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CPUs and GPUs are pretty similar. They’re both made from hundreds of millions of transistors and can process thousands of operations per second. But what’s the difference between a CPU and a GPU?What Is a CPU?
The CPU (central processing unit) of a computer is often called the “brain” of a computer. It’s a collection of millions of transistors that can be manipulated to perform an awesome variety of calculations. A standard CPU has between one and four processing cores clocked anywhere from 1 to 4 GHz.
A CPU is powerful because it can do everything. If a computer is capable of accomplishing a task, it’s because the CPU can do it. Programmers achieve this through broad instruction sets and long feature lists shared by all CPUs.What Is a GPU?
A GPU (graphics processing unit) is a specialized type of microprocessor. It’s optimized to display graphics and do very specific computational tasks. It runs at a lower clock speed than a CPU but has many times the number of processing cores.
You can almost think of a GPU as a specialized CPU that’s been built for a very specific purpose. Video rendering is all about doing simple mathematical operations over and over again, and that’s what a GPU is best at. A GPU will have thousands of processing cores running simultaneously. Each core, though slower than a CPU core, is tuned to be especially efficient at the basic mathematical operations required for video rendering. This massive parallelism is what makes GPUs capable of rendering the complex 3D graphics required by modern games.What’s the Difference Between a CPU and a GPU?
If a CPU is a Leatherman, a GPU is a very sharp knife. You can’t tighten a hex bolt with a knife, but you can definitely cut some stuff.
A GPU can only do a fraction of the many operations a CPU does, but it does so with incredible speed. A GPU will use hundreds of cores to make time-sensitive calculations for thousands of pixels at a time, making it possible to display complex 3D graphics. However, as fast as a GPU can go, it can only really perform “dumb” operations.
For example, a modern GPU like the Nvidia GTX 1080 has 2560 shader cores. Thanks to those cores, it can execute 2560 instructions, or operations, during one clock cycle. And when you need to make a screen’s worth of pixels one percent brighter, that’s perfect. By comparison, a four-core Intel i5 CPU can only execute four simultaneous instructions per clock cycle.
However, CPUs are more flexible than GPUs. CPUs have a larger instruction set, so they can perform a wider range of tasks. CPUs also run at higher maximum clock speeds and are capable of managing the input and output of all of a computer’s components. For example, CPUs can organize and integrate with virtual memory, which is essential for running a modern operating system. That’s just not something a GPU can accomplish.What About GPU Computation?
Even though GPUs are best at video rendering, they are technically capable of doing more. Graphics processing is only one kind of repetitive and highly-parallel computing task. Other tasks like bitcoin mining and password cracking rely on the same kinds of massive data sets and simple mathematical operations. That’s why some folks will use GPUs to run non-graphical operations. This is best known as “GPU computation.”Conclusion
CPUs and GPUs have similar purposes but are optimized for different computing tasks. An efficient computer will need both to run properly.
Image credit: Mmanss (Own work)
Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.
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Hard drives, SSDs, and other storage devices require some sort of system to organize their physical data storage into something a computing device can understand.
Partitions, volumes, and logical drives are all examples of different ways you can map out your storage device real estate. Although they do a similar job, there are essential differences between them.
Table of ContentsStart at the Top: Physical Drives
Computers store all data on some form of physical media—usually a hard disk drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD). Physical storage is something you can touch, and the actual data is represented in some physical way. Pits and lands on an optical disc represent ones and zeroes. In an SSD, those data bits are expressed by memory cells that hold varying charge levels.
Both volumes and partitions are data structures found within and across physical disks. Your physical disk will fully contain the volumes you use for most home users. However, the opposite can also happen, which we’ve explained below under “Logical vs. Physical Volumes.”
The most important facts to understand are that the entirety of a physical disk can be a single volume, that multiple volumes can be on one physical disk, and that one volume can span across multiple physical disks.What Is a Partition?
Think of it as dividing a field into plots of land. Each fenced-off plot of land is like a partition on a drive.
Operating systems generally treat partitions as if they were separate physical hard drives. As a user, you won’t see any practical difference between having two hard drives in your computer and having one drive split into two partitions.What Is a Volume?
The term “volume” is often used interchangeably with “disk” and even “partition,” but there’s a fundamental difference between them. It doesn’t help that different operating systems and computer literature use some of these terms loosely and interchangeably. Confusion is inevitable, but we’ll try to clarify things somewhat.
A volume is a self-contained data unit. It has a volume label (name), a single file system (e.g., NTFS or FAT32), and usually takes up an entire disk or partition.
