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The ssh command line utility is a staple for people who work on remote systems. ssh stands for “secure shell,” so as you may expect one of its most common uses is as a remote shell. While that is perhaps its most common use, it isn’t the only, or most interesting, thing you can do with ssh.

In order to do anything over ssh, you first need to establish a connection to a remote server. There are a number of command line arguments that you can use with the ssh command line utility, but I’ll leave it to man ssh to discuss the majority of them. The most basic commandline arguments are ssh address where “address” is the hostname or IP address of the server you want to connect to. Here is an example of connecting to a remote system for the first time:

dink:~ jmjones$ ssh The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is 24:1e:2e:7c:3d:a5:cd:a3:3d:71:1f:6d:08:3b:8c:93. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added '' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

Earlier I said that “ssh” stands for “secure shell.” ssh is very concerned about security. The message “The authenticity of host ‘ (’ can’t be established” shows this security focus. This message just means my ssh client doesn’t know the remote server. I use the word “client” here and throughout this article because the ssh command line utility initiates the network connection and that makes it, by definition, a network client.

After informing me that it didn’t know the remote server, the utility then asked me if I wanted to continue connecting. I answered “yes” because I knew that the server I was connecting to was the server I really intended to connect to. Typically, it is safe to answer “yes” to this question. The danger, though, is that some bad person with questionable motives might be impersonating the server you are attempting to connect to. After I answered “yes” to continue connecting, my ssh client updated the file $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts with the following text: ssh-rsa ^4rsa5jmjones6cd7jmjones8^/^9cd10^+9^11yc12yc13rsa14AAAAB15^+^16rsa17 AAAAB18^99u2^19oT20oT21^7N7^22AAAAB23^+^24cd25^5f+^26ykuwQcXI27 EAAAABIwAAAQEAvb28jmjones29oT30commandline31 ^2Ax3J88^32commandline33yc34^+rOB+gOdRaD+NTkuzrB /^38oT39^50L6^40oT41AAAAB42^61rq+9v+4^44AAAAB45rsa46ykuwQcXI47^5q1P11^48AAAAB49gcgPr50^==

The next time I connect to the same server, my ssh client will check the “known_hosts” file to see if this really is the same server. If the information that the server passes back to my client doesn’t match what is in the “known_hosts” file, I will see error like this:

dink:~ jmjones$ ssh @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY! Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)! It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed. The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is 24:1e:2e:7c:3d:a5:cd:a3:3d:71:1f:6d:08:3b:8c:93. Please contact your system administrator. Add correct host key in /Users/jmjones/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message. Offending key in /Users/jmjones/.ssh/known_hosts:1 RSA host key for has changed and you have requested strict checking. Host key verification failed.

I’ll pick back up with the prior example, the one in which I answered “yes” to continue. After answering “yes,” I was prompted for a password. Here is the remainder of that interaction:

[email protected]'s password: Be careful. No mail. Last login: Tue Dec 30 06:36:20 2008 from dink jmjones@ezr:~$

I typed in the password and my ssh client dropped me into an interactive shell on the remote server. You can see the tell-tale signs of logging into a Linux server: the “message of the day” (aka MOTD), a message regarding having no waiting email, a message of when I logged in last, and a shell prompt. At this point, it was as if I were logged in locally to the server.

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Cisco Switch Configuration Basic Commands

Accessing the Switch

The first step in configuring a Cisco switch is to access the switch’s command-line interface (CLI). This can be done through a console cable or through a Telnet or SSH connection. To access the switch through the console, connect a console cable to the switch and a computer’s serial port. Then, open a terminal emulator software such as HyperTerminal on the computer and set the baud rate to 9600. Press Enter and the switch’s login prompt will appear.

To access the switch through Telnet or SSH, use the command “telnet [switch IP address]” or “ssh [switch IP address]” on the computer’s command prompt. The switch’s login prompt will then appear.

Entering Configuration Mode

Once logged in, the switch will be in user mode. To enter configuration mode, use the command “enable” to enter privileged mode and then “configure terminal” to enter configuration mode. The prompt will change to “switch(config)#” indicating that the switch is now in configuration mode.

