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Following the news that famed jailbreak hacker Comex was hired by Apple, many in the community called it the “beginning of the end” for jailbreakers. Apple is proving to be smarter than everyone thought. If you can’t beat ’em, hire ’em, right?
With iOS 5 set for a public release this Fall, the cat and mouse game between Apple and jailbreakers is not over. It’s only just beginning…
Apple has hired two notable jailbreak developers recently. First there was Peter Hajas, creator of an innovative iOS notifications replacement called MobileNotifier. While Hajas was not associated with exploiting actual jailbreaks, he was a prominent member of the jailbreak community.
As of a couple days ago, we broke the news that Nicholas Allegra (Comex) had been hired by Apple. Unlike Hajas, Comex was perhaps one of the most key jailbreak hackers currently active in the community. He is most famous for his web-based jailbreak called JailbreakMe. Comex was recently profiled by Forbes, and his work on JailbreakMe was compared to “that of Stuxnet, a worm thought to have been designed by the Israeli or U.S. government to infect Iran’s nuclear facilities.”
Seen as one of the greatest minds in the jailbreak community, Comex’s employment at Apple is definitely a huge blow to jailbreakers everywhere — but it is by no means the beginning of the end for jailbreaking.
The two main groups for iOS hacking are the Dev Team and the Chronic-Dev Team. While the Dev Team is responsible for jailbreak tools like RedSn0w and PwnageTool, the Chronic-Dev Team is known for tools like GreenPois0n. The Chronic-Dev Team has taken a backseat to releasing new jailbreaks since iOS 4.2.1. However, both the Dev Team and Chronic-Dev Team are ready to continue exploiting iOS in the future.
Joshua Hill, better known as P0sixninja, is a prominent hacker and leader of the Chronic-Dev Team. He recently assured everyone on Twitter that the Chronic-Dev Team is not only here to stay, but also adding more talented hackers to its roster.
Yes, losing Comex is an awful loss for the jailbreak community. Is it the straw that broke the camel’s back? Absolutely not.
If you look at the Chronic-Dev Team’s website, 9 astute hackers are officially listed as being apart of the team. The Dev Team currently has 10 official members. There are also independent hackers like iH8Sn0w. (The teenage dev is responsible for a widely used jailbreak tool on Windows called Sn0wbreeze.) There are also plenty of unnamed contributors that help to make jailbreaks possible.
The extensive list of new features in iOS 5 indicate that Apple’s innovation takes a huge cue from the jailbreak community. Many of the new features in iOS 5 have been available to jailbreakers already, and Apple has been known to add features and innovations from jailbreak devs in the past.
Examples of continued jailbreak innovation in iOS 5 include the robust list of third party Notification Center widgets that have already been developed and showcased by jailbreakers on the iOS 5 beta. Apple has yet to open up access for developing third party iOS 5 widgets, and, like usual, jailbreakers have paved the path for others to follow.
iOS 5 is by no means the end of jailbreaking. Jay ‘Saurik’ Freeman has no plans to discontinue the development of Cydia. Hackers and developers are expressing more interest in jailbreaking, and the Dev and Chronic-Dev teams are committed to uncovering exploits in iOS.
When Steve Jobs stepped down as CEO of Apple, the Dev Team bid Steve farewell with a nostalgic message:
“The coolest cat. We loved the chase! Good luck, Steve. Signed, Jailbreakers and tinkerers everywhere.”
With Steve gone, the cat and mouse game definitely won’t be the same. But rest assured that it will continue.
You're reading The Cat And Mouse Game Between Apple And Jailbreakers Is Only Just Beginning
The catastrophic flooding from 2012’s Hurricane Sandy inundated parts of the New York City subway system with corrosive salt water and brought with it a warning for the future. Now, scientists have learned that the city is sinking, and it’s not just the underground trains that are in trouble.
[Related: New York City’s subway system isn’t ready for a storm-filled future.]
A study published earlier this month in the Earth’s Future journal found that New York City is sinking at a rate of roughly one to two millimeters per year, but certain parts of northern Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, and lower Manhattan are actually sinking faster at 2.75mm per year.
