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Introduction to Oracle Constraints

Oracle Constraints clause provides data integrity to the data that is being used by the application from the database by applying certain rules or conditions on a column of a database table which will define a very basic behavioral layer on the column of that particular table to check the sanctity of the data flowing into it like NOT NULL constraint on the column will not allow any data of that column to be NULL as it will not allow users to insert NULL data into the column.

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Types of Oracle Constraints

Oracle has multiple types of constraints for multiple purposes. In this section, we are going to go through the different types of constraints in Oracle.


If we just add a column, by default the column is allowed to hold NULL values but in case there is a requirement that the column should not hold any NULL values. We can use NOT NULL constraint on that particular column. This will enforce the column to always have a value and it will not allow any NULL record to be added in the column. We will add NOT NULL constraint using both CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE constraint. We will create a table STUDENT with student_id, LastName and zfirstName columns having NOT NULL constraint.

Let us look at the query.



Let us now the query in SQL Developer and look at the result.

As you can see from the above screenshot we have successfully created the table with NOT NULL constraints. Let us now look at the ALTER statement query to add NOT NULL constraint to the age column of STUDENT TABLE.



Let us now run the query in the SQL developer.


As we can see from the output the column AGE has now NOT NULL constraint added to it.


This constraint in Oracle ensures that all the values of the column are different from each other and there are no duplicates. We will again use two examples to understand. First using the CREATE statement and then using ALTER statement. We will create a table STUDENT with student_id having UNIQUE constraint.

Let us look at the query using the CREATE TABLE statement.



Let us now run the above query in SQL developer.


As we can see UNIQUE constraint has been added to the columns of the table. Now let add a UNIQUE constraint to age column using ALTER TABLE statement.



Let us run this query in SQL developer.


As we can see the table student has been successfully altered.


Primary key constraint uniquely describes each value of a column. No duplicates or NULL value is allowed. One important point is that a table can have only one primary key which in itself can be a combination of single or multiple fields.

We will first create a table ‘student’ with student_id as the primary key using the CREATE TABLE statement.




As we can see the Table STUDENT has been successfully created. Let us now add primary Key using the ALTER TABLE statement to student_id column after the STUDENT table has been created.


ADD PRIMARY KEY (student_id);

Let us now run the query in SQL developer and check the result.


As we can see the table STUDENT has been successfully altered.

4. FOREIGN KEY Constraints

A foreign key is a field which refers to the PRIMARY KEY of another table and the table which actually has the foreign key is called child table. Let us now create a table order which we has student_id column as a foreign key refrencing student_id column of student table using CREATE TABLE statement.



Let us now run the query in SQL developer and look at the result.


As we can see the orders table has been successfully created. Now we will use the ALTER TABLE statement to add a foreign key to the student_id column of orders table.


Let us run the query in SQL developer and look at the result.


As we can see the table orders has been successfully altered.

5. CHECK Constraint

The CHECK constraint is used to limit the value of the range that can be placed in a column. In case we want to restrict certain values in a column or a table we introduce the check constraint. We will introduce the CHECK constraint using both CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statement.

We are going to create a table student with age column having a check constraint.



Let us run the query in SQL developer and look at the result.


As we can see the table has been successfully created with the CHECK constraint. Let us now add CHECK constraint on the same column after the table student has been created using ALTER TABLE statement.


Let us now run the query in SQL developer and see the result.


As we can see the CHECK constraint has been added to the table.

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This is a guide to Oracle Constraints. Here we discuss the definition of Constraints in Oracle database. We also discussed the various types that can be used in Oracle database along with examples. You can also go through our suggested articles to learn more –

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Top 5 Different Types Of Employee Bonus Programs For Your Small Business

Do you give your employees bonuses in your small business? According to PayScale’s 2023 Compensation Top Practices Report, almost three-quarters of small businesses offer bonuses.

Companies can reward top performers with bonuses, also known as “variable pay”, without increasing fixed salaries.