Setting the Hostname

The hostname is the name assigned to the switch and is used to identify the switch in the network. To set the hostname, use the command “hostname [hostname]” in configuration mode. For example, to set the hostname to “switch1”, the command would be “hostname switch1”.

Setting the IP Address and Default Gateway

The IP address and default gateway are used to communicate with other devices on the network. To set the IP address and default gateway, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “ip address [IP address] [subnet mask]” to set the IP address and “ip default-gateway [default gateway]” to set the default gateway. For example, to set the IP address to and the subnet mask to, the command would be “ip address”. To set the default gateway to, the command would be “ip default-gateway”.

Enabling and Disabling Interfaces

To enable or disable an interface, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “shutdown” to disable the interface or “no shutdown” to enable the interface. For example, to disable interface Fa0/1, the command would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “shutdown”. To enable the interface, the command would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “no shutdown”.

Setting the VLAN

VLANs are used to segment a network into smaller logical networks. To set the VLAN, use the command “vlan [VLAN number]” to enter VLAN configuration mode. Then, use the command “name [VLAN name]” to set the VLAN name. For example, to set VLAN 10 with the name “sales”, the command would be “vlan 10” followed by “name sales”.

Configuring Port Security

Port security is used to restrict access to a switch port by limiting the number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port. To configure port security, use the command “interface [interface number]” to enter interface configuration mode. Then, use the command “switchport port-security” to enable port security on the interface. To set the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port, use the command “switchport port-security maximum [number of addresses]”. For example, to enable port security on interface Fa0/1 and set the maximum number of MAC addresses to 2, the commands would be “interface Fa0/1” followed by “switchport port-security” and “switchport port-security maximum 2”.

Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

STP is used to prevent loops in the network by electing a root bridge and blocking certain ports. To enable STP, use the command “spanning-tree vlan [VLAN number] root primary” in configuration mode. This will set the switch as the primary root bridge for the specified VLAN. To set a specific interface as the root port, use the command “spanning-tree vlan [VLAN number] interface [interface number] root primary”. For example, to enable STP on VLAN 10 and set interface Fa0/1 as the root port, the commands would be “spanning-tree vlan 10 root primary” and “spanning-tree vlan 10 interface Fa0/1 root primary”.

Saving Configuration Changes

Once all of the desired changes have been made, it is important to save the configuration to the switch’s non-volatile memory (NVRAM). This can be done by using the command “copy running-config startup-config” in configuration mode. This command will save the current configuration to the switch’s NVRAM so that it will be used when the switch is rebooted.


These are just a few of the basic commands that are commonly used when configuring Cisco switches. With a solid understanding of these commands and a little practice, configuring a Cisco switch can become a simple task. However, it is important to remember that each network is unique and may require additional configuration commands to meet the specific needs of the network. Always refer to the Cisco documentation for additional information and troubleshooting tips.

How To Use Sqlalchemy Connection?

Introduction to SQLAlchemy Connection

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What is the SQLAlchemy connection?

The Sqlalchemy connection is the library that can mainly interact with various databases. It enabled the data models and queries with the python classes and the statements. We can use the create_engine() method for the sqlalchemy library for connecting the URL and returning with the sqlalchemy engine referenced with both dialect and the Pool, which interpret along with the DBAPI’s module function with different behavior of the databases. We have successfully created the database connection for the databases like MySQL, Postgresql, Microsoft SQL, etc. The local instance of the database is designed for the sql databases and dialect with the drivers for establishing the connection.

How to use SQLAlchemy connection?

The sqlalchemy engine is created via the create_engine() method, and its call through the typical usage for the specific database URL through globally spent with the single server application process. A single-engine that manages the many individual DBAPI connections with the process is mainly intended to be the concurrent process. The engine is not synonymous with the DBAPI connect method. This function represents the database engine connection resource and efficiently creates the application module for every object or function call. It also uses a multi-tasking application. The process uses the basic system called for the python module like the multiprocessing module, and is usually required for the different engines along with the child process.