There is not one cause for this sinking, but the weight from giant skyscrapers is magnifying the problem. In the study, the team calculated that all of the city’s structures weigh 842 million tons (1.68 trillion pounds), about the weight of 140 million elephants.
Many of the city’s largest buildings sit upon solid bedrock called Manhattan schist, but there is a mixture of sand and other clays holding up some of the other structures. For example, the Manhattan stanchion of the famed Brooklyn Bridge is built on a hard layer of sand, since it was too dangerous for the workers building it to keep drilling down to bedrock.
“The softer the soil, the more compression there is from the buildings. It wasn’t a mistake to build such large buildings in New York but we’ve just got to keep in mind every time you build something there you push down the ground a little bit more,” study co-author and a geophysicist at the US Geological Survey Tom Parsons told The Guardian.
The clay and sand is adding to the sinking effect that might be due to the way that the Earth below continues to shift following the Earth’s most recent ice age–about 10,000 years ago. Giant ice sheets covered Earth during the coldest parts of the planet’s last ice age, which caused the ground right underneath them to sink. The landmasses tilted up and after the ice sheets melted, the areas that were propped up like New York and other cities in eastern North America are now sinking back down. Earlier studies suggest the East Coast could see as much as 19 to 59 inches of sinking by 2100.
Climate change is compounding the issue, as the sea level rise continues to accelerate. The waters surrounding New York City are rising at about twice the global average due the glaciers melting from the effects of climate change and seawater expanding. Since 1950, the sea level around New York City has increased about nine inches. According to the NYC Panel on Climate Change, the sea level could rise between eight inches and 30 inches by the 2050s and as much as 15 inches to 75 inches by the end of this century.
“A deeply concentrated population of 8.4 million people faces varying degrees of hazard from inundation in New York City,” the team wrote in the study.
[Related: At New York City’s biggest power plant, a switch to clean energy will help a neighborhood breathe easier.]
New York is not the only city that will be facing this crisis. A report from the C40 Group, a network of mayors from some of the world’s biggest cities dedicated to confronting the effects of climate change, found that 800 million people are expected to live in coastal cities where sea levels are expected to rise by over a foot by 2050.
The study’s authors also stress the need to adapt to these threats of increased flooding. “Every additional high-rise building constructed at coastal, river, or lakefront settings could contribute to future flood risk,” the authors wrote.
In the fall of 2023, New York City began construction on the East Side Coastal Resiliency Project which is aimed at reducing the flood risk and sea level rise along Manhattan’s east side. According to the city government, the boundaries of this project correspond with the natural “pinch-points” in the 100-year floodplain. These are areas where the land is higher along the coastline, making it easier to close the system off from water entering from the north and south. The project is expected to be complete in 2026 and will eventually span 2.4 miles and include 18 movable floodgates.
Hard drives, SSDs, and other storage devices require some sort of system to organize their physical data storage into something a computing device can understand.
Partitions, volumes, and logical drives are all examples of different ways you can map out your storage device real estate. Although they do a similar job, there are essential differences between them.
Table of ContentsStart at the Top: Physical Drives
Computers store all data on some form of physical media—usually a hard disk drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD). Physical storage is something you can touch, and the actual data is represented in some physical way. Pits and lands on an optical disc represent ones and zeroes. In an SSD, those data bits are expressed by memory cells that hold varying charge levels.
Both volumes and partitions are data structures found within and across physical disks. Your physical disk will fully contain the volumes you use for most home users. However, the opposite can also happen, which we’ve explained below under “Logical vs. Physical Volumes.”
The most important facts to understand are that the entirety of a physical disk can be a single volume, that multiple volumes can be on one physical disk, and that one volume can span across multiple physical disks.What Is a Partition?
Think of it as dividing a field into plots of land. Each fenced-off plot of land is like a partition on a drive.
Operating systems generally treat partitions as if they were separate physical hard drives. As a user, you won’t see any practical difference between having two hard drives in your computer and having one drive split into two partitions.What Is a Volume?
