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After weeks of referring to the outbreak that emerged in China in late 2023 by the hard-to-say name 2023-nCoV or the problematic moniker “Wuhan coronavirus,” after the city where the disease emerged, the illness finally has an official name: COVID-19, pronounced phonetically.

On a Wednesday press briefing, the CDC’s Nancy Messonier switched between 2023-nCoV and the new disease name, saying she was still adapting to COVID-19. The simple name (it’s short for Coronavirus Identification 2023, the year the disease emerged) was intended to meet agreed guidelines on naming a disease and also “prevent the use of other names that can be inaccurate or stigmatizing,” World Health Organization Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said in a prepared speech on Tuesday.

If you’re reading about COVID-19, you’ll probably also run across another name: SARS-CoV-2. This name refers to the virus, but not the disease it causes. In other words, you can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and get COVID-19 as a result.

This name was also announced to the public on Tuesday, via a paper from the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses—part of the International Science Council.

The paper is still going through the peer review process, says author Alexander Gorbalenya, but the name SARS-CoV-2 is official. This could be confusing because there is already a disease known by the acronym SARS. Its full name is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and it originated in mainland China in 2003. It killed 774 people around the world and was caused by a virus named SARS-associated coronavirus.

The group chose the name SARS-CoV-2 to reflect the close genetic ties between the virus causing the current outbreak and the one from 2003—although they acknowledge the possibility of public confusion, says Gorbalenya.

“That is why we released this name in the context of the paper, which explains the basis and interpretation,” he says. The paper describes SARS-CoV-2 as a sister to SARS-CoV. However, Gorbalenya says, the group wants the public to understand that the monniker “in no way implies anything about disease. It’s just a name for this virus.”

Naming is serious business, and the unexciting COVID-19 reflects recent changes in the ways that infectious diseases are named. Back in 2023, after names like “swine flu” and “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome” (MERS) had become common parlance, the World Health Organization released a best practices guide that asked scientists and others naming new human diseases to think about who could be affected by the phrasing they chose.

Geographic names like MERS stigmatize the places they refer to and may inaccurately reflect the geographic impacts of the disease itself. For instance, while MERS originated in Saudi Arabia, it hit hardest in South Korea. That Asian nation lost more than $2 billion in tourism revenue, according to one estimate. Another prominent illness, Ebola virus, was named after a river near the town where the disease first manifested in the 1970s. Scientists chose this name instead of the name of the village itself in an attempt to reduce stigma.

The name “swine flu,” to cite another example, is worryingly generic. Technically, it can cover several strains of disease that attack humans and others that only infect pigs, although it’s mostly used to refer to the virus H1N1. In 2009, after H1N1 caused the first global pandemic in 40 years, the name “swine flu” caused a downturn in pork markets.

Even SARS, a name that the World Health Organization chose specifically because it seemed innocuous, was called out by Hongkongers, STAT reports. They felt the name stigmatized their hard-hit region, which is known as a Special Administrative Region (SAR) within China. Almost 300 Hong Kong residents died in the 2003 SARS outbreak, and the disease seriously damaged the city’s economy.

These new best practices are in line with a broader movement to destigmatize health and medicine. Proponents say that trying to approach medical issues, like diseases, in a neutral way will help people feel safe seeking out care, and ultimately help prevent further harm. Hopefully, COVID-19 will do the same.

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Find The Column Name Of Least Value In Each Row Of An R Dataframe.

To find the column name that has the least value for each row in an R data frame, we can use colnames function along with apply function.