We can maintain the engine via the reference for the connection pool that ultimately references the DBAPI connections that tend to be portable across boundaries. An engine is configured to the polling achieved via the NullPool that matches the requirement. If the connection is the instance type, then the proxy object is mainly called for the actual DBAPI connection. It provides a largely compatible interface and the DBAPI cursor; the resulting proxy is used to connect the database drivers for the table rows and columns. The sqlalchemy engine connection has been established with the databases; it may be PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, etc.

Here I have used SQLite database to create the engine and session to access the user data from the backend to UI.

SqlAlchemy connection Usage

A database like PyMySQL is the Python library that can be used to connect the MySQL database or other db servers that are already installed command like Pip install using pymysql command can be used to set it up environment. Because of the new way, the forma fields like passwords column can be worked on the previous form of the database like MySQL version 4.1,  which is supported on the SQLAlchemy library that requires MySQL version 4.1 or higher version. Then additionally, if we need the statement type that can only be available with a specific version of MySQL, Oracle, or SQLite. The  SQLAlchemy library does not give the proper way to use those statements on the database like MySQL and other database versions. In contrast, the statement isn’t available on the Result set. A proper validation rule should consult with the database documentation if a component or function in the SQLAlchemy does not appear in the work environment.

The general workflow of the sqlalchemy connection is the above diagram for calling the connect() method in the engine that shares the datas to the POOL and Dialect memory along with the DBAPIs database.

Examples of SQLAlchemy Connection

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1 import sqlalchemy as sa from chúng tôi import select import datetime metadata = sa.MetaData('sqlite:///Mar9.db', echo = True) print(“Connection Successfully”) varss = sa.Table('test3', metadata, sa.Column('id',   sa.types.Integer, primary_key=True), sa.Column('date', sa.types.DateTime(timezone=True), default=datetime.datetime.utcnow) ) metadata.create_all() engs = metadata.bind today_dt = dtr_log = DailyTimeRecord.query.filter(, ).first() cnnection = engs.cnnectionect() outss = cnnection.execute(varss.insert().values(id=1)) s = select([varss]) outss = cnnection.execute(s) row = outss.fetchone()

Sample Output:

 We have created the above example with the following steps.

First, we must import the sqlalchemy libraries like import sqlalchemy, datetime, etc.

Based on the concepts and requirements, we have to import the libraries.

Next, we import and set the database in the Metadata classes.

metadata = sa.MetaData(‘sqlite:///Mar9.db’, echo = True)

We created the table in the specific database called Mar9.db

With the help of the instance, we can call and create the table columns like id, date, etc.

The data type of the id should be the integer, and the date should be the datetime type.

The engine is called with the help of variables and executes the default methods like execute(), insert(), etc.

Insert() method is used to insert the values in the table

Execute() method helps execute the query in the table result set.

Example #2 from sqlalchemy import create_engine from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base from chúng tôi import sessionmaker engine = create_engine('sqlite:///D:/Mar9.db') Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine) print("Connection successfully") Base = declarative_base() class clsfrdst(Base): __tablename__ = 'test4' id = Column(Integer, primary_key = True) name = Column(String) class scclss(Base): __tablename__ = 'secndtble' id = Column(Integer, primary_key = True) invid = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('')) fts = relationship("clsfrdst", back_populates = "secndtble") clsfrdst.secndtble = relationship("scclss", order_by = chúng tôi back_populates = "fts") Base.metadata.create_all(engine)

Sample Output:

The above examples we used to create the database engine connections first

And then, we created the databases and their tables using the python classes.

Which has already been imported on the sqlalchemy functions and its libraries

We created the table columns like id as the integer attribute and acted as the primary key to perform the unique operations in the backend.

The other column, like invid, also an integer, acts as the Foreign key to fetch the table data from the previous table reference.

Here we can perform the database relationship from one table to another table data by using the primary key and foreign key concepts.

The metadata references hold all other tables, especially the classes that contain the DBAPIs relationship for more than one table.