PayScale reports that top-performing businesses are more likely than average businesses to offer bonuses (79% vs. 70%). According to a 2023 WorldatWork study, bonuses are increasing in popularity, particularly among small and medium-sized businesses.

Employee Bonus Programs

Let’s take a look at some of the most popular employee bonus plans, and how you can make them work for your company.

Annual Incentive Bonuses for Individuals and Teams

Individuals or teams who achieve the goals established at the start of a performance cycle receive an annual incentive bonus.

PayScale reports that more than half of the companies use individual incentive bonuses, while 23% use group incentive bonuses. When group effort is needed to achieve a tangible result, team incentive programs work best. Individual efforts can be difficult to quantify.

Create a motivating annual incentive bonus program:

Establish clear, consistent, and measurable goals that tie to the roles of each person or team member.

Employees need to understand the relationship between their actions and the overall goals. Problems can arise when employees aren’t working as hard as their colleagues and don’t get the same benefits from team incentives. This can be avoided by ensuring that the team works together to achieve the goal.

Spot Bonuses

PayScale reports that 39% of companies use spot bonuses to reward good behavior. Spot bonuses can be given for exceptional customer service or going above and beyond.

Spot bonuses at large companies can amount to several thousand dollars. For small businesses, however, it is best to keep them modest — $25 and above will be acceptable.

Create a Motivating Spot Program:

Give out different levels of spot bonuses. For example, a $25 gift certificate for the most energetic person at the company booth. You could also give $500 for an even more extravagant action.

Establish a budget. Spot bonuses can quickly consume capital if there is no limit. You don’t have to spend all of your spot bonuses if you don’t see the right employees.

Make it count. Offer spot bonuses for exceptional behavior and not just for performing the job.

Surprise employees with surprise spot bonuses. Employees who know that two people receive one each week lose their motivation. Spot bonuses should be given irregularly to keep employees guessing.

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Referral Bonuses

PayScale reports that 39% of companies use referral bonuses. Referral bonuses are given to employees who refer job applicants who are hired and who complete a probationary period. It is believed that birds of feathers flock together, and if an employee refers someone, they are more likely to hire them.

To create a motivating referral bonus program:

Create a policy. Are you looking to offer referral bonuses for all jobs or just for specific positions? Are you looking to create a referral program or notify employees when you are hiring and ask them for referrals?

Decide how you will handle payouts. Some employers pay a portion of the referral fee when an employee is hired, while others pay the remainder after the employee has completed a probationary period that lasts three to six months.

Some companies give the whole bonus upon completion of the probationary phase. Regardless of the situation, ensure that your policy is written.

Offer higher referral bonuses to:

Referring candidates that increase diversity in the staff.

Referring candidates that are high performers.

Refer candidates with rare skills or for difficult-to-fill positions.

You could offer a small referral bonus of $25 or $25 depending on how difficult it is to find candidates.

Signing up or hiring bonuses

Signing or hiring bonuses (given upon hire) can be a great way to attract and motivate new employees. 34% of respondents in PayScale’s survey used them. Small businesses are less likely to use them, but signing bonuses could be a good idea if they:

These bonuses are common in your industry. IT workers are familiar with signing bonuses.

Attracting a candidate with difficult-to-find skills is essential.

Motivate a candidate to leave another state.

A signing bonus is a great way to attract employees for small businesses with low starting salaries. Signing bonuses can backfire if the bonus is used to help job-hop.

It’s a good idea to stagger your signing bonus to prevent this. Half of the bonus might be paid at signing. Then, one-quarter of the bonus after six months.

The rest will be paid at the end. Many companies have “clawback” provisions that require employees to return a portion of their signing bonus if they quit before one year has passed.

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Profit-Sharing Plans

Profit-sharing is much more popular with small and medium businesses than it is for larger ones. 22% of the 2023 Variable Pay Playbook small companies use it.