For Example, if we have a data frame called df then we can find column name that has the least value for each row by using the command mentioned below −

df$Least_Column<-colnames(df)[apply(df,1,which.min)] Example 1

Following snippet creates a sample data frame −

x1<-rpois(20,10) x2<-rpois(20,10) x3<-rpois(20,10) x4<-rpois(20,10) df1<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3,x4) df1

The following dataframe is created

  x1  x2 x3 x4 1  6  12 9 8 2 15  16 9 9 3  8   7 11 10 4 13   8 8 9 5 14  10 15 15 6  5  10 4 10 7 10  13 5 9 8  7   7 9 12 9  9  14 11 8 10 6   9 6 10 11 12 12 10 12 12  8  4 12 9 13  8  9 15 14 14 14  9 8 6 15 10 15 12 12 16 13  9 8 13 17 11 15 7 11 18 11 13 9 7 19 14  8 12 6 20  7  6 13 10

To find the column name that has the least value for each row in df1 on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

x1<-rpois(20,10) x2<-rpois(20,10) x3<-rpois(20,10) x4<-rpois(20,10) df1<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3,x4) df1$Smallest_Col<-colnames(df1)[apply(df1,1,which.min)] df1 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

   x1  x2 x3 x4 Smallest_Col 1   6  12  9  8   x1 2  15  16  9  9   x3 3   8   7 11 10   x2 4  13   8  8  9   x2 5  14  10 15 15   x2 6   5  10  4 10   x3 7  10  13  5  9   x3 8   7   7  9 12   x1 9   9  14 11  8   x4 10  6   9  6 10   x1 11 12  12 10 12   x3 12  8   4 12  9   x2 13  8   9 15 14   x1 14 14   9  8  6   x4 15 10  15 12 12   x1 16 13   9  8 13   x3 17 11  15  7 11   x3 18 11  13  9  7   x4 19 14   8 12  6   x4 20  7   6 13  10 x2 Example 2

Following snippet creates a sample data frame −

y1<-round(rnorm(20),2) y2<-round(rnorm(20),2) y3<-round(rnorm(20),2) df2<-data.frame(y1,y2,y3) df2

The following dataframe is created

y1 y2 y3 1 -0.33 0.19 -0.18 2 -1.41 -0.42 -0.06 3 -0.48 -0.62 -0.51 4 -0.27 0.68 0.38 5 1.00 1.04 1.31 6 -0.29 0.04 -1.23 7 0.65 -1.47 -1.11 8 0.33 0.14 0.80 9 1.29 0.20 1.14 10 -0.26 0.10 0.64 11 0.42 -0.17 0.64 12 -0.31 1.53 -0.41 13 0.21 -0.87 -1.03 14 0.85 1.82 -1.35 15 0.80 0.89 0.45 16 0.65 1.08 0.08 17 -0.05 -1.16 0.35 18 -0.91 -0.19 -0.93 19 0.14 -1.30 -0.91 20 -0.03 2.02 1.41

To find the column name that has the least value for each row in df2 on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

y1<-round(rnorm(20),2) y2<-round(rnorm(20),2) y3<-round(rnorm(20),2) df2<-data.frame(y1,y2,y3) df2$Smallest_Col<-colnames(df2)[apply(df2,1,which.min)] df2 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

      y1 y2 y3 Smallest_Col  1 -0.33  0.19 -0.18 y1  2 -1.41 -0.42 -0.06 y1  3 -0.48 -0.62 -0.51 y2  4 -0.27  0.68 0.38 y1  5  1.00  1.04 1.31 y1  6 -0.29 0.04 -1.23 y3  7  0.65 -1.47 -1.11 y2  8  0.33 0.14 0.80 y2  9  1.29 0.20 1.14 y2 10 -0.26 0.10 0.64 y1 11  0.42 -0.17 0.64 y2 12 -0.31 1.53 -0.41 y3 13  0.21 -0.87 -1.03 y3 14  0.85 1.82 -1.35 y3 15  0.80 0.89 0.45 y3 16  0.65 1.08 0.08 y3 17 -0.05 -1.16 0.35 y2 18 -0.91 -0.19 -0.93 y3 19  0.14 -1.30 -0.91 y2 20 -0.03 2.02 1.41 y1

The Specified Extended Attribute Name Was Invalid

The specified extended attribute name was invalid [Fix]






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Computer errors can occur on almost any PC, and several users reported The specified extended attribute name was invalid error message while trying to copy certain files. This error is also known as ERROR_INVALID_EA_NAME, and today we’re going to show you how to fix it on Windows 10.


