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Introduction to JavaScript entries()

JavaScript is one of the rare object-oriented programming languages which does not include the conventional classes like seen in other languages but has objects and constructors working in a similar way performing a similar set of operations. The constructors here are common Javascript methods and used along with the keyword called “new”. There are two kinds of constructors in Javascript first one is called the built-in constructors (Ex: objects and arrays) and the second one is called the custom constructors (Ex: They describe certain properties and functions for specific objects). Constructors are useful when we have to create an object “type” which is helpful as we can use it any number of times without having to reformulate the object each time and this can be performed using an Object Constructor function.

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Conventionally we give the names of constructors in capital to identify them as compared with other methods.

Consider the below Example:

function Animal(name) {; } var animal1 = new Animal ("cat");

When the function “Animal” is called, Javascript does the below two things:

A new object of instance is created called Animal() here is assigned to a variable.

The property “name” of the constructor defined here is set to the function Animal.



Parameter Values: There are no input parameters to this function.

Return Values: Returns a new array iterator object.

Examples to Implement of JavaScript entries()

Below are the examples of JavaScript entries():

Example #1


const arr = ['one', 'two', 'three']; for (const [i, e] of arr.entries()) console.log(i, e);


In this example, we are showing basic use of the array entries function. Here i stands for index and e for element. They represent the key-value pairs for the entries function and same can be seen in the output.

Example #2


var arr = ['one', 'two', 'three']; var iterator = arr.entries(); for (let it of iterator) { console.log(it); }


In this example we are displaying a simple case on how to use array entries. For this we are first declaring the array who’s name is “arr”. We then call the array entries() function and then create an instance of iterator. We use “for loop” to print the return values of the entries() function.

Example #3


const array= [ 'example', 'for', 'array']; var iter = array.entries(); console.log(; console.log(; console.log(;


In this example, we are displaying how to print the output which is pointing to each index belonging to their respective key-value pairs of the array.

Object.entries() Method in JavaScript



Parameters required: obj here is the object whose [key, value] pairs will be returned.

Return Values: This function object.entries() returns the array which has enumerable key-value pairs of the passed object.

There is also another function called object.values() in Javascript and this returns the array values which are found on the object. Let us consider the below example to understand their difference.

Example #4


var obj = { 0: '55', 1: 'string', 2: 'false' }; console.log(Object.values(obj)); console.log(Object.entries(obj));


In this example, we have created an object with its respective key-value pairs called “obj”.

As we can see in the output first line represents the output of the object.values() function which returns the output in the form of key-value pairs of the object whereas the object.entries() function returns only the values and not their key values. Object.entries() are used to list down object-related properties and to list down all their key-value pairs.

Let us take a few examples to understand this function better.

Example #5


const arr = { 0: 'john', 1: 'adam', 2: 'bill' }; console.log(Object.entries(arr)[1]);


Example #6


const arr1 = { 10: 'Tim', 200: 'Fred', 35: 'Morris' }; console.log(Object.entries(arr1));


In this example, we are creating an object named “arr1” and giving 3 properties having different names as input. Then by using the object.entries() method we are using it to return key-value pairs of the entire object.

Example #7


const object = { a: 'bar', b: 42 }; const mapping = new Map(Object.entries(object)); console.log(mapping);


In this example, we will look at how we can convert the object into a map. We create an object having 2 properties first. Then we create a new map constructor with the name “mapping” which accepts entries that are iterable. Hence by using object.entries() function we can easily convert an object to a map.

There are a few exceptions which are caused while using this function and which we need to aware of and they are as follows:

A TypeError is caused when the input passed is not an object.

A RangeError is caused if the passed arguments are not in the expected range of the properties in the key-value pair.


Hence in this article, we have gone through 2 of the major entries function used in Javascript: one being the array.entries() and another is the object.entries(). Object.entries() method is used for returning back an array of the given object in key-value pairs whereas array.entries() function is used to fetch a new array having the key-value pairs for each of the array indexes.