These plans allow employees to receive a portion of the company’s annual or quarterly profits. Employees are eligible for a percentage of the company’s annual or quarterly profits if you have a better year than usual.

You can tie profit-sharing plans to your company’s 401(k), with the profits being distributed as retirement plan contributions or on a cash basis.

To create a motivating profit-sharing plan:

Profit-sharing plans are very motivating as they give employees ownership of the company. Employees should be able to understand the operation of the profit-sharing plan.

You must set parameters that limit who can participate. Employees must be employed for at least one year to participate in this program.

Particularly if the profit-sharing plan is tied to 401 (k), there are specific regulatory requirements such as maintaining certain records, reporting requirements, and setting up trust funds.

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Tips for Bonus Structure

Make sure you know how much money is available for your bonus plan. This could be a dollar amount (you have $5,000 per year to put aside for discretionary or spot bonuses). This could be a percentage of income for longer-term bonuses such as incentives or profit-sharing.

The plan should be based on quantifiable and measurable results. Define the goals and describe how progress will be measured.

You might consider setting “tiered goals” so employees can achieve more difficult goals and receive different bonuses. A worker might receive $X to reach the minimum goal and $XX to achieve the maximum.

Send us your bonus plan.

Make sure that employees are aware of what they need to do to receive the bonus. The plan should be reviewed with all employees, as well as individuals in the case of an individual or team incentive bonuses.

Employees can be kept focused by setting milestones and reviewing progress quarterly to ensure they receive long-term bonuses. These checkpoints may be a good opportunity to offer small bonuses.

Top 5 Daily Habits Of Six

Habits and personal growth strategies are what fuel six-figure entrepreneurs. If you want to become a six-, seven- or even an eight-figure entrepreneur, your path to success lies in the habits you’re building and living each day. Here are five habits successful leaders use to build outstanding businesses and create a life of freedom.

Top 5 Daily Habits of Six-Figure Entrepreneurs 1. They set aside time to make themselves a priority.

It is not unusual for an entrepreneur to allow the pull of family, duties and impending jobs keep them from making themselves their first priority. You can not give what you do not have, and that is what too a lot people attempt to do.

Most entrepreneurs start a company to possess freedom and a lifetime that is exciting. Should you spend 95 percent of the time doing things for customers, prospective clients, family and friends, life will feel as nonstop work.

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2. They start each business day with revenue-producing activities.

Allow me to know if that seems familiar — the very first thing that you notice when you wake up would be a notification in your telephone from customers or people on your network which you would like to connect.

Your response will be to start the telephone and begin reacting to all those messages. Then you get up and move about what else you want to do in the daytime.

Rather than this unsuccessful cycle, begin your day with private obligation period, followed by a window where you concentrate on revenue-earning tasks. Do not react to the pressing requests from other people — even customers. Use that time to concentrate on what’s going to help grow your company.

Revenue time might be spent speaking to prospects, generating content which nurtures and brings new customers , pitching the podcasts or media or a lot of different tasks which are directly linked to earnings.

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3. They closely guard their time all day long

Along the lines of focusing on earnings, successful entrepreneurs handle their own time since their most precious resource. They’re protective of each moment of the time and say no more to most requests which require a time commitment.

If you are going to construct a thriving company, you are going to have to do exactly the same. As people, we tend to possess people-pleaser tendencies. Should you say yes too often, you won’t be able that you want to accomplish your targets and focus on building your organization.

4. They work on short-terms goals in coordination with their long-term vision

It is common knowledge that you ought to break down your goals into bite-sized balls to reach them. But along with creating your aims bite-sized, you need to concentrate on the long term vision of everything you are building.

It’s easy to become lost in the here and now. Be tactical rather than being reactionary together with your objectives.

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5. They leverage modern assets to automate, systemize and grow

When it’s bringing together various applications suites or employing outsourced team members to take over jobs — they do exactly what is needed to get jobs off their plate and to competent hands. They utilize the available resources and technologies at a tactical means to maximize the efforts they are making.