Solution 1 – Check your antivirus

Antivirus tool is a necessity since there are many threats online. However, certain antivirus tools can interfere with Windows and cause this error to occur on your PC. Some antivirus tools have certain features that can interfere with Windows and prevent you from copying files. To fix the issue, you need to check your antivirus configuration and disable the problematic feature. This isn’t a simple task, especially if you’re not familiar with computer security.

Another solution that you can try is to disable your antivirus temporarily. If disabling the antivirus doesn’t help, you might want to try removing your antivirus software. To completely remove your antivirus software, many users are recommending to use a dedicated removal tool. Antivirus tools tend to leave certain files and registry entries even after you remove them, and sometimes these files can also cause this problem to occur.

Many antivirus companies have dedicated removal tools available for download, so be sure to download and use the removal tool for your antivirus software. After you remove your antivirus, check if the problem still appears. If not, you might want to switch to a different antivirus tool or try installing the latest version of your antivirus software.

Solution 2 – Enter Safe Mode

Safe Mode is a special segment of Windows that runs with default applications and drivers, so it’s perfect for troubleshooting. Since these errors can occur due to third-party software, it’s always a good idea to check if the problem appears in Safe Mode. To do that, you need to follow these steps:

After your PC restarts you’ll see a list of options. Select any version of Safe Mode by pressing the corresponding key.

Once you enter Safe Mode check if the problem still appears. If not, it means that the most likely cause for your problem is a third-party application.

Solution 3 – Perform the Clean boot

To find out which application is causing this problem, many users are recommending to perform Clean boot. Many applications and services tend to start automatically with Windows, and sometimes these services and apps can interfere with it and cause this and other errors to occur. To perform Clean boot, you need to follow these simple steps:

After disabling all startup items you need to restart your PC to apply the changes. Alternatively, you can log out and log back in to your Windows account and check if that solves the problem. If disabling the startup applications fixes the problem, you should repeat the same steps and enable applications one by one until you find the one that is causing this problem. Keep in mind that you need to restart your PC or log out and log back in to apply the changes. After finding the problematic application, you can keep it disabled, remove it from your PC or update it to the latest version and check if that solves the problem.

Solution 4 – Remove the problematic applications

As previously mentioned, sometimes third-party applications can cause this problem to appear. To fix the problem, you need to find and remove the problematic application from your PC. To do that, you need to follow these steps:

Press Windows Key + I to open the Settings app.

Follow the instructions on the screen to remove the application.

If you don’t want to use the Settings app, you can remove the applications by doing the following:

Keep in mind that almost any application can cause this problem to appear, so be sure to remove any recently installed applications and check if that solves the problem.

Expert tip:

Several users reported The specified extended attribute name was invalid error message while trying to copy files from Mac to PC. According to users, they were unable to transfer files from Mac to PC via network. If you have this problem, you can try copying your files to an optical disc and then transferring them to another computer. In addition, you can try copying the files to a USB flash drive, but some users reported that this method didn’t work for them.

It seems that this error occurs while trying to copy iTunes library from Mac to PC, but it can also appear with other types of files. If you’re having this error on your PC, be sure to try this workaround.

READ ALSO: Quickly rename multiple files in Windows 10 using the Tab key

Solution 6 – Update your NAS firmware

Solution 7 – Perform System Restore

If this error started appearing recently, you might be able to fix it by performing System Restore. This is a relatively simple procedure and you can do it by following these steps:

Follow the instructions on the screen to complete the restoration process.

After you restore your PC, check if the problem still appears.

Solution 8 – Create a new user account

Sometimes The specified extended attribute name was invalid error can appear if your user account is corrupted. Issues with user accounts can occur once in a while, and if you’re having this problem, we suggest that you create a new user account. This is rather simple and you can do it by following these steps:

Press Windows Key + I to open the Settings app.

After creating a new user account, you need to switch to it and check if the problem appears on a new account. If not, transfer your personal files to the new account and use it as your main account.

Solution 9 – Reset Windows 10

If you’re asked to insert installation media be sure to do that.

Follow the instructions to complete the process.

