database table. So, for a class TodoList, ActiveRecord will create a database table called TodoLists.Rails – Migrations
Rails migration is simply a script that you use to edit your application database. It is used to set up or change your database and avoids manually writing SQL code to do that.
It uses Ruby to define changes to database schema and makes it possible to use version control to keep your database synchronized.
Rails Migrations use a Ruby Domain Specific Language (DSL). This acts as an abstraction and makes it possible to use or change your database engine based on your requirements.
They can be shared with anyone working on the application and can also be rolled back to undo any changes to the database. This is a high safety mechanism as you don’t have to bother about doing permanent damage to your database.Rails – ActiveRecord Associations
A connection between two ActiveRecord models is known as an association. Association makes it much easier to perform operations on the different records in your code. It can be divided into four categories: –
One to One: – This indicates that a record contains precisely one instance of another model. A good example is user profile. A user has only one profile. It uses has _one keyword.
One to Many: – This is the most common association, and it indicates that one model has zero or more instances of another model. Your use has a _many keyword to denote this association.
Many to Many: – This association is a bit more complicated, and ActiveRecord provides two ways to handle it. Using the has_and_belongs_to_many and has_many, which gives you access to the relation that is defined in a separate table.Rails – ActiveRecord Validations
Validation helps to ensure that you have correct data because working with wrong data is an awful thing and could cost you your money and business.
Validation also provides an extra layer of security for your application against malicious users from gaining access to information in your database. Rails offer you a nice API of validation helpers in ActiveRecord to keep your database clean, secure, and free of errors.
ActiveRecord validations run on model objects before saving to the database, making them more reliable and also best practice to follow in building your application.
The following ActiveRecord methods evoke validations when used or called on model objects – create, create!, save, save!, update, and update!. The ones with a bang (create!, save! and update!) raise an exception if a record is invalid while thothen’t’tt’t’t.
The most common ActiveRecord validation helpers at your disposal are:-
Presence:– This checks that the field is not empty.
uniqueness: ensures unique value for a field, e.g., username
Length:- To enforce a limit on character length of a field
You can also create your custom validation by using the validate method and passing it the name of the custom validation method.
You can check the model’s error object to find out why a validation. Hopefully, you have some ideas to make your application more constrained and more secured to only allow secure data into your database.Rails – ActionController
The Rails controller is the center of your web application. It facilitates and coordinates the communication between the user, the models, and the views.
Your controller classes inherit from the ApplicationController, that contains code that can be run in all other controllers and it inherits from ActionController class.
The controller provides the following to your application:
It routes external requests to internal actions
It manages to cache, giving performance boosts to your application
It manages helper methods that extend view templates capabilities. It also manages user sessions, giving them a smooth experience using your app.Rails – Configurations
You can configure the various components such as initializers, assets, generators, middlewares, etc. By using your Rails application initializers and configuration files in the config directory. Files like config/application.rb, config/environments/development.rb and config/environments/test.rb etc. You can also have custom settings configure for your application.Rails – Debugging
As you build out your application, there will come a time you will need/have to debug your code. Rails make this easy using the byebug gem. You can start a debugging session by putting the ‘byebeg’ keyword anywhere in your application code.
This will temporarily stop execution at that point. The byebug gem gives you several commands to use. The most useful ones are:
next: command that enables you to go to the next line of code, skipping all methods invoked by the execution of the current line.
step: this is similar to ‘next’ command but will make you step into each invoked.
break: this stops the code execution.
continue continues execution code.
There are other debugging gems available such as ‘pry’, and they all provide similar functionalities but slightly different syntax. Debugging gems should not be used in production as this pose’s risks to your application and bad experience to your application users.
There are log files that you can inspect for errors in production and handle them. Also, you should follow a TDD (Test-driven development) approach when developing your application to ensure everything works well before deploying to production.Summary:
Ruby is a pure object-oriented programming language
Ruby has an elegant syntax that is both easy to read and write.
Rails is a development framework, written in Ruby, for building web applications
The installation process will depend on your operating system.
Rails is packaged as a Ruby gem, and you can use it to build a variety of applications.
