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An application with good Front-end and poor Back-end is like Beauty without brains. You are awed by it initially, but you get irritated by it over time. On the other hand, efficient Back-end with poor Front-end may not excite users to use the application. In today’s world, you need excellence on both the aspects.

Sadly, a lot of people associate data visualization with only front end engineering. In today’s article, I want to bring out what does Back end engineering look like in case of QlikView and how can it add tremendous power to your data stories.

The Natural progression in a programming language

If you have learnt coding on any language, you would have experienced this progression yourself.

The first stage of learning a language is to understand its syntax, ways to print output, doing mathematical calculations etc. At this stage, you typically don’t do any thing complex. This usually isn’t very exciting or helpful. After all you don’t learn a programming language to calculate 2 + 3!

The second stage of learning a language is when you start using variables to accomplish some of the more complex tasks. With use of variables, you can create generic logic, which are more complicated and useful. So it you want to compare 2 columns with a million numbers each, you can’t do that unless you use variables (May be you can, not me!). The beauty of the process is that once you learn use of variables, it is impossible to think that there was even a stage 1 involved in the learning process!

There are some more stages in learning a new programming language, but for today’s article we will focus on what I just mentioned as second stage of any programming language – the use of variables. If you are a complete newbie to QlikView, you should first learn the basics from our learning path – Resource to learn Qlikview from scratch and become an expert

Real life situation – variables to my rescue!

I started using QlikView some time in early 2012 and I fell in love with it. We had a team of passionate developers and over next 6 months (with a lot of dark nights), we were able to replace the traditional clunky excel / access reports on a nice QlikView dashboard for entire Sales process of our organization. We were now the envy of other Intelligence units in our organization and were quoted as a successful transition across the Organization.

In September 2012, the Sales Director called me. This was the time of sales planning for next year. So, I expected him to ask the plans for the same. And I was well prepared for this. Over years, we had created an Excel based application which would simulate a whole lot of scenarios and then spit out (literally) the targets for all the sales people.

Then came the bomb! The Sales Director said that this time he wants the planning to happen on our QlikView application. He said that he wanted a new sheet in our dashboard, where the sales people could enter parameters for their efforts (e.g. Taking 10 sales calls a day) and the application provides an estimate of where they would end taking seasonality and past trends in account.

I had no clue how to do this in QlikView, so I just listened to him. I didn’t want all the efforts from last 6 months to end and the people to go back to older ways of running business intelligence. Thankfully, I came across variables and their use to run what-if scenarios, which we went on to build in our application.

What is a Variable? What are the methods to create it?

Variables store data (static or calculated) of any type (numbers, string, boolean, float) and get referenced using expressions or directly by using its name. There are a few ground rules of variable naming convention in QlikView:

Rule 1: Whenever we create a variable for static value, we prefix variable name with “v” (lowercase).

Rule 2: Whenever we store an expression in a variable, we prefix variable name with “e” (lowercase).

After the first character, we should keep relevant names so that it is developer friendly. There are various methods to create a variable. The commonly used are:

Method 2: By using SET and LET statements.

Let’s look at them one by one:

Method 1:

Note: You can define a variable with an expression also.

Method -2:

This is because, these are the variables that QlikView creates using Set Statement. You can also use “Set” statement for defining variable(s) in script.

Let’s see how do we do it. Look at the below syntax of defining variable:

Syntax: Set Variable_Name=Value; Example: Set vPrevYr='2014';

Another method of variable creation is using “Let” statement. Let statement evaluates the expression on the right side of ‘=’ and assigns it to the variable on the left side of ‘=’.

Syntax: Let Variable_Name=Expression;

Example: Let vTest=5+8;

If you will use Set statement to store expression output in a variable, it will store the expression as a value. I’ll show the detailed effect of defining a formula with Let and Set statement in the coming up sections.

Example: Set vTest1=5+8;

In the screenshot below, you can see all the defined variables(vPrevYr, vTest, vTest1) after running script. Similarly, new variables can also be defined / found here.