When you see your drives, such as C: or D:, what you’re seeing is a volume. Because volumes are usually disk-sized or partition-sized, it’s easy to forget that they are not one and the same thing, but two distinct concepts.
For evidence of this, consider that you can store a volume as a file, such as a DVD or a disk image. You can then “mount” these image files as volumes in your operating system, and they’ll act and look just like a physical drive or a formatted partition.
Another typical example of the difference between volumes and partitions is that you cannot partition a floppy disk, but it is still a storage volume. The same goes for a drive with no partitions, which just means that it has a single partition that happens to use the entire disk. There are no partitions, but it’s still a volume.
Hopefully, that demonstrates a volume’s distinction from concepts like drive or partition.Logical vs. Physical Volumes
Now that we’ve established that a volume isn’t necessarily the same as an HDD or partition, it’s a good idea to discuss “logical” volumes briefly. While you can have multiple volumes on one physical disk, there are also situations where the size of a volume exceeds what a single disk can accommodate.
This is where logical volumes come into play. A logical volume looks like a large continuous storage space to the user. Still, physically it is on different locations on a single disk or even on locations that span several disks.Logical Drives
Don’t confuse a logical volume with a logical drive. If you partition a physical drive into multiple partitions and then format each partition as a volume, each with its drive letter, those drives are “logical” drives. Strictly speaking, all volumes are logical since they are not necessarily linked to a single or entire physical drive. Still, it seems more common for the term “logical volume” to refer to a volume that spans multiple drives.
All this means is that from the operating system’s perspective, there is just one single drive with a single collection of storage addresses. The background mechanisms of the logical drive simply make sure that data is written to the correct physical location mapped to the logical drives storage addresses, regardless of which physical drive that may be.Basic Disks vs. Dynamic Disks
In Windows, there are two types of hard drive configuration: Basic Disks and Dynamic Disks.
It’s most likely that your Windows computer has its drives configured as Basic Disks. There are two types of Basic Disk. Those that use a Master Boot Record (MBR) can have four primary partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition, which can be divided into many logical partitions. New computers that use the GUID Partition Table (GPT) can have 128 partitions, far more than an MBR partition.
To learn more about the differences, check out MBR vs. GPT: Which Format Is Better for an SSD Drive?.
Whether MBR or GPT, all basic disks use a partition table to manage the partitions on a disk. On the other hand, dynamic disks use the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) database. This database holds information on the volumes that reside on the dynamic disk, such as their size, where they begin and end, and their file systems. Dynamic disks also support GPT and MBR partitions but go beyond that.
Dynamic disks allow a few tricks that basic disks don’t. The most important one is the ability to create spanned and striped volumes. In other words, volumes exist on more than one physical disk.
A spanned volume presents itself as a single volume to the operating system, but the physical data exists on multiple disks. The volume is built up from multiple segments of unallocated space from multiple disks and can be expanded.
A striped volume also combines multiple physical drives into a single logical volume, but data is interleaved across all disks so that the read and write speeds of the drives can be combined. Striping is also known as RAID 0 and offers the fastest speeds for mechanical hard drives. This speed-boosting technique is less relevant for SSDs.Unallocated Space
When you use a partition manager or other similar disk utility to create or delete volumes on a disk, you may see a section of a given physical drive marked as “unallocated space.”
This means that the physical space on the drive isn’t currently part of any structure. Unallocated space can be at the end of a disk, in the middle, or anywhere else. If you delete a disk partition in the middle of the disk’s total space, then that storage space region becomes unallocated space.
If you see unallocated or free space, you can create one or more partitions or volumes in that space. In some cases, you can expand an adjacent partition to include that unallocated space.Resizing Partitions, Volumes, and Logical Drives
Depending on the type of partition you have and where on the disk it’s located, you can resize partitions. For example, let’s say you have two partitions on a drive, but you’re running out of space on one and have plenty of space on the other. You might shrink one partition, creating unallocated space, and then expand the other partition.How to Check Your Disk Structure in Windows, Ubuntu Linux & macOS
Windows, Linux, and macOS are the three primary desktop operating systems, and all have their own disk or partition management utilities. Different distros of Linux may have managers that look different, but they all have the same broad functionality.Windows Disk Management
Once you’ve got the app open, you’ll see every disk and volume on your computer. The Disk Management app makes it easy to see which volumes are on your computer and what physical disks they are on. You can also assign drive letters here and diagnose if disks or volumes aren’t mounting correctly. The disk graphics also clearly show what type of partition each volume uses.Ubuntu Linux Disk Utility
In Ubuntu Linux, the included disk management utility is simply called Disks. Like the Windows utility, it gives you a clear visual breakdown of the physical drives and the volumes that reside on them.