After resetting is finished, you’ll have a new installation of Windows 10. Now you just have to transfer your backup and install the necessary applications. After doing that, the error message should be fixed completely. This is a drastic solution, so use it only if other solutions can’t fix the problem.

The specified extended attribute name was invalid and ERROR_INVALID_EA_NAME errors can be problematic, but you should be able to fix them easily by using one of our solutions.


Still experiencing troubles? Fix them with this tool:


Some driver-related issues can be solved faster by using a tailored driver solution. If you’re still having problems with your drivers, simply install OutByte Driver Updater and get it up and running immediately. Thus, let it update all drivers and fix other PC issues in no time!

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In Law Prof’s First Novel, A Scotus Gone Haywire

In LAW Prof’s First Novel, a SCOTUS Gone Haywire Jay Wexler’s Tuttle in the Balance inspired by clerk years

BU LAW Professor Jay Wexler says his new comic novel, Tuttle in the Balance, draws in part on his experience as a clerk for Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Photo by Kalman Zabarsky

An accomplished nonfiction writer as well as a BU School of Law professor of constitutional and administrative law, Jay Wexler is more qualified than most to write a comic novel about a Supreme Court justice. Wexler clerked for Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and they remain friends (“She’s beloved,” he says), so he knows well the high court’s often-byzantine backstage proceedings.

Wexler’s debut novel, Tuttle in the Balance (Ankerwycke, December 2023), takes gleeful, hilarious, and sometimes poignant liberties with said proceedings. This is a good thing—we can only hope, for example, that the court’s sober business could not be hijacked by a spooked cat or that a private conference of the justices could deteriorate into a melee worthy of the Three Stooges.

Reminiscent of the comic romps of Christopher Buckley, but often tinged with the pathos of Philip Roth, the novel follows the incorrigible, if well-meaning, Ed Tuttle, whose postdivorce midlife crisis, existential angst, and robust sexual appetite turn the hallowed place upside down. The associate justice is on a collision course with absolutely everything and everyone in his life except his cherished adult daughter, who nudges him playfully, but with genuine concern, about the weight of his civil responsibilities. As a landmark pornography case looms and at long last TV cameras are soon to be admitted into the court on a trial basis, he comes undone, and in part inspired by a new obsession with the elusive writings of ancient philosopher Chuang Tzu (don’t ask), his increasingly bizarre behavior draws the concern of his colleagues. Among them is Chief Justice Janet Owens, who swiftly decks Tuttle after an attempted kiss. “Stupid, stupid, stupid,” Tuttle chides himself, in just one of a string of cringe-worthy moments in the book, which at the same time manages to be spot-on, even gripping, on matters of constitutional law.

Wexler has taught at LAW since 2001 and was awarded the Michael Melton Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2009. A former law clerk for Judge David Tatel on the DC Circuit Court of Appeals, he is widely published in law reviews as well as in the Huffington Post, Mental Floss, Salon, and Slate. He has written two nonfiction books: Holy Hullabaloos: A Road Trip to the Battleground of the Church/State Wars and The Odd Clauses: Understanding the Constitution Through Ten of Its Most Curious Provisions, with a third, When God Isn’t Green: A World-Wide Journey to Places Where Religious Practice and Environmentalism Collide, forthcoming. His website tells us that the Peabody, Mass., native “wore bad clothes and had a butthead hairdo” until he was 21. “Sad and insecure,” he went to Harvard College: “Anyone who says that college is the best four years of your life didn’t go to Harvard.”

BU Today spoke with Wexler recently about his life as a novelist, educator, and legal scholar, and why being a US Supreme Court justice isn’t as difficult a job as people might think.

BU Today: How did you find time to write Tuttle in the Balance? You must do a lot of writing in your head.

I do. I remember going to my son’s baseball practices and wandering around the outfield, thinking about my next plot points.

Do you have preliminary readers who give you feedback?

I have friends who are helpful readers. Richard Posner, a judge on the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago, read it and loved it. He sent me an email and called it a comic masterpiece. Somebody told him to read it because he loves cats.

Who are your literary influences?