You will create a Todo list application in this tutorial, run the followincomm’n’n’ ‘rails netoda’p’p’p’ in youR Terminal to create the application.
The Rails generate command makes use of templates to create a whole lot of useful things in your application.
The Rails routing system, rails router helps you to handles all incoming requests to your web application.
The View layer is one of the components of the MVC paradigm and is responsible for generating HTML response for each request to your application.
ActiveRecord is the Ruby implementation of the Active Record pattern.
Rails migration is simply a script that you use to edit your application database.
A connection between two ActiveRecord models is known as an association.
Validation helps to ensure that you have correct data because working with wrong data is an awful thing and could cost you your money and business.
The Rails controller helps you to facilitates and coordinates the communication between the user, the models, and the views.
Rail helps you to configure the various components such as initializers, assets, generators, middlewares, etc.
Difference Between Mutual Fund vs Exchange Traded Fund
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To understand diversification benefits, assume that one of the stocks in the mutual fund portfolio is doing poorly while another is doing very well. The risk is mitigated as losses from one stock can be nullified/reduced by gains in another. Thus you will be better off investing in a mutual fund than investing in one stock or a few stocks of the fund portfolio.
An average mutual fund holds hundreds of securities. Hence, investors reap benefits from capital gains of different securities through their proportionate share, which would not be possible for individual investment in each of these securities owing to funding constraints. The fund management company sells mutual fund units to buyers.
Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are an extension of mutual funds traded on the stock exchange, just like company shares giving the investor the flexibility to sell short or buy on margin during the trading hours in a day. Buyers can purchase ETF shares through a brokerage.Head To Head Comparison Between Mutual Fund vs Exchange Traded Fund (Infographics) The Key Difference Between Mutual Funds vs Exchange Traded Fund
Both Mutual Funds and Exchange Traded Fund are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major differences :
ETFs trade on a public stock exchange, unlike mutual funds. Hence, like shares of public companies, ETF shares can be transferred, bought, or sold among investors
Investors directly purchase mutual fund units from the funds at a fixed NAV value during the day’s trading hours. You can buy and sell ETF shares anytime during trading hours, and the market decides the price based on demand-supply dynamics at any time. Hence the price of ETF units keeps changing throughout the trading hours, thus providing real-time pricing and greater control of the price of your trade
Due to their manner of creation and redemption, ETFs incur capital gains taxes only when the investor sells the fund. In contrast, mutual funds incur capital gains tax every time they trade the shares. Hence tax liability is higher for mutual funds compared to ETF
The transaction cost for buying or selling mutual fund units is zero. However, ETFs have a transaction cost involved in the form of a bid-ask spread, just like other exchange-traded shares
Most Mutual funds have an investment lock-in period of a minimum of 90 days and impose a penalty if the investor wants to liquidate his holdings before the lock-in period. Since ETFs are exchange-traded, investors can trade their units with other investors at the prevailing market price during trading hours. There is no minimum holding period
Traders can short-sell or buy ETF units on margin, similar to public company shares. ETFs can thus be used for hedging, equitizing cash, or arbitrage
Unlike ETFs, Mutual funds will provide you with the opportunity to preset automatic investments and withdrawals as per your preferences
Most mutual fund managers have the independence to choose their investments and actively manage their portfolios to beat the index they track. Professionals passively manage most ETFs, which are primarily index funds. They aim to match the movements and returns of the tracked index by maintaining a portfolio similar to that of the index.Mutual Fund vs Exchange Traded Fund Comparison Table
The Basis of Comparison
Cost-effectiveness The operating fees and commissions for actively managed ETFs are comparatively higher due to their high trading activity and volume of transactions, which require larger fees and commissions. Comparatively lower since they are usually passively managed index funds
Tax Efficiency Comparatively, more tax liabilities Offer capital gains tax benefits due to the manner of their creation and redemption
Minimum investment Most Mutual funds have a minimum investment limit specified in their terms. This amount is higher than the net asset value (NAV) of one unit of the fund Any minimum investment does not constrain ETFs. You can be an ETF investor by buying just one unit of the fund
Liquidity Mutual funds have comparatively lower liquidity ETFs have higher liquidity, and its liquidity is connected to the liquidity of stocks included in the index
Brokerage account Investors do not need to open a brokerage account to invest in a mutual fund A brokerage account is necessary to trade ETF units in the stock exchangeConclusion
Mutual Fund vs Exchange Traded Fund provides similar investment opportunities to small investors constrained by funds and expertise from individually investing in a large diversified portfolio of assets, including stock, bonds, commodities, etc. Both Mutual Fund vs Exchange Traded Fund investment vehicles offer high diversification benefits in the form of better returns at a lower cost. Both Mutual Funds vs Exchange Traded Funds offer a wide variety of investment options, and based on your preference, you can invest broadly, like in a market fund, or narrowly like in a sector fund. Professional portfolio managers administer both these investment vehicles, providing their expertise and saving you time and effort.