Also Read: How to implement incremental load in qlikview?

How can we access variable?

The value of a variable can be accessed using equals (=) sign. If the variable is prefixed with equals ‘ = ‘ sign, QlikView tries to evaluate the value as a formula (QlikView expression) and then displays or returns the result rather than the actual formula text.

Let’s understand it by accessing above created variable “vTest” (created using Let) and “vTest1” (Created using Set).

Let’s create a text box object and put an expression as “=vTest” and similarly in another text box, we put “=vTest1” (as shown below).

Just notice that, the variable (vTest) created using “Let” has got evaluated well. On the contrary, variable (vTest1) created using “Set” has not been evaluated. This is the difference between creating a variable using Set or Let statement.

Now, to evaluate variable vTest1, we can use Dollar Sign Expansion (DSE). It is method to evaluate a formula. Let’s look at this method of using dollar sign expansion. Also, this is also a standard way of accessing a variable in QlikView.

Syntax: $(variable_Name)

Also Read: The concept of synthetic keys in Qlikview – Simplified !

What are most Common Uses of variable(s)?

Variables are the mainstay of data visualization softwares like Qlikview, chúng tôi etc. Optimizing the use of variables always reduces application development time. Let’s look at the some common uses of variables:

Portability: Variables are used when we want to store values and use them in multiple objects / charts without wanting to type those values again. Variables are also used when we want to perform dynamic calculations. For example: A variable created for representing previous year as “vPrevYr=$(=Max (Year)-1)”, refers to a dynamic calculation as per current selection and can be accessed by all objects of the document.

Use in Chart Objects: We can make use of variables in charts at multiple places using:

Conditional enable or disable dimension / expression / object:

 Think of a scenario where you have segregated your charts objects in two categories. Then, you want to show only one category at a time. This can effortlessly be done using button or variable. Let’s follow the below steps to perform this:

Step 1: Create a variable “


” and assign the value as zero (0).

Step 3: Assign the value to variable as zero (0) and provide the name to variable as “Category1”. Similarly create another variable as “Category2” and assign the variable (vVisible) value as 1.

    What-if analysis: We can use variable in what if analysis expression also using “Input Box” or “Slider Object”. In such cases, we take value of variable from these objects (Input, Slider) and used them in expression.

    Apart from the uses mentioned above, we can also use variable for incremental data load and in various scripting methodology to improve our data models.

    End Notes:

    In this article, we looked at the importance of variables, methods to create it and the common uses of variable in daily development. Basically, we have looked at two methods (Set & Let and Variable Overview) to create them.

    If you like what you just read & want to continue your analytics learning, subscribe to our emails, follow us on twitter or like our facebook page.


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    Learntypes Of Table Concatenations In Qlikview

    Introduction to QlikView Concatenate

    QlikView Concatenate function belongs to the family of ‘Join’ and ‘Keep’ command, though all three are used differently based on their nature. In a normal computer, the programming context Concatenate function is classified into a String/Text function, which joins strings together. This function is widely used in Excel, SQL, etc. In the context of QlikView, concatenate refers to the concatenation of rows where this function helps to append the rows from one table to another. We need to understand this difference before further studying the Concatenate function in QlikView.

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    How does the Concatenate Function work in QlikView? Concatenate Function vs SQL Union Statement

    It can be compared with the SQL Union Statement with some differences, as given below.

    There should be the same number of columns in the select statement within the SQL union, whereas the number of columns in QlikView Concatenate can differ.

    The Concatenate function could be used even if the tables do not have identical field names.

    Identical records continue to remain in the table, unlike in the SQL Union.

    Difference Between Concatenate and Concat()

    The Concatenate and Concat() are both available in QlikView. Knowing the difference between their functions is good so we do not get confused later. The Concat() function is used to join strings/text/values/words together, whereas the Concatenate function is used to append rows from one table to another. Concatenate is used in the script, whereas the Concat() is used in expressions and rarely in the script.