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How Java @Inherited Work With Examples To Implement

Introduction to Java @Inherited

The @inherited in Java is an annotation used to mark an annotation to be inherited to subclasses of the annotated class. The @inherited is a built-in annotation, as we know that annotations are like a tag that represents metadata which gives the additional information to the compiler. Same as built-in annotation, which is exits in the Javadoc, it is possible to create another meta-annotation out of existing in the java. There are actually two types of annotations, one type of annotations applied to the java code like @override, and another type of annotations applied to the other annotation like @target @inherited. So @inherited is an annotation that is applied to other annotation whose we want to create subclasses or we want to inherit to make another user define annotation.

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The syntax of the @inherited in java is –

@Inherited public @interface MyAnnotation {// code of the MyAnnotation } @MyAnnotation public class SuperClass { public class SubClass extends SuperClass {

As in the above syntax, the class SubClass is inherited from the annotation @MyAnnotation, because it is inherited from SuperClass, and SuperClass has a @MyAnnotation annotation.

How does @Inherited work in Java?

The @Inherited annotation is used or annotated to the annotation (MyAnnotation as in above syntax), which the @interface should prefix. Next, this annotation (MyAnnotation) can be used where ever need to apply as @MyAnnotation. These annotations can be applied just before the declaration of an element and can be applied to any element of the program like variables, class, constructors, methods, etc. When this user-defined annotation is annotated on the superclass, it is automatically inherited to subclasses (subclass as in the above syntax), as we can see in the below examples.

Examples to Implement @Inherited annotation in Java

Next, we write the java code to understand the @Inherited annotation more clearly with the following example where we use @Inherited annotation to inherit in the subclass from the superclass, as below –

Example #1

First, we create an interface for annotation @MyAnnotation, which has two fields, name and code.

Code: chúng tôi

package demo; import java.lang.annotation.Inherited; import java.lang.annotation.ElementType; import java.lang.annotation.Retention; import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy; import java.lang.annotation.Target; @Inherited @Target ({ElementType.TYPE, ElementType.METHOD}) @Retention (RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME) public @interface MyAnnotation { String name () default "unknown"; String code () default " "; }

Next, we create a superclass to use the above annotation by annotating any class or method or variable and provide the state name and state code.

Code: package demo; import demo.MyAnnotation; @MyAnnotation (name = "Karnataka", code = "KA") public class Super { public String getstateinfo () { return null; } }

Next, we use an annotation because it is metadata, which means we should be able to get this metadata or information to use the annotation information when we need it.

Code: chúng tôi

package demo; import demo.MyAnnotation; import demo.Super; import java.lang.annotation.Annotation; import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement; import java.lang.reflect.Method; public class Demo extends Super { public static void main ( String[] arg ) throws Exception { new Super (); getstateinfo (obj); Method m = obj.getMethod ("getstateinfo", new Class[]{}); getstateinfo (m); } static void getstateinfo (AnnotatedElement e) { try { System.out.println ("Finding annotations on " + e.getClass ().getName ()); Annotation[] annotations = e.getAnnotations (); for (Annotation a : annotations) { if (a instanceof MyAnnotation) { MyAnnotation stateInfo = (MyAnnotation) a; System.out.println("Name of Annotation :" + stateInfo.annotationType ()); System.out.println("State Name :" + chúng tôi ()); System.out.println("State code :" + chúng tôi ()); System.out.println(new Demo ().getClass ().getAnnotation (MyAnnotation.class)); System.out.println(new Super ().getClass ().getAnnotation (MyAnnotation.class)); } } } catch (Exception ex) { System.out.println( ex ); } } }

Output: When we run the chúng tôi class, the output is.

Explanation: As in the above code, the MyAnnotation annotation is created an also annotated by @Inherited. In the Superclass, the MyAnnotation annotation was using by the statement @MyAnnotation and annotated to the class. And another class Demo is created, which is the subclass of the Superclass because it is extended to Superclass. Farther in the main () method of the Demo class, an object of the Superclass is creating and access its method that is getstateinfo (), through this methoditerating all its annotations and checking whether the annotation is inatnce of MyAnnotation, if yes then printing some of the information as we can see above. But one important thing is that the Demo class or any of its elements not annotated to the MyAnnotation, but it still showing that the MyAnnotation is annotated to this class because it is inherent to the Superclass and Superclass is inherited MyAnnotation.