The database engine connections are the most important way to perform the user operations from the UI view to the backend. Here is the sqlalchemy python-based library that can be supported to create the database tables with required columns and perform the user operations, which depends on the project requirements.

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This is a guide to SQLAlchemy Connection. Here we discuss the Introduction, What is, and how to use SQLAlchemy connection with Examples and code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

How Ddl Commands Work In Mysql?

Introduction to MySQL DDL

MySQL DDL defines the Data Definition Language, a subgroup of SQL commands among four: DDL, DML, DCL, and TCL. Since, Structured Query Language(SQL) is the basic language of a database that performs different operations and queries in the available MySQL database, including creating a database or table to dropping the same and others like updating, inserting, etc. The MySQL DDL gets involved with the schemas and explanations of database to display how the database data should exist in the server. The DDL commands are significant for expressing and altering the structure of database tables, schemas, or objects. The instant effects are taken when the statements using DDL commands in MySQL are implemented.

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How do DDL commands work in MySQL?

The DDL commands work with the SQL query statements, executed to perform and show desired results. Once queried and run, the DDL commands cannot be rolled back and do commit implicitly.

Tables are the database objects that store the data records. These data interact with other table data and form a relation at a structural level. But the data stored requires some modifications from time to time. DDL and different subgroups of SQL in MySQL servers do this.

The user must have required privileges such as CREATE or DROP in the database schemas to work and use DDL queries. We will find DDL commands in all relational databases intended to manage and access the objects in the database.

Examples to Implement MySQL DDL

Let us explain the MySQL DDL commands each with an illustration and show the uses of these queries in the MySQL databases for different administrative tasks:

1. CREATE Command

This DDL command creates any database with different objects, such as tables, indexes, triggers, views, stored procedures, built-in functions, etc.

Code: The CREATE statement is written using the following syntax:

CREATE DATABASE DatabaseName; CREATE TABLE TableName (Column1 Datatype1, Column2 Datatype2,…,ColumnNDatatypeN);

For example, we will create a table named ‘Emp’ with some fields and similar data types that are valid in MySQL and, respectively, a database named ‘EmpDB’ in MySQL server using the queries below:






We have created the table above with column names, data types, indexes, and keys. For integers, we have used INT data type; for a date, the type of values, we have DATE type; and for character strings with length values, are used as a data type for the Emp table.

2. ALTER Command

The ALTER DDL command modifies the present database structure and related tables.

With Alter query, we can add, alter or delete the present constraints on a table or columns on the table. The syntax is mentioned below:


ALTER TABLE TableName ADD ColumnNameData_Type; ALTER TABLE TableName DROPColumnName; ALTER TABLE TableName MODIFY COLUMNColumnNameData_Type;

Let us execute some queries with the above structures:








select * from `emp`





3. DROP Command

This MySQL command is used to remove the database objects. In simple words, to delete the table existing in your database using the drop query syntax:




DROP Table Emp;


We need to know that we should be careful while executing the DROP command because it results in the loss of data records that were warehoused in the table.

4. TRUNCATE Command

The Truncate DDL command is implemented to delete all the data rows from the database table, including removing all spaces assigned for those table records.



Suppose we are using the above command in the query below:




The output says that the truncate will only remove the records inside the specific table, not the table in the database itself.

5. COMMENT Command


--We are displaying all records from table Person: SELECT * FROM Person;



SELECT * FROM Person --WHERE City = “Delhi”;


Likewise, we can ignore a whole statement:


--SELECT * FROM Person; SELECT * FROM Employee;



/*selectingall columns from table Employee existing in the database: */ SELECT * FROM Employee;


To ignore more than one statement:


/* SELECT * FROM Person; SELECT * FROM Orders; */ SELECT * FROM Employee;


To ignore any section of the statement given:


SELECT Person_ID, Employee_Name/*Salary, */ FROM Employee/*GROUP BY Person_ID*/ ORDER BY Employee_Name;