Well, I’m a David Foster Wallace maniac, but I can’t try too hard to emulate him. I also like Richard Russo.

I liked Ed Tuttle, exasperating as he is.

There are people who don’t like him as a character. The best quote I have is from an agent I sent it to who said, “It’s probably true that people with this much power are like this sometimes, but watching a 60-year-old man suffer like a 14-year-old girl, I found him pathetic.” Which my wife does, too. He’s horny and he’s not serious and he thinks about sex all the time.

Did you create the relationship with his daughter to humanize him?

His daughter is the one person he’s maintained a relationship with forever, and I tried to make it clear that he loves her and relies on her and thinks about her. There was no one else really to humanize him.

One of my favorite scenes is the brawl in the justices’ conference room.

The brawl was fun to write, but you’ll notice nobody actually punches anybody. All the injuries are accidental. It’s pure slapstick.

Has Justice Ginsburg read it? Do you think the justices would find it funny?

I sent it to her, and was wondering if she might blurb it. She wrote me a kind letter saying her ethics prevented it. I think if she read anything, it was probably just the first paragraph. But Justice Sonia Sotomayor might like it, I think. From her book, she seems like a real person. When I was clerking at the court, there’s a tradition where clerks go out with other justices, and some of those lunches were fun. The Antonin Scalia lunch was fun, but Justice Clarence Thomas was the most fun of all, the most human, normal person.

How would you describe Tuttle as a jurist?

He likes the boring cases, the lawyerly cases. The cases he hates are the ones everyone cares about, like the pornography case the court’s about to rule on in the book. I think he’s prepared for the cases. The thing is, it’s not that hard.

Can you elaborate?

A lot of people could be a high court justice. Out of law school, you’re more qualified to be a judge than a first-year trial lawyer. In law school you read appellate opinions; that’s what law school teaches. Until recently, law graduates couldn’t do a deposition and take evidence. You could do the Supreme Court job in 50 hours a week. They’re very smart lawyers, but there are a thousand people who could be on the Supreme Court. They stay on until they’re 90 because it’s not overly taxing, it’s very interesting, and you have all this power. Most, like Tuttle, have anonymity—would you recognize Justice Kennedy on the street? They potentially have free time, yet they have this important and powerful position. So it’s sort of the ideal job.

What’s with the cats?

The neighbor cat in the book stems from a real experience. When I was in law school, I was housesitting next to the house of E. J. Dionne, the Washington Post columnist, and I would worry when his cat meowed and I actually fed it, and that’s the whole story. In the book, I just like the idea of Tuttle having a conflict with his neighbor, who accuses him of stealing the cat. But the thing about the cat in the courthouse is, whenever I teach humor writing I say it’s always good to add an animal or a baby or a drunken person, someone or something uncontrollable to add a little chaos. No matter how serious things are, the cat doesn’t care.

Have your students read the book?

Former students have read it. I’m not hiding it, obviously. The BU Law School News did a piece on it. I’m not making a big deal about it and no students have yet mentioned to me. But with writing, paintings, and drawings, I’m known as a weird, quirky person. It doesn’t affect my teaching.

Explore Related Topics:

Google Is Not Building A Coronavirus Testing Website

President Donald Trump erroneously stated in an emergency address that Google is building a coronavirus testing website.

Trump said 1,700 Google engineers are working on a coronavirus screening site that could be launched as early as this Sunday.

On the contrary – not only is the site not ready to launch but it’s not even being developed by Google. The site is being developed by a company called Verily, which is owned by Google’s parent company Alphabet.

Google and Verily are entirely different companies, which Google itself clarified in a tweet:

“We are developing a tool to help triage individuals for Covid-19 testing. Verily is in the early stages of development, and planning to roll testing out in the Bay Area, with the hope of expanding more broadly over time.

“We appreciate the support of government officials and industry partners and thank the Google engineers who have volunteered to be part of this effort.”