It is a fantastic time to construct a company if you are tactical, focused and dedicated to creating healthy habits that encourage your objectives.

Top 5 Incredible Features Of Gpt

The top 5 incredible features of GPT-4 that exceed ChatGPT stunned many users in early tests

The capacity of GPT-4 to file lawsuits, pass standardized examinations and create a functioning website from a hand-drawn design astounded many users in early testing and a business demo the day after it was introduced.

OpenAI introduced the next-generation version of the artificial intelligence engine that supports its viral chatbot tool, ChatGPT. The incredible features of GPT-4 promise to outperform earlier generations, possibly altering how we work, play, and create online. Yet it may also raise more difficult considerations about how AI technologies might change professions, make it easier for students to cheat, and alter how we interact with technology.

The company’s large language model, known as GPT-4, was upgraded and is trained on a sizable quantity of web data to provide sophisticated user rapid replies. It is now on a waitlist and has already appeared in a few third-party applications, such as Microsoft’s brand-new Bing AI-powered search engine. Early adopter users are sharing their insights and highlighting some of the tool’s most appealing use cases and features of GPT-4. In this article, we’ll look at the top 5 incredible features of GPT-4 that exceed ChatGPT.

Analyzing More Than Text

In another test, The New York Times gave GPT-4 a photo of a refrigerator’s inside and asked it to create a dinner using the items. The images feature has not yet gone online, but OpenAI plans to do so in the coming weeks.

Making Coding Even Simpler

Following the tool’s step-by-step instructions, some early GPT-4 users with little to no prior experience with coding have also used it to replicate classic games like Pong, Tetris, or Snake. Some people have created their unique games. (According to OpenAI, GPT-4 is capable of writing code in all popular programming languages.)

Arun Chandrasekaran, an analyst at Gartner Research, predicted that GPT-4’s potent linguistic skills will be utilized for everything from character development to storyboarding to the generation of video game material. In the future, this may lead to the emergence of additional independent game suppliers. GPT-4 and like models, however, may also be utilized for producing news stories, moderating gaming discussion forums, and developing marketing content surrounding game previews.

Similar to how gaming has changed, GPT-4 may also alter how applications are created. On Twitter, one person claimed to have created a straightforward sketching app in a matter of minutes, and another claimed to have programmed an app that recommends five new movies every day and provides information on where to view them as well as trailers.

Everyone can code, according to Lian Jye Su, an analyst at ABI Research, as long as they receive some coaching as a beginner. She compared learning to code to learning to drive. “AI is a capable teacher.”

Passing Tests with Flying Colours

Although OpenAI claimed the update performs “human-level performance” on a variety of professional and academic assessments, it is “less competent” than humans in many real-world settings. According to the business, GPT-4 recently completed a mock bar exam for a law school with a score in the top 10% of test takers. The previous version, GPT-3.5, scored in the bottom 10%, in comparison. According to OpenAI, the most recent version also did well on the LSAT, GRE, SAT, and several AP tests.

The Wharton School of Business test at the University of Pennsylvania was one of the prominent graduate-level exams that ChatGPT was able to pass in January, but not with exceptionally good grades. The business claimed to have spent months enhancing the system’s precision and ability to remain on the topic by leveraging the lessons learned through its testing program and ChatGPT.

Giving More Accurate Replies

According to the business, GPT-4 can generate written replies that are longer, more thorough, and more trustworthy than the previous version.

The most recent version can now respond with up to 25,000 words, an increase from the previous 4,000, and can offer thorough directions for even the most unusual situations, such as how to clean a piranha’s fish tank or extract a strawberry’s DNA. One early user claimed that it offered thorough pick-up line recommendations based on a query on a dating profile.