6. RENAME Command

The Rename DDL command query allows renaming any database objects in the server if needed for any admin works. Sometimes we want to modify the present table name and rename it. For this, let us apply the succeeding syntax with ALTER DDL command:



Explanation with examples:





select * from `emp_data`



The MySQL DDL commands allow privileges to the admin users to control the database activities and maintain the flow and access properly. The SQL language used in MySQL provides the managing queries to create a database or table, apply any alterations, and, if needed, drop the database objects, which helps to define the schemas and structures of the database.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “MySQL DDL” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

C++ Program To Sort Dictionary By Keys

In different programming languages, there are some data structures available that are known as dictionaries. The dictionaries are a special kind of faster data structure that stores data based on keys and values. It stores the key-value pair into it so that some elements can easily be searched in almost constant time by the keys. In C++, the dictionary−like data structure is present in C++ STL. The name of this data structure is named as ‘map’. The map creates a pair of keys and values of any type (since we are using C++, the type must be defined before compilation). In this section, we will see how we can sort the entries of the dictionary based on their key parameters in C++.

Let us see how to define map data structure first. This will take two types of templates. The syntax and required library are shown below −

Syntax to define Map Data Structure

Here, we need to import the ‘map’ library to use the map data structure. This takes two data types type1 and type2. Type1 refers to the data type for the key parameter whereas type2 is for the value type. The mapVariable is the object created from the map type class. Now let us see how to sort the map using their key parameters.

Using Vector of Pairs

In this idea, we just create a vector (dynamic array, which is coming as another element from C++ STL) of key-value pairs. Then perform sorting by creating your comparing function. Then store the contents again into a map in a sorted format.


Take map M as input

Define a dynamic array A to store key-value pairs

For each key-value pair p in M, do

insert p into A

End for

sort A based on their keys

create empty map newMap

For each pair p in A −

insert pair p into newMap

End for

return newMap


using namespace std;

// Create a comparator function to perform key-value pair comparison return a.first < b.first; }

//Define sorting function to sort given dictionary or map

for ( auto& it : givenMap ) { pairVec.push_back( it ); }

sort( pairVec.begin(), pairVec.end(), compare);

for ( auto& it : pairVec ) { newMap.insert( { it.first, it.second } ); } return newMap; }

for ( auto& it : givenMap ) { cout << “Key: ” << it.first << “, value: ” << it.second << endl; } }

int main(){

givenMap = { { “Three”, 3 }, { “Two”, 2 }, { “One”, 1 } };

cout << “Before Sorting: ” << endl; display( givenMap );

cout << “After Sorting: ” << endl; givenMap = sorting( givenMap ); display( givenMap ); }

Output Before Sorting: Key: One, value: 1 Key: Three, value: 3 Key: Two, value: 2 After Sorting: Key: One, value: 1 Key: Three, value: 3 Key: Two, value: 2

We have performed the sorting, but we cannot see any difference here. This is because the map data structure itself holds the key-value pairs based on the sorted form of their keys, but it is not always the case. In a few scenarios, it can store data out of their order.

Using a Set of Pairs

Set is another data structure that can be used to sort the key-value pairs from a map data structure. The set data structure stores data in sorted order. So it does not require an additional sorting step after inserting elements into the collection. Let us see the algorithm for a clear understanding.


Take map M as input

Define a set S to store key-value pairs

For each key-value pair p in M, do

insert p into S

End for

create empty map newMap

For each pair p in S −

insert pair p into newMap

End for

return newMap


using namespace std;

// Create comparator function to perform key-value pair comparison struct compare {

bool operator()(const T& a, const T& b) const { if (a.second != b.second) { return a.second < b.second; } return a.first < b.first; } };

//Define sorting function to sort given dictionary or map

for ( auto& it : givenMap ) { pairSet.insert( it ); }

for ( auto& it : pairSet ) { newMap.insert( { it.first, it.second } ); } return newMap; }

for ( auto& it : givenMap ) { cout << “Key: ” << it.first << “, value: ” << it.second << endl; } }

int main(){

givenMap = { { “Three”, 3 }, { “Two”, 2 }, { “One”, 1 }, {“Four”, 4}, {“Five”, 5}, };

cout << “Before Sorting: ” << endl; display( givenMap );

cout << “After Sorting: ” << endl; givenMap = sorting( givenMap ); display( givenMap ); }