However, ETFs provide several benefits over mutual funds, like a lower minimum investment, more control over price, lower capital gains tax benefit, trading simplicity, lower commission and management fees involvement, and cleaner transferability options while switching from one investment firm to another. On top of that, ETFs provide higher investment flexibility as they come with several innovations in their trading strategy, like style ETFs, inverse ETFs, country ETFs, etc., offering a greater opportunity of attaining their specific financial goals.
Still, the question remains whether ETFs are better than Mutual funds or vice-versa. This largely depends on the preference of the investor. If the investor prefers a lower minimum investment, he will opt for an ETF. If he wants repeated automatic transactions, he should go for mutual funds. He should go for an ETF if he wants control over the pricing. He should opt for a mutual fund if he does not want the hassles of opening and maintaining a brokerage account. If he is looking for an index fund with a lower risk, an ETF could be a more suitable investment.Recommended Article
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A small New York-based company that specializes in exchanging Bitcoins is back online after hackers stole about US$250,000 worth of the virtual currency earlier this month.
Roman Shtylman, founder of BitFloor, said by phone from London on Monday he reported the theft to the FBI and that he intends to pay back victims whose Bitcoins were stolen.
How long that will take I dont know,” Shtylman said. “Certainly for me this is a long-term plan, and Im mostly doing this because I feel it’s important to try and be clear of my intention to try and recover the coins.”
Bitcoin is a virtual currency, created by a mysterious person who went by the name “Satoshi Nakamoto” and has extensive knowledge of cryptography. Bitcoins are transferred using software programs that connect to a peer-to-peer system that cryptographically verifies the transaction.
Bitcoin “miners” are people who have built heavy-duty computing systems which maintain the integrity of the transaction system. For their work, they are periodically awarded Bitcoins, which have a fluctuating market value and can be traded for cash on exchanges such as BitFloor.
Nakamoto launched Bitcoin in early 2009. He was active in the Bitcoin community at the onset, and then disappeared: no one has conducted an interview with him, and efforts to uncover his true identity have been fruitless. A nine-page white paper written by Nakamoto describes the system.
Unsurprisingly, Bitcoin exchanges are prime targets for hackers, and several exchanges have been hacked. Because of how Bitcoin’s peer-to-peer system is designed, transactions are irreversible unless the receiver of the Bitcoins chooses to send some back to the sender.
All transactions using Bitcoin are publicly recorded. Users have a 32-character alpha-numeric address, which is used to transfer funds. That address — and the receiving address — are available to see on websites such as Blockchain.info.
According to those records, the hacker has not transferred or spent the funds, Shtylman said. While Bitcoin offers a high degree of anonymity for Bitcoin-only transactions, at some point, users probably want to exchange their Bitcoins for cash (one Bitcoin was trading for $12.06 on Tuesday according to the largest exchange, Mt. Gox).
Bitcoin exchanges need a certain amount of information from users in order to pay them, including a person’s name and bank account details. That offers a potential opportunity to trace a thief. Bitcoin has drawn attention, but no country has tried to regulate it, and exchanges do not want to be linked to money laundering or other shady deals.