Next, we rewrite the above java code to understand the @Inherited annotation more clearly with the following example where we will not use @Inherited annotation to annotation MyAnnotation (as annotation created in the above example) to check whether this annotation is inherited in the subclass from its superclass or not, as below –

Example #2

Code: chúng tôi

package demo; import java.lang.annotation.Inherited; import java.lang.annotation.ElementType; import java.lang.annotation.Retention; import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy; import java.lang.annotation.Target; @Target ({ElementType.TYPE, ElementType.METHOD}) @Retention (RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME) public @interface MyAnnotation { String name () default "unknown"; String code () default " "; }

Output: Next, when we run the chúng tôi class, the output is.

Explanation: As in the above output, we can see that after state code, the “null” value is printed, that is the return value of the statement “new  Demo ().getClass ().getAnnotation (MyAnnotation.class)”, which means that the demo class is not inherited (or annotated) any MyAnnotation annotation from it Superclass, because the @Inherited annotation is not annotated to MyAnnotation to inherit it in the subclass.


The @inherited in java is a built-in annotation applied to another annotation. It is used to marks an annotation to be inherited to subclasses of the annotated class. The @inherited is available in the package java.lang.annotation.Inherited.

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Swift Program To Implement Bubble Sort Algorithm

In swift, Bubble sort algorithm is the easiest search algorithm. This algorithm sorts the elements by repeatedly swapping adjacent elements if they are not present at the right place. This algorithm works well only for small set of elements, it is not suitable for larger number of elements because its average and worst case time complexity is high. So the working of the bubble sort is −

Now we sort the array in ascending order using the bubble sort. Here starting from the first index we compare the first and second element. If the first element is greater than the second element, then we swap the position of the elements with each other. Similarly compare the second and third element, if second element is greater than third element, then swap the position of the elements with each other. This process continue till the last unsorted element.

2nd Iteration

So this is how we sort the array using bubble sort.


Step 1 − Create a function to sort the array in ascending order using bubble sort algorithm.

Step 2 − Inside the function, we run nested for-in loop to traverse over each pair of adjacent element in the given.

Step 4 − Now outside the function create an array of integer type.

Step 5 − Call the function and pass the array into it.

Step 6 − Print the sorted array.


In the following example, we will create a function named as myBubbleSort(). This function takes an array as input and sort the given array into ascending order with the help of bubble sort algorithm. This function uses nested for-in loop to iterate through each pair of adjacent element the given array and swap if the first element is greater than the second element. This process continue till the last unsorted element. Here the function modifies the original array with the help of inout parameter. Finally display the sorted array.

import Foundation import Glibc func myBubbleSort(_ array: inout [Int]) { let size = array.count for x in 0..<size { for y in 0..<size-x-1 { let temp = array[y] array[y] = array[y+1] array[y+1] = temp } } } } var arr = [10, 87, 2, 90, 34, 1, 6, 78] myBubbleSort(&arr) print("Sorted array: (arr)") Output Sorted array: [1, 2, 6, 10, 34, 78, 87, 90] Conclusion

So this is how we can implement bubble sort algorithm. It is only suitable for small data set. The average and worst case complexity is O(n2), where n is known as the number of items.

Guide To Types Of Php Annotations With Examples

Introduction to PHP Annotations

PHP annotations are basically metadata which can be included in the source code and also in between classes, functions, properties and methods. They are to be started with the prefix @ wherever they are declared and they indicate something specific. This information they provide is very useful to coders, helpful for documentation purposes and also an IDE may use this to display certain popup hint kind of things. The same annotation can also be used for other purposes besides validation such as to determine what kind of input needs to be given in a form and also for automation purposes. There are various kinds of annotations like the @var and @int types which can be used for specific uses as their name itself suggests.

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Syntax class Example { public $new; }

Annotation is @var here and whenever it is encountered just before the piece of any code (public $new here for example) it indicates that the $new is to have a value of type integer as told by the annotation.

class Example { public $shop; }

Annotations can also be used for specifying the range where it displays the maximum and the minimum values that are to be accepted as integer values for the function and the label gives the purpose of this function.

Types of PHP Annotations

Given below are the types:

1. Built-in Annotations

There are 2 built-in functions in annotations which are as follows:

a. Compiled: This annotation indicates that if the method/function should be JIT compiled or not. It is also a function scope type of annotation.

b. SuppressWarnings: This is another built-in annotation which means that any warnings thrown as part of the execution of the succeeding code below it must be suppressed.