The term “volume” is often used interchangeably with “disk” and even “partition,” but there’s a fundamental difference between them. It doesn’t help that different operating systems and computer literature use some of these terms loosely and interchangeably. Confusion is inevitable, but we’ll try to clarify things somewhat.
A volume is a self-contained data unit. It has a volume label (name), a single file system (e.g., NTFS or FAT32), and usually takes up an entire disk or partition.
When you see your drives, such as C: or D:, what you’re seeing is a volume. Because volumes are usually disk-sized or partition-sized, it’s easy to forget that they are not one and the same thing, but two distinct concepts.
For evidence of this, consider that you can store a volume as a file, such as a DVD or a disk image. You can then “mount” these image files as volumes in your operating system, and they’ll act and look just like a physical drive or a formatted partition.
Another typical example of the difference between volumes and partitions is that you cannot partition a floppy disk, but it is still a storage volume. The same goes for a drive with no partitions, which just means that it has a single partition that happens to use the entire disk. There are no partitions, but it’s still a volume.
Hopefully, that demonstrates a volume’s distinction from concepts like drive or partition.Logical vs. Physical Volumes
Now that we’ve established that a volume isn’t necessarily the same as an HDD or partition, it’s a good idea to discuss “logical” volumes briefly. While you can have multiple volumes on one physical disk, there are also situations where the size of a volume exceeds what a single disk can accommodate.
This is where logical volumes come into play. A logical volume looks like a large continuous storage space to the user. Still, physically it is on different locations on a single disk or even on locations that span several disks.Logical Drives
Don’t confuse a logical volume with a logical drive. If you partition a physical drive into multiple partitions and then format each partition as a volume, each with its drive letter, those drives are “logical” drives. Strictly speaking, all volumes are logical since they are not necessarily linked to a single or entire physical drive. Still, it seems more common for the term “logical volume” to refer to a volume that spans multiple drives.
All this means is that from the operating system’s perspective, there is just one single drive with a single collection of storage addresses. The background mechanisms of the logical drive simply make sure that data is written to the correct physical location mapped to the logical drives storage addresses, regardless of which physical drive that may be.Basic Disks vs. Dynamic Disks
In Windows, there are two types of hard drive configuration: Basic Disks and Dynamic Disks.
It’s most likely that your Windows computer has its drives configured as Basic Disks. There are two types of Basic Disk. Those that use a Master Boot Record (MBR) can have four primary partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition, which can be divided into many logical partitions. New computers that use the GUID Partition Table (GPT) can have 128 partitions, far more than an MBR partition.
To learn more about the differences, check out MBR vs. GPT: Which Format Is Better for an SSD Drive?.
Whether MBR or GPT, all basic disks use a partition table to manage the partitions on a disk. On the other hand, dynamic disks use the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) database. This database holds information on the volumes that reside on the dynamic disk, such as their size, where they begin and end, and their file systems. Dynamic disks also support GPT and MBR partitions but go beyond that.
Dynamic disks allow a few tricks that basic disks don’t. The most important one is the ability to create spanned and striped volumes. In other words, volumes exist on more than one physical disk.
A spanned volume presents itself as a single volume to the operating system, but the physical data exists on multiple disks. The volume is built up from multiple segments of unallocated space from multiple disks and can be expanded.
A striped volume also combines multiple physical drives into a single logical volume, but data is interleaved across all disks so that the read and write speeds of the drives can be combined. Striping is also known as RAID 0 and offers the fastest speeds for mechanical hard drives. This speed-boosting technique is less relevant for SSDs.Unallocated Space
When you use a partition manager or other similar disk utility to create or delete volumes on a disk, you may see a section of a given physical drive marked as “unallocated space.”
This means that the physical space on the drive isn’t currently part of any structure. Unallocated space can be at the end of a disk, in the middle, or anywhere else. If you delete a disk partition in the middle of the disk’s total space, then that storage space region becomes unallocated space.