Shtylman said the hack was devastating, and the cost well exceeded revenues he had made since he launched trading on BitFloor in October 2011. The loss, amounting to about 24,000 Bitcoins, was his fault: he had left the private keys — needed to unlock and transfer Bitcoins — on an unencrypted disk. Bitcoin uses public key cryptography for security.
Following the hack, Shtylman attended a Bitcoin conference in London where no one expressed anger at him.
“Most users and existing members of the community have been very supportive and wanted to see BitFloor come back online,” Shtylman said.
Since relaunching, Shtylman said he is now keeping private keys in so-called “cold storage,” or on offline computers not connected to the BitFloor’s exchange. All funds that are live on the exchange will be backed by BitFloor, he said.
“We are never going into a situation where we are doing fractional reserve,” Shtylman said, where funds belonging to customers are also used for other purposes.
Mastodon offers a lot of options on its platform to give you better control over what’s visible to you and what may interest you. If you’ve been actively using Mastodon only to see posts in languages you don’t know, there’s a better way to browse through content on the platform. To make sure you only see posts created in languages you know, Mastodon helps you effectively block all the other languages from your timelines.
In this post, we’ll explain to you how you can block posts made in certain languages from showing up on Mastodon, what happens when you block languages, and how to unblock them on your account.
How to block posts from certain languages on Mastodon
Mastodon lets you block posts from specific languages by allowing you to choose your preferred language to view posts on the platform. When you select your preferred language, all the languages that you didn’t select will be blocked and posts with the unselected languages won’t show up inside your public timelines including the Local and Federated timelines. If you follow people who occasionally post in a language that you don’t speak, you may see still these posts on your Home timeline.
Inside the Preferences screen, scroll down to the Filter languages section. Under this section, you’ll see a list of all the languages that are supported on Mastodon. To block certain languages (which are likely going to be large in numbers), you need to select the languages that you prefer to see on Mastodon instead.
This way, only posts from the languages you select will be visible inside public timelines and all the other languages that you don’t select will get blocked automatically. So, you’re essentially selecting a language you know and want to view content from instead of actively blocking a language you don’t want to see.
From the Filter languages section, check the boxes adjacent to your preferred language (the ones you want to view posts from). For instance, if you don’t read or speak any other language except English, you’ll select English from the Filter languages section. This way, all the other (unselected) languages will remain blocked on public timelines.
Mastodon will now only show posts that were shared using your preferred languages and block all the other languages from appearing on your feeds.
What happens when I block posts based on language
As we have explained above, the only way to block posts uploaded in certain languages is by selecting the language you prefer to use. So, when you use the aforementioned guide to block languages, Mastodon will only show posts that were uploaded in the language that you selected to view. Posts shared in all other languages will stop appearing inside the public timelines on the platform, meaning you won’t see posts made in an unselected language inside the Local and Federated sections.
This setting, however, isn’t applied to your Home timeline which may continue to show posts in all languages since these posts are from people you follow on Mastodon. Since you may also follow certain hashtags, even posts with the followed hashtag that were uploaded in a blocked language will also appear inside the Home timeline.
Mastodon shares that “language detection can be very imprecise”, even if you select languages to filter posts with. Because of this, you may miss viewing posts with your preferred language or some posts with blocked languages may continue to appear on your timelines.
How to unblock a preferred language on Mastodon
Inside the Preferences screen, scroll down to the Filter languages section. From here, check the box adjacent to the language you want to unblock. If you have more than one language you want to unblock, check those boxes as well.
Mastodon will now update your preferred set of languages to only show them on your public timelines.
How to turn off the language block on Mastodon
When you select your preferred languages, Mastodon will stop any post that’s shared with your undesired language from appearing on your public timelines. If you’ve been missing out on important posts because of this block, you can turn off the language block entirely so that you see all unfiltered posts on your Local and Federated feeds at all times.
Inside the Preferences screen, scroll down to the Filter languages section. From this section, uncheck all the boxes next to the languages you previously selected to view.
To turn off this filter completely, all the boxes adjacent to the languages list should be kept unchecked.
That’s all you need to know about blocking posts based on languages on Mastodon.
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