2. Meta Annotations

These are those type of annotations which can be used to apply for other annotations. They are used for configuration of annotations.

a. @Annotations

There is a kind of annotation classes which will contain @annotation.


[@Annotation] class MyAnnoExample { }

b. @Target

As the name suggests, this annotation indicates those types of class elements or a method upon which the annotation will be applicable.

Property annotation is just before the property class declaration.

Class which is allowed before the declaration of class.

Function is declared before the function declaration.

Method annotation allows proceeding the method declaration.

Annotation is allowed for proceeding to declaration of annotation class.

c. @Repeatable

This annotation means that it may be repeated any number of times when being used.

d. @Inherited

This can also be used on the other user defined annotation classes as a meta-annotation. These inherited annotations are automatically inherited to the respective sub-classes when they are used upon a superclass.

3. Custom Annotations

These are very similar to declarations of the normal class. Each element of the annotation type is defined by each of the property declarations.

Examples of PHP Annotations

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1


[@Annotation] [@Target("class")] class MyAnnoEx { [@Required] public string $prop; public array $arrayProp = []; public embedAnno $embed; } [@Annotation] [@Target(["class", "annotation"])] class embedAnno { } [@Annotation] [@Target("property")] class propAnno { } @Annotation @Target("method") class methodAnno { public string $val; public function __construct(string $val) { } }

This is just a basic example showing the usage of all the different types of annotations which are shown above. All the ones in the example like embed annotation, property annotation, method annotation are custom annotations.

Example #2

<?php /** * @Replace(“exmaple”, “for”, “annotation”) */ class MyNamedComponent { } echo str_replace(“First”, “Second”, “First Example”);


In this example we are naming the annotation as replace since the below code represents the usage of string replace function which is str_replace, an inbuilt function of PHP. Using this function, the first parameter passed in the function is replaced by the second one.

Example #3


<!–Declaring First name for the form First_Name: <!–Declaring Last_Name for the form Last_Name: <!–Declaring Location for the form Stay location: <!–Declaring EMAILID for the form EmailID: <!–Declaring Password for the form Password: <!–Declaring Password for the form Gender: <input type=”radio” value=”Male” <input type=”radio” value=”Female” <?php if(example($_POST[‘confirm’])) { if(!example($error)) { } }


In this example, we are showing annotations in combination with the form validation in PHP. Using annotations we are labeling all the parameters which are required as input parameters to the form such as first and last name, email, location and password.


With the above examples we have noticed how annotations are a powerful tool to use and express metadata about our methods, classes or properties. We have also seen how to combine different kinds of annotations to declare workers who will perform certain tasks by writing some metadata about them. This makes them easy to find and gives actual information on whether or not they can be used.

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Determinants Of Demand: Definition, Examples, Law Of Demand

What are the Determinants of Demand?

Determinants of demand are factors, such as price, income, and taste, that affect the amount of a good or service consumers will purchase. 

For example, in 2023, the demand for bank loans decreased in the USA since the emergence of covid 19 pandemic. It might be due to the negative impact of the pandemic on income-generating capabilities. In this scenario, income will be considered the determinant of demand.

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Key Highlights

Determinants of demand are the major factors that affect the consumer’s purchasing desire.

Price is a prominent determinant of demand that impacts sales volume. A high price means less room for profit, resulting in lower sales volumes than if prices were lower.

Advertising and promotion activities also affect demand for products and services.

Determinants of Demand for Economy Price

Price is one of the most important factors when determining whether consumers can purchase a product in sufficient quantities.

Generally, as the price of a good or service increases, the demand for it will decrease, and vice versa. The demanded quantity of a good/service is inversely related to its price.

For instance, suppose Apple launches a new iPhone. Thus, the prices of its old models will decline, and in turn, lead to an increase in their demand. 

Buyers’ Real Incomes or Wealth

When real incomes rise, people have more money to spend on goods and services.

The increase in demand can lead to higher prices for these goods and services.

On the other hand, when real incomes fall, people have less money to spend, which can lead to lower prices.

For example, the majority of people lose their jobs during recessions, which results in a decrease in their incomes. Therefore, they prefer to spend on necessary goods, which then impacts the demand for various other goods/services.