If you see unallocated or free space, you can create one or more partitions or volumes in that space. In some cases, you can expand an adjacent partition to include that unallocated space.Resizing Partitions, Volumes, and Logical Drives
Depending on the type of partition you have and where on the disk it’s located, you can resize partitions. For example, let’s say you have two partitions on a drive, but you’re running out of space on one and have plenty of space on the other. You might shrink one partition, creating unallocated space, and then expand the other partition.How to Check Your Disk Structure in Windows, Ubuntu Linux & macOS
Windows, Linux, and macOS are the three primary desktop operating systems, and all have their own disk or partition management utilities. Different distros of Linux may have managers that look different, but they all have the same broad functionality.Windows Disk Management
Once you’ve got the app open, you’ll see every disk and volume on your computer. The Disk Management app makes it easy to see which volumes are on your computer and what physical disks they are on. You can also assign drive letters here and diagnose if disks or volumes aren’t mounting correctly. The disk graphics also clearly show what type of partition each volume uses.Ubuntu Linux Disk Utility
In Ubuntu Linux, the included disk management utility is simply called Disks. Like the Windows utility, it gives you a clear visual breakdown of the physical drives and the volumes that reside on them.
You can also manage your volumes and partitions here, but remember that Linux has a more complicated set of default partitions than Windows. For example, the swap partition is what Linux uses as RAM swap space, whereas Windows simply uses a file on an existing partition.
While it’s always true that you should not go around deleting partitions unless you know it’s safe, that’s doubly true on Linux.macOS Disk Utility
The macOS Disk Utility isn’t as busy with information as other operating systems. Still, it offers the most critical functions you need when setting up or modifying a disk’s structure.
The easiest way to launch Disk Utility is to use Spotlight Search. So press Command + Space and then type Disk Utility. Then press Enter to launch the program.
This will show you all the drives connected to your Mac, as well as the structure of those drives. Just remember that macOS can’t understand certain file formats, such as NTFS, without special third-party software.Use Caution!
After learning all this information about drive partitions, volumes, and logical drives, there’s one more thing you should be aware of. Messing around with partitions and drive structures can easily destroy your data. The safest time to work with partitions is when your drive is blank anyway, and you perform the initial setup.
CPUs and GPUs are pretty similar. They’re both made from hundreds of millions of transistors and can process thousands of operations per second. But what’s the difference between a CPU and a GPU?What Is a CPU?
The CPU (central processing unit) of a computer is often called the “brain” of a computer. It’s a collection of millions of transistors that can be manipulated to perform an awesome variety of calculations. A standard CPU has between one and four processing cores clocked anywhere from 1 to 4 GHz.
A CPU is powerful because it can do everything. If a computer is capable of accomplishing a task, it’s because the CPU can do it. Programmers achieve this through broad instruction sets and long feature lists shared by all CPUs.What Is a GPU?
A GPU (graphics processing unit) is a specialized type of microprocessor. It’s optimized to display graphics and do very specific computational tasks. It runs at a lower clock speed than a CPU but has many times the number of processing cores.
You can almost think of a GPU as a specialized CPU that’s been built for a very specific purpose. Video rendering is all about doing simple mathematical operations over and over again, and that’s what a GPU is best at. A GPU will have thousands of processing cores running simultaneously. Each core, though slower than a CPU core, is tuned to be especially efficient at the basic mathematical operations required for video rendering. This massive parallelism is what makes GPUs capable of rendering the complex 3D graphics required by modern games.What’s the Difference Between a CPU and a GPU?
If a CPU is a Leatherman, a GPU is a very sharp knife. You can’t tighten a hex bolt with a knife, but you can definitely cut some stuff.
A GPU can only do a fraction of the many operations a CPU does, but it does so with incredible speed. A GPU will use hundreds of cores to make time-sensitive calculations for thousands of pixels at a time, making it possible to display complex 3D graphics. However, as fast as a GPU can go, it can only really perform “dumb” operations.