Streamlining Operations Across a Variety of Industries

“Consider getting a call, pressing a button, and a 1,000-word lawsuit is created from the call’s transcript. GPT-3.5 was insufficient, but GPT-4 excels at handling the task, according to a tweet from Browder.

The technique is being used by Keeper’s CEO Jake Kozloski’s firm to better match its consumers, he claimed.

Need And Types Of C++ Formatter

Definition of C++ Formatter

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Need of C++ Formatters in Source Code

Let us understand the need for C++ formatters with the help of an example:


using namespace std; intmain() { int num1, num2, add; cout<< “Enter the first integer”; cout<< “Enter the second integer”; add = num1 + num2; cout<< “The result is ” <<add ; return 0; }

The above code is the simple addition of 2 integer numbers. But how it is written makes it very uneasy or difficult to understand. There is a need for proper indentation and required spaces in the code. Code after ‘{‘ should be written and should be indented properly to show that the required block of code is a part of it. It should be formatted as given below:

using namespace std; intmain() { int num1, num2, add; cout<< “Enter the first integer”; cout<< “Enter the second integer”; add = num1 + num2; cout<< “The result is ” << add; return 0; }

Types of C++ Formatters

There are a lot of formatters / beautifiers available in the market. Let us understand some of the commonly used formatters in detail:

1. Clang-Format

Clang format is one of the most popular open-source formatters used to format C, C++, and Objective C source code. It automatically formats the C++ code and helps better understand the code. To format the source code automatically according to Electron C++, we need to run the following command:

clang-format -i

Users can also perform the formatting of code according to the specific requirements (other than the one available by default) by inserting the style in ‘.clang-format’ file or using the option -style = “{key:value, ….}”.

2. PrettyPrinter 3. Jindent

It automatically indents the code according to the syntax and correct coding conventions, which helps in finding the bugs in the code and saves time. One of the cool features of Jindent is that it provides a plugin for almost all popular IDEs like Visual Studio, Eclipse, Netbeans, etc so that it can be used easily by the programmers/ testers working on them. It allows its invocation from the shell scripts. Jindent provides support for all the Operating systems is it Windows, Mac, or Linux. Jindent is very user-friendly as it provides the GUI so that the user can perform actions like formatting settings, changing the environment variables, etc, very easily.

4. Highlighter

It is very user-friendly and hence pretty simple to use. Users must copy the source code in the desired text field, choose the C++ language, and Style dropdown to have the required formatting. It provides other interesting features as well as one can also choose to see the line numbers on the left side of the code and can directly insert the source code in the HTML page without adding any external CSS and JavaScript file to it.

Conclusion – C++ Formatter

The above description clearly explains the various formatters/beautifiers available in the market used to format the source code of C++ programs. Proper formatting and indentation are a must while working on real-time projects as it helps in a clear understanding of code and finding the bugs and hidden errors easily, especially the syntactical ones. It helps the maintenance team also to maintain the code properly and proceed further accordingly.

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This is a guide to C++ Formatter. Here we also discuss the definition and need for C++ formatters, along with various types and examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Overview Of Aws Database And Its Types

The term database alludes to an assortment of information that is usually coordinated and organized as tables or assortments. These tables or assortments can have various qualities characterized in the sections or archives, and we need to set the qualities against these properties in the lines or key-value pairs. An information base is outfitted with a database management system (DBMS), essentially a foundation programming application liable for overseeing tasks over the information inside a data set. Utilizing DBMS, you can play out all CRUD (create, read, update, delete) procedures on your database.

AWS Database

Amazon Web Services give a wide variety of database answers for its clients. Contingent on the idea of the information and the expense limitations of the client, these different data set types serve all clients likewise. AWS is a bunch of cloud administrations given by Amazon, which likewise gives different information bases as a component of its administration suite. These databases permit clients to assemble use-case-explicit information models, including a social diagram, wide-segment, etc. AWS deals with these data sets, liberating clients from undertakings, such as server provisioning, fixing, and reinforcement, which are inconceivably tedious.