The customer’s satisfaction with the quality of the product is a prominent factor.

If a consumer is satisfied with the quality of a product (i.e., if they believe it will meet their needs), they may be willing to pay more.

Suppose Microsoft increases its pricing for the Windows OS. As around 70% of the world’s population uses windows and relies on their quality, they’ll pay the extra amount without another thought.

Income Distribution

Income distribution can affect the demand for certain types of goods and services.

For example, if income distribution is even, there may be greater demand for luxury goods and services.

On the other hand, if income is more concentrated, demand for necessities such as food and housing may be higher.

For instance, the price for a luxury good ‘X’ is $100. People from high-income societies can easily afford the goods. Thus, the demand for good X is higher in their region. At the same time, low-income societies cannot afford the price, therefore, refrain from buying it, reducing the good demand in their region.

Price of Substitute Goods

Substitute goods are goods or services that one can use in place of each other. A price change in substitute goods can affect the demand for the original one.

For instance, if the substitute’s price decreases, the demand for the original goods may decrease, as consumers may switch to the cheaper substitute.

On the other hand, if the price of a substitute good increases, the demand for the original good may increase, as consumers may choose to stick with the actual product instead of paying a higher price for the substitute.

For example, Zerodha and Groww are both trading platforms that offer similar services. However, Zerodha has an annual fee, while Groww does not. This significant difference can influence customers to use the Groww platform.

Buyer’s Tastes and Preferences

Buyers’ tastes and preferences significantly determine the economy’s demand for goods and services.

Various factors, such as cultural, social, and personal values and the availability of substitutes for a particular product, can influence these tastes and preferences.

For example, suppose a consumer prefers organic and environmentally-friendly products. In that case, they may be more likely to demand these types of goods, even if they are more expensive.

Expectations of Buyer’s Future Income and Wealth

If consumers expect their income or wealth to increase, they may be more likely to demand more expensive or luxury goods.

On the other hand, if consumers expect their income or wealth to decrease in the future, they may be more cautious with their spending.

Thus, the demand may lean towards cheaper or more valuable goods.

Suppose a company is expecting to make double profit in the next month. It may choose to switch to better raw materials and equipment. Therefore, the demand for better goods might increase.

Expected Future Price

Expected future price is the price that consumers expect a good or service to be at in the future, and it can affect the demand for the good or service in the present.

If consumers expect a good/service’s price to increase, they may be more likely to demand it now than in the future.

For instance, when petrol or diesel prices are set to rise in the future, the public might want to buy more than enough of the fuel in the present. It will result in an instant increase in good demand.

Number of Buyers

All else equal, the greater the number of buyers, the higher the demand for the good or service.

Each buyer can potentially increase the need for the good or service.

The number of buyers in a market depends on population size, income levels, and the availability of substitute goods.

For instance, during the holiday season, there are numerous people visiting the tourist spots. They purchase local goods/services, improving their demand. Nonetheless, during off-seasons, the demand falls dramatically due to less number of buyers. 

Government Policies

Government policies can significantly impact the economy’s demand for goods and services.

These policies can include tax, regulatory, and trade policies.

For example, if the government imposes a high tax on a particular good or service, the demand for it may decrease, as consumers may be less willing to pay the higher price. In contrast, if they provide subsidies, the demand may increase.

Climate Changes

In addition to consumer demand, climate change can affect the production and distribution of goods and services, impacting demand.

For example, extreme weather events and natural disasters caused by climate change can disrupt supply chains and the availability of specific goods and services, leading to a decrease in demand.

How do Determinants of Demand Work?

Demand is the relationship between the quantity consumers purchase and the price of that product. Many factors affect demand for a particular product, including its price, quality, and availability.

Suppose only a few options or available options are relatively expensive or inconveniently located. Consumers may wait to buy something until another option becomes available or prices decrease.

In this scenario, we say that an equilibrium point exists where the marginal cost equals marginal revenue, in which producers will maximize profits by producing at this level until demand falls below the equilibrium level.

Examples of Determinants of Demand Example #1:

Mia is the sole earner in her family. Due to the recession, she loses her job. Thus, she can now only use her savings to purchase the necessity. Moreover, she would not spend her money on luxury or unnecessary goods/services.