Output Before Sorting: Key: Five, value: 5 Key: Four, value: 4 Key: One, value: 1 Key: Three, value: 3 Key: Two, value: 2 After Sorting: Key: Five, value: 5 Key: Four, value: 4 Key: One, value: 1 Key: Three, value: 3 Key: Two, value: 2 Conclusion

In this article, we have seen two different techniques to sort the dictionary data structure (map in C++) and sort them based on their key parameters. The maps are hash−maps and they use hashing techniques to store data for their keys. The keys are unique, and values may be the same for different keys. We have arranged them using set and vector sorting where the vectors and sets are holding pairs. Each pair has two types. The first type is a key type, and the second type is a value type.

How To Remap Fn Keys On Your Mac

Whether you use a Windows PC or a Mac machine, your keyboard has all the standard functions keys at the top. These keys are assigned with various functions by the operating system of your computer.

Some of the actions these keys perform are things like increasing and decreasing brightness levels, increasing and decreasing volume levels, opening certain functions, and so on. On a Mac machine, these keys trigger some of the macOS’ default actions, such as opening the Mission Control view.

Table of Contents

The issue here is that, while some of these keys are used frequently, others remain unused simply because their functions aren’t as common. The best way to put these unused fn keys on Mac into use is to remap them. 

Remapping keys lets you assign custom functions to the keys. These keys will then perform the actions that you assign to them on your Mac.

Disable The Default Function Keys Behavior

Before you assign any custom actions to your keys, the first thing you’ll want to do is disable the default actions of your keys. This will disable the useful keys as well but you can always use them by pressing and holding down the fn button on your keyboard. It will then make your keys do the action that’s printed on them.

Disabling the function keys is easy on a Mac. Here’s how you do it:

On the following screen, you’ll find a few options that you can enable and disable. Find the option that says Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys and turn it on.

You’ve successfully turned off the default behavior of your fn keys.

Remap Functions Keys

Now that the default function key actions are turned off, you can go ahead and assign custom actions to these keys. It’s pretty easy to do this and you don’t need a third-party app to do the task.

You’re going to use the same System Preferences pane to get this task done.

You don’t need to save any changes as it’ll be automatically done by macOS.

From now on, whenever you press the fn key specified above on your keyboard, it’ll take a screenshot instead of performing the usual action it does. You can assign any of your function keys to any of the shortcuts you find in there.

Map Functions Keys To Perform Specific Actions

While the built-in Keyboard menu has a lot of keyboard shortcuts for you to use and to assign to the fn keys, it doesn’t have all the shortcuts. There are certain shortcuts that you may want to use by pressing your fn keys but those aren’t listed here.

One of the ways to have your custom shortcuts listed there is to add them to the list. The following shows how it’s done:

Open the app for which you want to create a custom fn key action. As an example, I’ll open Google Chrome to create an fn key shortcut for launching an incognito window.

From now on, when you press the fn key you used above, it’ll perform the action that you just entered in the Menu Title box. In my case, it’ll open a new incognito window in Google Chrome.

Use A Third-Party App To Remap Fn Keys on MacOS

macOS, by default, gives you plenty of options to customize the behavior of your function keys. However, if you want even more power, you may need to use a third-party app.

Karabiner is one of the popular apps that helps you customize how various keyboard shortcuts work on your Mac machine. It lets you create multiple profiles so you can have one set of keyboard shortcuts in one profile and another set in a secondary profile.

There are several other features in the app that you may want to explore.

New Uses For Your Function Keys

If you can’t think of any particular function for your keys, you can assign some of the following functions to your keys. These are used by most Mac users.

Browser new tab

Browser new incognito tab


Do not disturb mode

Close app

Hide and unhide the Dock

Feel free to use your creativity and imagination to make these keys work the way you want.


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