You can also manage your volumes and partitions here, but remember that Linux has a more complicated set of default partitions than Windows. For example, the swap partition is what Linux uses as RAM swap space, whereas Windows simply uses a file on an existing partition.
While it’s always true that you should not go around deleting partitions unless you know it’s safe, that’s doubly true on Linux.macOS Disk Utility
The macOS Disk Utility isn’t as busy with information as other operating systems. Still, it offers the most critical functions you need when setting up or modifying a disk’s structure.
The easiest way to launch Disk Utility is to use Spotlight Search. So press Command + Space and then type Disk Utility. Then press Enter to launch the program.
This will show you all the drives connected to your Mac, as well as the structure of those drives. Just remember that macOS can’t understand certain file formats, such as NTFS, without special third-party software.Use Caution!
After learning all this information about drive partitions, volumes, and logical drives, there’s one more thing you should be aware of. Messing around with partitions and drive structures can easily destroy your data. The safest time to work with partitions is when your drive is blank anyway, and you perform the initial setup.
Padding and margin are two of the most important attributes used to manage the positioning of the views to be displayed within the android application. Both of this attributes are used to change the position of a view but there are some differences between them. In this article we will take a look at What is the difference between a View’s margin and a padding in Android ?What is padding in android ?
Padding is a space which is present between the content which we have to display and the border of that content. Padding is used to create the extra space within the content.
We can add padding for a widget from any of the specific sides. We can add padding either from left,right,top or bottom depending upon the requirement.Syntax android:padding="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for padding is used to specify padding from all sides of a view.android:paddingStart="Size in dp" android:paddingLeft="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for padding is used to specify padding from the left side. We can use either paddingStart or paddingLeft to add padding for a view from the left side.android:paddingEnd="Size in dp" android:paddingRight="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for padding is used to specify padding from the right side. We can use either paddingEnd or paddingRight to add padding for a view from the right side.android:paddingTop="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for padding is used to specify padding from top of a view.android:paddingBottom="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for padding is used to specify padding from bottom of a view.What is the margin in android?
Margin is the distance between the view and its immediate sibling or a parent view. Margin is used to create a visual separation between two different views.
We can add a margin for a widget from any specific sides. We can add margin either from left, right, top or bottom depending upon the requirement.Syntax android:layout_margin="size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for margin is used to specify padding from all sides of a view.android:layout_marginStart="size in dp" android:layout_marginLeft="size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for margin is used to specify margin from the left side. We can use either marginStart or marginLeft to add margin for a view from the left side.android:marginEnd="Size in dp" android:marginRight="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for margin is used to specify margin from the right side. We can use either marginEnd or marginRight to add padding for a view from the right side.android:marginTop="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for margin is used to specify margin from top of a view.android:marginBottom="Size in dp"
Explanation : Above syntax for margin is used to specify margin from bottom of a view.Difference between Margin and Padding in Android
Margin defines the extra space outside the border of a view.
Padding defines the extra space inside the border of a view.
Margin is used to create extra space between two views.
Padding is used to create extra space around the content of a view.
Margin affects layout outside the border of a view.
Padding affects the layout inside the border of a view.
Margin is not affected by the background color of a view.
Padding is affected by the background color of a view.Example
We will be creating a simple application in which we will be simply displaying a button and adding padding from all sides to it one by one and test it.Step 1 : Creating a new project in Android Studio
Inside this screen we have to simply specify the project name. Then the package name will be generated automatically.
Note : Make sure to select the Language as Kotlin.
Once our project has been created we will get to see 2 files which are open i.e activity_main.xml and chúng tôi file.Step 2 : Working with activity_main.xml Example 1 : Padding from all sides
Working with activity_main.xml file.