Similarly, if most people lose their jobs, their income (determinant) declines, reducing demand for unnecessary or luxury goods.

Example #2:

Company XYZ uses a particular type of wood as a raw material for manufacturing furniture. They sell their product at reasonable market rates. Due to a scarcity and price increase in the raw material, the company starts selling its final product for a higher price.

Determinants of Demand for Elasticity

Demand elasticity measures how responsive the quantity demanded is to a change in price. Understanding the determinants of demand elasticity can be important for businesses in terms of pricing strategies and demand forecasting.

There are several determinants for demand elasticity, which include:

The Availability of Substitutes

If several substitute goods or services are available, the demand for a particular good/service may be more elastic as consumers have more options.

Income Spent on the Good or Service

If a good or service represents a large proportion of a consumer’s income, its demand may be more elastic, as price changes will have a greater impact on the consumer’s budget.


If a good or service is considered a necessity, its demand may be less elastic, as consumers will continue to demand it even if the price increases.

The Degree of Habit or Custom

If a good or service has become a habit or custom for consumers, the demand for it may be less elastic, as consumers may be less likely to change their consumption patterns.

The Time Frame

Demand elasticity can vary over time.

In the short term, the demand for a good or service may be less elastic, as consumers may be less able to adjust their consumption patterns quickly.

In the long term, the demand may be more elastic, as consumers have more time to adjust their consumption patterns in response to changes in price.

What is the Law of Demand?

The law of demand is the fundamental economic principle that states that even when everything is equal, the rise in the price of a good or service can lead to a drop in demand.

It is one of the most fundamental concepts in economics and underlies the entire field of supply and demand analysis.

The law of demand is also an essential building block for many other economic principles and theories.


The determinants of demand help in better understanding the demand for a product. The determinants of demand are often assumed to be constant, but they are not.

They are useful in predicting future demand for a product. Generally not included in production decisions.

They can help analyze the relationship between various factors that influence demand for a product. It can sometimes be difficult to measure or predict accurately.

They are easier to predict the demand for a product or service because it is based on human behaviors and desires. Often challenging to understand, especially for business managers who need simple rules about how demand varies with changes in price, income, and other factors.

They give us a more accurate picture of what people want. Businesses can use it to increase sales and profits. Time and market conditions can change their values, causing them to vary over time and across markets.

Final Thoughts Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. What are the determinants of demand?

Answer: The determinants of demand are the factors that influence the quantity demanded by consumers. They generally help economists and businesses determine the future demand for a product. These factors include consumer preferences, income, and tastes.

Q2. Which are non-price determinants of demand?

Answer: Non-price determinants of demand are the factors other than price that contribute to change in demand for a good or service. Some examples of non-price determinants include the number of buyers in the market, government policies, climate change, and income distribution. The consumer’s income, tastes and preferences, and future income or wealth expectations are also factors.

Q3. What are the determinants of aggregate demand?

Answer: The following are determinants of aggregate demand: consumer spending, investment, and government spending. Some other determinants are exports, changes in the money supply, and changes in the price level.

Q4. How does demand change the concerning price?

Answer: The higher the price of a good or service, the less likely consumers will buy it (demand goes down). Conversely, when the price of a good or service goes down, consumers are more likely to buy it (demand goes up).

Q5. What determines the price of a good sold?

Answer: The price of a good depends on several factors. Some of these factors include the market price of other goods sold in the same market, the cost of producing that good, and whether there are any associated taxes.

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Working Of Python Uuid With Examples

Introduction to Python UUID

In this article, we will discuss Python UUID which is a Python module used for implementing or generating the universally unique identifiers and is also known as GUID globally unique identifiers. Python UUID module generates the identifiers randomly which have the value of 128 bit long and these identifiers are useful for documents or information in computer systems, apps, hosts, and many different situations that will use unique identifiers. This Python UUID module provides different immutable Objects and different versions of functions such as uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4(), uuid5() which are used for generating UUID’s of versions 1, 3, 4, and 5.

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Working of Python UUID with Examples

In Python, there is a library or module which is inbuilt and is used for generating unique identifiers that are universal or global and this module is known as UUID, this module can also generate different versions of UUIDs and these modules are immutable which means their value cannot be altered once generated. UUID is mainly composed of 5 components with fixed lengths and each component is separated by a hyphen and uses read attributes to define the UUID string. This Python UUID is implemented based on RFC 4211 which includes different algorithms and information regarding the unique identifiers that are to be generated along with the required versions of UUIDs. In Python, this module provides various functions for different versions such as uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4() and uuid5().