For example, a modern GPU like the Nvidia GTX 1080 has 2560 shader cores. Thanks to those cores, it can execute 2560 instructions, or operations, during one clock cycle. And when you need to make a screen’s worth of pixels one percent brighter, that’s perfect. By comparison, a four-core Intel i5 CPU can only execute four simultaneous instructions per clock cycle.
However, CPUs are more flexible than GPUs. CPUs have a larger instruction set, so they can perform a wider range of tasks. CPUs also run at higher maximum clock speeds and are capable of managing the input and output of all of a computer’s components. For example, CPUs can organize and integrate with virtual memory, which is essential for running a modern operating system. That’s just not something a GPU can accomplish.What About GPU Computation?
Even though GPUs are best at video rendering, they are technically capable of doing more. Graphics processing is only one kind of repetitive and highly-parallel computing task. Other tasks like bitcoin mining and password cracking rely on the same kinds of massive data sets and simple mathematical operations. That’s why some folks will use GPUs to run non-graphical operations. This is best known as “GPU computation.”Conclusion
CPUs and GPUs have similar purposes but are optimized for different computing tasks. An efficient computer will need both to run properly.
Image credit: Mmanss (Own work)
Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.
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Steam is no longer just for Windows, Mac, and Linux users
We all know Steam as our go-to PC gaming platform and store.
Now, Ellon Musk is trying to integrate Steam into Tesla vehicles.
The Tesla CEO actually promised support for the Steam titles.
Most of us have used Steam at least once, and the platform is undoubtedly the most popular online gaming platform/store in the world.
As you know, Steam is available to all Windows, Mac, or Linux users for free. The only thing you pay for when you use Steam is the games themselves.
In fact, Steam has become so popular over the years that it’s pretty much impossible to mention PC gaming without at least saying the app’s name at least once.
And, since you use Steam on the Windows OS, we can show you what to do if an update is stuck or not downloading, or how to add Microsoft Store and Xbox Games on Steam.
The company has always made efforts to collaborate with the Redmond tech giant, even providing Windows drivers for its latest Steam Deck device.
By the way, if you ordered yourself a Steam Deck handheld gaming PC, here’s a calculator to help you anticipate when your device will ship.
Why did we say that the app will no longer be only for Windows, Mac, and Linux users? Because, get this, it’s going to be an integral part of Tesla cars as well.
We’re making progress with Steam integration. Demo probably next month.
— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) July 15, 2023You will be able to run Steam and play games in your Tesla
Some of you might think this is a joke, but Tesla is apparently looking to expand its collection of in-car games by integrating the Steam app.
In fact, Tesla CEO Elon Musk personally said that the company’s making progress with Steam integration and that we can expect a demo probably next month (August 2023).
If you know only a little bit about these cars, you surely found out that Tesla already offers a number of games through the built-in Tesla Arcade.
That being said, you have to realize how big adding Steam’s digital storefront to the car’s software could actually be.
Such a move could give users access to the entire Steam gaming catalog, which means that you can take a break from your drive, pull over, have a sandwich, and play Cyberpunk 2077.
Keep in mind that, even though this information is out, it’s still unknown if the integration will go so far as to allow users to make purchases on Steam while sitting in their cars.
Another question is if the car’s software can support all games in the Steam catalog and if this will affect the car’s performance at all.
People that kept a close eye on this matter remember that Ellon Musk still hasn’t delivered on promises to bring Cyberpunk 2077 and The Witcher to newer Model S and X vehicles.
Before you ask how can these cars run such complex and demanding games, know that they come outfitted with an AMD Ryzezn processor and a discrete AMD RDNA 2 GPU.
So, it’s safe to say that we can imagine our Tesla vehicles as extensions of our gaming dens, provided we don’t bring other devices on our trips.
Things are moving so fast technology-wise, that it would be surprising to see Windows 11, or even the upcoming Windows 12 running in these vehicles.
We remind you that recent details point to Microsoft moving back to a three-year release for new Windows operating systems.
This means that newer versions of Windows could end up being the official OS for quite a number of cars, provided Microsoft creates new partnerships in that direction.
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It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
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