    Types of Table Concatenations in QlikView

    Following are the types of QlikView Concatenate:

    1. Automatic Concatenation

    This is an automatic function in QlikView where the concatenation of two or more loaded tables will automatically occur when the number of fields and the names of the fields of the tables are similar. This will result in concatenating the different statements into a single table.

    2. Forced Concatenation

    This is a manual concatenation method that is done using the script. When the number of fields and the names of the fields differ between the loaded tables, we perform forced concatenation. Forced concatenation is performed by prefixing “Concatenate” in the script. This enables us to concatenate a table with another named table or the previously created table.


    concatenate LOAD A1, C1 from salesQ2.csv;

    The resulting internal table will have fields A1, B1, and C1. The number of records in this table will equal the sum of records from tables ‘salesQ1’ and ‘salesQ2’. As there is no field B1 in the table ‘salesQ2’, the value of records coming from ‘salesQ2’ from field B1 in the internal table will be NULL.

    3. Preventing concatenation

    Preventing concatenation is nothing but the prevention of automatic concatenation to take place. We have already seen that the concatenation of tables will automatically occur when the number of fields and the field names of the tables are similar. We can prevent this with the help of a noconcatenate. This will result in the loaded tables not getting concatenated even if the field names and the number of fields are the same.


    noconcatenate LOAD A1, B1, C1 from salesQ2.csv;

    Examples to Implement in QlikView Concatenate

    The following are the examples to implement in the step by step manner:

    Sale Code:

    [C:Userssmoham87DesktopSales.xlsx] (ooxml, embedded labels);

    Purchase Code:

    [C:Userssmoham87DesktopPurchase.xlsx] (ooxml, embedded labels, table is Sheet1);

    Step 2:  Let us name the two tables before we concatenate them. We shall call the first table ‘Sales’ and the second ‘Purchases.’ The script will now look like the one below.

    Sale Code:

    [C:Userssmoham87DesktopSales.xlsx] (ooxml, embedded labels);

    Purchase Code:



    [C:Userssmoham87DesktopSales.xlsx] [C:Userssmoham87DesktopPurchase.xlsx] (ooxml, embedded labels, table is Sheet1);

    We can see in the above table that the two tables, ‘Sales’ and ‘Purchases’ have been appended into one table; the ‘Purchase’ and ‘Sales’ tables have been concatenated, and wherever the fields do not match, the records have been populated with Null values.

    We can observe that the ‘Month’ and the ‘Market’ fields have duplicate values. The concatenation does not eliminate duplicate records.


    By the end of this article, we should know how the Concatenate function works in QlikView. We also explored how Concatenate in QlikView compares to the SQL Union statement and how it differs. We have also studied the difference between string concatenation and table concatenation.

    Recommended Articles

    This is a guide to QlikView Concatenate. Here we discuss how it works, types, and examples to implement in QlikView Concatenate in detail. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

    Create Beautiful Visual Stories With Storehouse

    Everyone loves to share pictures with each other. Instagram is proof that we will take pictures of anything and make people look at them. We show off our shoes, our dinner plates, our cats, and our “relaxed” feet. We love to take pictures.

    Everyone loves to share pictures with each other. Instagram is proof that we will take pictures of anything and make people look at them. We show off our shoes, our dinner plates, our cats, and our “relaxed” feet. We love to take pictures.

    Storehouse is a photography app that lets you show off your daily snapshots, but once you see what the pros are doing, you won’t want to embarrass yourself with a retrospective of a year of selfies…


    Once registered with Storehouse, you will be able to access dozens of beautiful stories that have been hand picked by the app’s creators as some of the best. Swipe from right to left to see more submissions. Tap on one to read more about it. Swipe upward to open the story. Scroll downward to read the text, browse the pictures, and watch the short videos.

    When you are done reading a story, either swipe upward again at the end of the page, or pinch inward to go back to the main screen.

    When the inspiration strikes and you are ready to create your own story, tap the plus (+) symbol at the top of the screen to add media and text.

    After you’ve created a story and resized the pictures and videos to look the way you want them to, publish it to Storehouse’s feed so others can see it.