In Python, the UUID module provides various read-only attributes such as:

UUID.bytes which includes a 16-byte string.

UUID.fields which includes fields like time, clock_seq, node, etc.

UUID.hex can hold the 32-bit hexadecimal string. can hold 128-bit integer

UUID.Safe this attribute tells us the uuid version used is safe or not.

Examples of Python UUID

In the below section let us see a few examples of the use of function uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4() and uuid5() using Python UUID module which is mainly used for generating UUID using MAC address. We will also see how the UUID looks like which means the structure of UUID.

Example #1

But we should note that when using uuid1() it might display network details such as the network address of the computer in UUID so it is not so safe to use uuid1() as it may arise privacy problems because it uses the systems MAC address. Let us see a simple example.


import uuid print("Progam to demonstrate uuid1() function:") print("n") uuid_version_1 = uuid.uuid1() print("UUID of version one is as follows", uuid_version_1)


In the above program, we can see the uuid1() function is used which generates the host id, the sequence number is displayed. We can compute these function values using the MAC address of the host and this can be done using the getnode() method of UUID module which will display the MAC value of a given system. Say for example

print(hex(uuid.getnode())) Example #2


import uuid print("Program to demonstrate uuid4() function:") print("n") unique_id = uuid.uuid4() print ("The unique id generated using uuid4() function : ") print (unique_id)


In the above program, we can see a unique id is generated using uuid4(). The uuid4() generates id using cryptographically secure random number generators hence there is less chance of collision.

Now we will see uuid3() and uuid5() where we saw a generation of UUID using random numbers now we will see how to generate UUIDs using names instead of random numbers using uuid3() and uuid5() which uses cryptographic hash values such as MD5 or SHA-1 to combine values with the names like hostnames, URLs, etc. In general, uuid3() and uuid5() versions are hashing namespace identifiers with a name, and few namespaces are defined by UUID module such as UUID.NAmESPACE_DNS, UUID.NAmESPACE_URL, etc. Now let us see an example below.

Example #3


import uuid print("Program to demonstrate uuid3() and uuid5() is as follows:") print("n") for hostname in hosts_sample: print("Hostname specified is as follows: ",hostname) print('tThe SHA-1 value of the given hostname:', uuid.uuid5(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, hostname)) print('tThe MD5 value of the given hostname :', uuid.uuid3(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, hostname)) print("n")

In the above program, we can see we are using uuid3() and uuid5() functions which generate UUID at different times but with the same namespace and same name. In the above program, we have two different hostnames and we are iterating using for loop. We can specify any number of hostnames and can iterate it using for loop.

As UUID is a unique universal identifier there are some privacy issues as we saw in the above section uuid1() compromises with privacy as it uses systems MAC address whereas uuid4() doesn’t compromise with privacy hence it uses a random number generator for generating UUIDs. Therefore we can say uuid1() is not safe to use and uuid4() is safer than uuid1(). Therefore to check if the UUID functions are safe in the latest Python version 3.7 an instance of UUID such as is_safe attribute is used to check for UUID is safe or not. UUIDs are used in various applications such as in web apps, database systems, etc. In Python, we can convert UUID to string and vice versa using str class and we can obtain string format removing the hyphen that is used for separation of components in UUID using string method replace() by replacing “-” with “” say for example

UUID_id = uuid.uuid1() str_uuid = str(UUID_id). replace("-", "")

And similarly, we can convert the string back to UUID using UUID instance such as follows:

uuid_id = uuid.UUID(string) Conclusion

In this article, we conclude that UUID is a unique universal identifier and is also known as a global identifier. In this article, we also saw the Python UUID module to generate the identifiers using a few uuid functions of different versions and we also saw different uuid() versions such as uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4(), and uuid5() with examples and their privacy terms. In this, we also saw different read attributes, safety checks for uuid() function, and also saw the conversion of UUID to string and vice versa.

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This is a guide to Python UUID. Here we also discuss the introduction and working of python uuid along with different examples and its code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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