android:layout_width=”match_parent” android:layout_height=”match_parent” android:orientation=”vertical” <TextView android:id=”@+id/idTVHeading” android:layout_width=”match_parent” android:layout_height=”wrap_content” android:layout_marginTop=”30dp” android:text=”Margin VS Padding” android:textAlignment=”center” android:textAllCaps=”false” android:textColor=”@color/black” android:textSize=”20sp” <TextView android:layout_width=”match_parent” android:layout_height=”wrap_content” android:layout_below=”@id/idTVHeading” android:layout_centerHorizontal=”true” android:layout_margin=”20dp” android:text=”Margin text view” android:id=”@+id/idTVMargin” android:textAlignment=”center” android:textColor=”@color/black” <TextView android:layout_width=”match_parent” android:layout_height=”wrap_content” android:layout_below=”@id/idTVMargin” android:id=”@+id/idTVPadding” android:layout_centerHorizontal=”true” android:padding=”20dp” android:text=”Padding text view” android:textAlignment=”center” android:textColor=”@color/black”
Explanation : In the above code the root element is a Relative layout in android. This layout is a view group which is used to align all the elements within it relative to each other. We can relatively align all elements within Relative Layout with the help of ids or positions.
Inside this relative layout we are creating a Textview which is used to display the heading of our application. After that we are creating one more text view for which we are adding a margin to this text view and after that we are creating one more text view in which we are adding padding to it from all sides. For both of this text view we are specifying background color and then we are adding padding and margin for each of them from all sides.Output Conclusion
In the above tutorial, we learn What is the difference between margin and padding in android and How we can use it inside our application to move the views with respect to other views within the application.
It is designed for the purpose of developing apps that focus on networks.
Dynamic drop-down menus,
Including the date and the time,
Putting up new windows and dialogue boxes as they appear (like an alert dialogue box, confirm dialogue box, and prompt dialogue box),
Including things like clocks, etc.
;What is AngularJS?
AngularJS is a free and open−source software framework that is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is distributed with the Apache licence version 2.0 attached to it.
The following is a list of the general properties that AngularJS possesses:
With the help of the AngularJS framework, you can make Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) that work well.
AngularJS is a web development framework that is open source, does not cost anything to use, and is used by thousands of developers all over the globe. It is licenced under version 2.0 of the Apache General Public License.Benefits of Using AngularJS
The benefits of using AngularJS are as follows:
AngularJS makes it possible to make Single Page Applications that are very well organised and easy to keep up.
It adds the possibility of data binding to HTML. As a result, it provides the user with an experience that is both rich and responsive.
AngularJS code is unit testable.
Dependency injection and separation of concerns are two concepts that are used by AngularJS.
AngularJS offers reusable components.
Overall, AngularJS allows developers to accomplish greater functionality with fewer lines of code.Drawbacks of Using AngularJS
Even though there are lots of benefits that come with AngularJS, there are still some concerns that need to be addressed.
Definition It is an object−oriented scripting language that is used in the process of application development, specifically for mobile and dynamic web platforms.
It is an open−source framework that may be used to create dynamic web applications as well as massive single−page web apps.
Syntax Its syntax is far more difficult to understand than that of Angular JS. Its syntax is simple and easy.
Filters It doesn’t support the filters. It is possible to use filters with it.
Concept The principle of dynamic typing serves as its foundation. Angular JS is an application−building framework that is predicated on the MVC architectural pattern.
Dependency injection The dependency injection mechanism is not supported by it. AngularJS supports both data binding as well as dependency injection.Conclusion
A circuit breaker is an electrical switching device that can open or close an electric circuit either normally or in case of fault. Therefore, a circuit breaker is one of the major component of an electrical power system or wiring system.
Read through this article to learn the differences between air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker. But, before going into the differences, let’s get a basic overview of both air circuit breaker (ACB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).What is ACB?
ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. The type of the circuit breaker in which air is used as the arc quenching medium is known as air circuit breaker or ACB.
An air circuit breaker (ACB) is generally used in low voltage applications, where the supply voltage is less than 450 volts. Therefore, the air circuit breakers are widely used in the distribution panels.What is VCB?
VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker. A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is the type of circuit breaker which uses vacuum between the electrodes as the arc quenching medium.
The vacuum circuit breakers are mainly used in medium voltage applications, where the supply voltage ranges from 11 kV to 33 kV. In the VCB, the contacts of the circuit breaker are enclosed in a completely sealed vacuum cylinder. When the contacts are separated due to vacuum between the contacts, no arc is produced.Difference between ACB and VCB
Both ACB and VCB are the types of electrical switching devices designed to perform same function of switching and protection. However, they are different in many aspects from each other. The following table highlights the significant differences between ACB and VCB:
Basis of Difference ACB VCB
Full Form ACB stands for Air Circuit Breaker. VCB stands for Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
Definition An air circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses air as the arc quenching medium. A vacuum circuit breaker is a type of circuit breaker that uses vacuum as the air quenching medium.