    You can follow others on Storehouse to keep track of stories they publish. Find your friends and add them as well.

    App Use

    The first thing you will need to do is register with Storehouse. I know this can be scary for some people. However, I’ve signed up for hundreds of accounts from a wide variety of companies during my time as an app reviewer and I’ve never been spammed to death by any of them. App developers don’t usually want your email address so they can destroy your desktop. Registering your email with Storehouse is safe.

    Swipe from right to left on the screen in order to see more stories. When you find one that piques your interest, tap it or swipe upward on the screen to open it. You will see the name of the person who published the story and any relevant information about them, like their profession or a website link.

    Keep scrolling downward to see more pictures, videos, and written content. Some stories will be heavy on words and light on pictures, others will have dozens of pictures with only a couple of sentences. Some are nothing but 30-second videos, back to back.

    Exploring the beautiful and stunning photographs that are published by these professionals will surely inspire you to dig up your best pictures to add to a story for publishing. When you are ready to create your own story, tap the plus (+) symbol at the top right corner of the screen.

    After you’ve added images and videos, the template will automatically select a cover photo, but you can change it by tapping the image and then tapping “change cover.” The rest of the pictures and videos will be displayed as square images below the cover photo. You can name your story and add a subtitle at this time. This is the main image or video that others will see when they first view your story.

    Then, it is time to make the body of the story look the way you want it to. First, resize images to make them fit into the story the way you want them to. Tap one of the square photos and drag it from the bottom to make it larger, longer, skinnier, or take up a full screen. As you drag an image to resize it, the others will adjust along with it and move downward or upward, depending on what you do.

    You can also crop a photo if you want to zoom in on a specific section, or zoom out to show the entire shot. Tap the “Crop” icon and drag your finger around until you’ve adjusted the image accordingly.

    If the images loaded into your story template are out of order, you can rearrange them by touching and holding one photo until it hovers above the rest. Then, drag the image to a new location.

    After your pictures are laid out, it is time to add text. Tap the screen in the location you want to add words and then tap “Text” icon at the top of the screen. A text box will appear in the spot you tapped in the story. You can add a header, text body, or a quote. Each font will be different according to what you selected.

    When you are finished with your story, tap “Publish” in the upper right corner of the screen and your story will be made available publicly. Keep in mind that published stories go live to the Storehouse feed. You can’t publish it privately. If you don’t want others to see your stories, don’t publish them. Once published, you can share your stories to others with a direct link on Facebook, Twitter, or through email.

    To find other users to follow, tap the search icon at the top left of the screen in the main window. You will see a list of popular users to follow. You can also find people by searching for them by name. If you have a friend who is already publishing stories on Storehouse, get their username and begin following them to stay on top of their submissions.

    The Good

    This app is like a quick and easy blog service. You can create and publish stories with just a few taps and adjustments. Uploading large amounts of images and videos is very easy. You can literally have a story ready for publishing in less than a half hour.

    I love reading stories that others have published. Most of the featured users are professional photographers and magazine editors, so they’ve got a lot of fantastic stories to share with us.

    The Bad

    User discovery is lacking. Once your story is up, it isn’t easy for others to find it unless they know your username. I’d like to be able to access a public feed that shows everything that is published, not just what is hand picked for me by the Storehouse curators. That way, I can choose to follow whomever I want, not just the top users.


    Storehouse is free to download. The only cost is your email address, which by now you should know that it isn’t a big deal to give out to app developers. Even if you never publish a single story, it is worth downloading for the content that has already been added by others. Many stories are very interesting and feature breathtaking photos.


    If you like the idea of creating and publishing mini blog style stories for the Storehouse community, you will have a great time making and sharing posts with others. If you have no desire to publish your photos with Storehouse, but still want to see what others are creating, you will enjoy reading stories from users in the community. This is a fun and interesting photography app that I recommend for anyone with an iPad. Download it in the App Store today.