Types of AWS Databases Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB)

Amazon QLDB is a serverless data set that gives programmed versatility, is not difficult to set up, and incorporates checking capacity. Quantum record information bases are renowned for giving permanence, straightforwardness, certain exchange logs, and history. The utilization cases can be banking exchanges, production network frameworks, enlistments, or anything requiring putting away history and logging records.

Amazon Aurora

Aurora is an AWS-claimed innovation that offers help for either MYSQL or PostgreSQL. It is costly compared with other RDS data sets yet gives better execution regarding accessibility, versatility, and read imitations. It can likewise give programmed monitoring facilities, backups, and instantaneous fail-over. In different capacities, you can utilize our Aurora serverless, Aurora multi-expert, and Aurora worldwide.

Amazon Timestream

It is a time series-based database, which is planned and upgraded to store time series in key-esteem matches. It can follow all information properly aligned grouping, which is restricted in normal social data sets. It is completely serverless and simple to send without overseeing a complex foundation. It is explicitly intended for various IoT tasks to gather sensor information in cutting-edge IT frameworks. It is fit for taking care of an exceptionally huge number of solicitations daily.

Amazon Redshift

It is a quick and completely overseen information stockroom administration in the cloud. Amazon affirms that the Redshift information warehouse centre conveys multiple times quicker execution than different information stockrooms using AI procedures. The Redshift information warehouse centre can be increased to a petabyte or more according to the prerequisites.

Amazon Keyspaces

This is a completely overseen and serverless database application for Apache Cassandra and makes it simple to send Apache Cassandra. It is a non-social data set with a wide-section mapping. It uses Cassandra Query Language (CQL) to perform the tasks of the data set. It additionally gives programmed scaling as per application traffic reaction. It is profoundly accessible, can handle countless demands, and guarantees security.

Amazon Neptune

This is explicitly intended for the visual portrayal of information utilizing diagrams. You can run custom analyses on various datasets and show results on the dashboards as diagrams. The assistance gives multi-zone accessibility, read replication, encryption, reinforcement, and recovery. The utilization cases can be checking network security, investigating the consequences of an AI calculation, or some other performance matrix.

Amazon DocumentDB

It is a NoSQL database and has a reported pattern. It utilizes the JSON configuration to store information in the data set. It is completely viable with MongoDB. So if you have any application running with MongoDB, you can rapidly move it to AWS DocumentDB. It is a serverless contribution by AWS, so it can scale naturally, as required. The main highlights are understood copies, programmed fall flat over capacity, well-being checking, reinforcements, depictions, and information encryption.

Amazon RDS

It is an overseen database help given by AWS, and it isn’t itself a data set. All things being equal, it empowers you to run different social data sets as needed. The RDS will convey the data set, database security and accessibility, network, versatility, read copies, backup, and maintenance. It will keep your database financially effective.

Amazon ElastiCache

Amazon ElastiCache is a completely overseen reserving administration that offers superior execution and practical and versatile string arrangements. Amazon ElastiCache gives two storing motors, specifically, Memcached and Redis.

Response Time − ElastiCache diminishes the reaction time by recovering information from a quick in-memory framework. It diminishes the reliance on circle-based data sets, which are normally slower.

Scalability − Amazon ElastiCache is intended to have the option to adjust itself naturally, and it can scale out or increase contingent upon the fluctuating app prerequisites.

Complete Management − Amazon ElastiCache is completely made due, so the normal authoritative errands, for example, equipment provisioning, disappointment recuperation, reinforcements, and more, are robotized.

Amazon DynamoDB

It is a non-social or NoSQL data set, so it isn’t great to run joins and connections between tables given key-esteem matches. It is a completely serverless help by AWS, so you don’t need to stress over scope quantification and scaling, and it can deal with a huge number of solicitations. It additionally gives security, encryption, worldwide accessibility, reinforcement, and reserving skills.


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