Verily provided its own statement to TechCrunch:

“Verily is developing a tool to help triage individuals for COVID-19 testing. We are in the early stages of development, and planning to roll testing out in the Bay Area, with the hope of expanding more broadly over time,” the company said in its statement. “We appreciate the support of government officials and industry partners and thank the Google engineers who have volunteered to be part of this effort.”

That’s a fairly important piece of information to leave out in a statement that was broadcast live to the entire United States.

Just for comparison’s sake, read Trump’s statement below:

“I want to thank Google. Google is helping to develop a website. It’s going to be very quickly done, unlike websites of the past, to determine whether a test is warranted and to facilitate testing at a nearby convenient location… Google has 1,700 engineers working on this right now. They have made tremendous progress.”

Based on what we’ve learned since Trump’s statement, here are the key takeaways from all of this:

Verily is developing a coronavirus screening website, not Google.

Google and Verily are both owned by Alphabet, but are otherwise separate companies.

People will be able to visit the website and enter their symptoms to discover if they’re consistent with symptoms of coronavirus.

The website will help direct individuals to the nearest facility where they can get properly tested.

Results of in-person tests can later be retrieved on the website.

At this time we still don’t know when the site will launch, or any other pertinent information.

How Decoding The Genome Of Pearl Oysters Could Save Them

In Japan, pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata) are an aquaculture staple. These precious baubles produced by tiny irritants trapped inside the mollusks are used to make jewelry around the world. Entrepreneur, farmer, and merchant Kokichi Mikimoto is widely credited with first developing cultured pearls 130 years ago and the legacy lives on. In 2023, pearls traded for about $5,810 (850,000 yen) per kilogram and prices surged as more and more people began to embrace wearing them.

However, over the last 20 years, a combination of diseases caused by viruses and red tides have hit the cultured pearl industry very hard. The production of Japan’s iconic pearls fell from over 150,000 pounds in the early 1990’s to just 44,092 pounds today.

[Related: 8 ‘insignificant’ creatures that will make you dream about the ocean.]

To learn more about oyster genetics with the hope of discovering more resilient strains, a team of researchers have built a high-quality, chromosome-scale genome of a pearl oyster. The team outlines their finding in a study published yesterday in the journal DNA Research.

“It’s very important to establish the genome,” study author Takeshi Takeuchi, staff scientist in Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology’s (OIST) Marine Genomics Unit, said in a statement. “Genomes are the full set of an organism’s genes—many of which are essential for survival. With the complete gene sequence, we can do many experiments and answer questions around immunity and how the pearls form.”  

This work goes back to 2012, when Takeuchi and his collaborators published a draft genome of the Japanese pearl oyster. This was one of the first genomes assembled of a mollusk, and in the 10 years since, they have continued sequencing the genome to find a higher quality, chromosome-scale genome assembly.   

The oyster’s genome is made up of 14 pairs of chromosomes (28 total), one set inherited from each parent. The two chromosomes of each pair carry nearly identical genes, but there can be subtle differences and a diverse gene repertoire benefits their survival.  

Typically, when a genome is sequenced, this pair of chromosomes is merged together. This process works well for animals in a laboratory setting, since they normally have almost identical genetic information between the pair of chromosomes. However, wild animals like oysters have more variants in the genes that exist between chromosome pairs, and all of that variation can lead to a loss of genetic information.

[Related: First Octopus Genome Sequence Reveals Clues About Camouflage And Big Brains.]

For this study the team sequenced both sets of chromosomes instead of merging them, possibly for the first time in a marine invertebrate. The genome sequence reconstructed all 28 oyster chromosomes and found key differences between the two chromosomes of one pair—chromosome pair 9. Importantly, many of the genes present on chromosome pair 9 were related to immunity.

“Different genes on a pair of chromosomes is a significant find because the proteins can recognize different types of infectious diseases,” said Takeuchi.

The immunity of the oysters can then be impacted if the reduced diversity happens in the chromosome regions with genes related to immunity—like chromosome 9 in pearl oysters. “It is important to maintain the genome diversity in aquaculture populations,” added Takeuchi.

This kind of research will help the industry better prevent inbreeding so that the pearl oysters’ immune systems can fight off their increasing threats.

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