Supply voltage range ACB is suitable for low voltage range upto 450 volts. VCB is suitable for medium voltage range from 11 kV to 33 kV.
Current ratings An ACB can be used to switch and protect the electric circuits of 600 A to 10 kA. A VCB can be used for the electric circuit of 600 A to 4 kA.
Arc quenching medium Air acts as arc quenching medium in ACB. Vacuum acts as arc quenching medium in VCB.
Pressure of arc quenching medium In ACB, the required pressure for arc quenching is maintained by open air. In VCB, the pressure of vacuum is about 10-2 torr to 10-6 torr.
Development of arc The arc development is high in an ACB. The arc development in a VCB is low.
Need of arc chute
Arc chute is a device that reduces the development of arc.
ACB necessarily requires an arc chute.
VCB does not require the arc chute.
Maintenance ACB requires frequent maintenance. VCB rarely requires any maintenance.
Current transformer installation In case of ACB, both indoor and outdoor installations of current transformer can be made. The current transformer is installed outside the VCB.
Protection relay placement ACB involves internal placement of protection relays. In VCB, the protection relays are placed externally.
Short circuit breaking capacity The short circuit breaking capacity of ACB is very less. VCB has extremely high short circuit breaking capacity.
Installation It is very easy to install the air circuit breakers. The installation of vacuum circuit breakers is comparatively difficult.
Cost ACB is relatively less expensive. The cost of VCB is comparatively more.
Applications ACB is mostly used in low voltage applications such as in distribution panels, motor control centers (MCC) and power control centers (PCC), etc. VCBs are mostly used in medium voltage applications like for switching and protection of high voltage induction motors, secondary transmission substations, etc.Conclusion
The primary function both ACB and VCB is the same, i.e., switching and protection of electrical circuits. The most significant difference between ACB and VCB is that an ACB uses air as the arc quenching medium, while a VCB uses vacuum as the arc quenching medium.
What is Kerberos?
Kerberos is a computer-network confirmation system used for the proof of a user’s details. In Kerberos, all the nodes communicate over an insecure network to show their identification to one another in a secure way. It uses secret-key micrography. Also, it relies on a responsible third party for validating client-server administration and demonstrating viewer’s specifications.
Only trust in the Key Distribution Center(KDC) is required by the users, machines, and services using Kerberos. It dispenses two services and runs on a single method which are Authentication service and ticket-granting service. It is assembled in operating systems like Windows, Linux, Apple, etc.What is SSL?
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, which is an internet security-based protocol. The purpose of SSL is to ensure privacy, confirmation, and accurate data in internet communication. It will prevent sensitive data from hackers. Mainly prevent two systems like the server to client or server to server.
SSL encoded data that is passed on across the web to provide a high level of privacy. It also starts with a method which is known as a handshake among the two communication gadgets. Moreover, SSL virtually signs data to provide accuracy and consistency in data. SSL uses a TCP port over any other port and works on TCP protocol.Difference between Kerberos and SSL
KerberosSSLIt uses private key encryption.While SSL uses public-key encryption.Kerberos is not patented; therefore, it provides free services and is open-source chúng tôi is patented; hence, it does not provide free services.Kerberos is executed in Microsoft products like Windows 2000, Windows XP, and so chúng tôi is executed on messaging, protocols like FTP, web browsing, chúng tôi depends upon the trusted third party.While SSL depends upon the certificate, therefore, it is asynchronous.Kerberos is appropriate for chúng tôi is perfectly suitable and productive for the network chúng tôi revocation is achieved by impairing any user on the confirmation server.Whereas in SSL key revocation needs a revocation server to get the record of the wrong certificates.Passwords live in the user’s minds, where they are generally not put through to personal attacks.Certificate perch on the user’s hard drive where they are exposed to being hacked.Kerberos uses chúng tôi uses TCP.Working of Kerberos
Kerberos is based on trusted third-party and consistent encoding. The main suggestion of Kerberos is not to share the passwords over the network. Instead of that, a medley of the user’s password is sent, connecting both sides to look over. Password is used as a solution for the conformity of encoding.
Security of the protocol depends upon the speculation that contributors have inexplicitly synchronized time. The key distribution centers (KDC) keep up with the details of the secret keys if the client or the server secret key is shared with the client or server itself or the KDC.
The client can contact the service server, and by using the TGT ticket, it is shown that it has manifested to receive the services. The client does not have to log in again and again to access the services, it is a single sign-ON system.Conclusion
Kerberos is based on symmetric-key cryptography, and SSL is based on certificate and public-key encryption.
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