    Related Apps

    Fotopedia Reporter is a user uploaded photography app that also lets you create stories to publish.

    Do you fancy yourself a photography hobbyist? Do you think you’ll publish mini stories to Storehouse?

    Vba Variables, Data Types And Dim

    VBA Variables, Data Types and Dim

    Declaring variables using the various data types in VBA

    Written by

    CFI Team

    Published August 8, 2023

    Updated June 27, 2023

    Declaring VBA Variables using Dim

    This guide breaks down VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. Typically, the very first step after naming your macro is declaring your variables. Variables are names for different pieces of the data that the macro will be working with. However, this sometimes proves difficult since it’s hard to plan ahead how many variables will be used in the macro. Eventually, when the macro is written, the user may add or remove certain variables. This will become more apparent further into this guide to writing VBA macros.

    The very top of each macro after the sub name is a section called the declarations. Here, the user lists and names all the different variables he or she will use, and declares their data types. This is done by using the “Dim” statement. The “Dim” statement is followed by the name of the variable, and sometimes the statement “as [datatype]”. For example, if we wanted to create a variable for a Stock Price, we could write “Dim stockPrice as double”. This creates a variable called the stockPrice, which takes on the data type double. A double data type is one of the data types that allows for decimals, as opposed to the integer data type.

    It’s not necessary to always declare the data type. Sometimes, it’s sufficient to declare the name, and VBA can infer the data type when the variable is used in the code later on. However, it’s generally safer to declare the data type you expect to use.

    Each declaration will take its own line. It’s helpful to group variables of the same data type together.

    Variable Data Types

    There are quite a few VBA data types, but for the general purposes of financial modeling not all of them are used.

    Below is a list of common VBA variables (known as data types) used in macros and their purposes:

    Integer: Used to store number values that won’t take on decimal form.

    Single: Used to store number values that may take on decimal form. Can also contain integers.

    Double: A longer form of the single variable. Takes up more space, but needed for larger numbers.

    Date: Stores date values.

    String: Stores text. Can contain numbers, but will store them as a text (calculations cannot be performed on numbers stored as a string)

    Boolean: Used to store binary results (True/False, 1/0)

    Again, there are other data types, but these are the most commonly used for creating macros.

    Storing a Value in a Variable

    After a variable has been created, storing a value in it is simple.

    Variable name = Variable value

    String variable name = “Variable value”

    (When using strings, you have to surround the text in quotation marks. This is not true for number or binary values)

    Each named variable can only hold one value at a time.

    Example of Declaring Variable Data types with Dim

    Here is a break down of how to use Dim in VBA:

    Declaring a company name variable: “Dim companyName as String”

    Setting the company name variable:

    companyName = “Tesla”

    companyName = “Wells Fargo”

    companyName = “No company name is available”

    Declaring a variable to store net income: “Dim netIncome as Single” (or Double, depending on the scale)

    Setting the net income variable:

    netIncome = -5,000

    netIncome = 0

    netIncome = 1,000,000.64

    Declaring a binary variable to store growth: “Dim isGrowthPositive as Boolean”

    Setting the growth variable:

    isGrowthPositive = True

    isGrowthPositive = False

    isGrowthPositive = 1 (same as True)

    As you can see in the above example, these variables (and some extra variables to show grouping best practices) have been declared. Values have also been stored in the main variables. However, if this macro were to be run, it would simply store these values in the variables, and not use them in any way. To continue learning how to use variables, you need to know the VBA methods available to each one.

    Additional Resources

    Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to VBA variables, Data Types, and Dim. To keep learning and progressing your Excel skills we highly recommend these additional CFI resources:

    How To Use Variables Sas Rename With Example?

    Introduction to SAS Rename

    The SAS rename is the feature for changing the variable’s name or the variable list already declared in the SAS input data set or in the data step created by the new set of variables. It allows you to replace old variable names in programming statements by changing one or more variables written into the output directory.

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    Overview of SAS Rename

    The rename is a type of function that can be used for more than one variable in a SAS dataset, and SAS users will refer to it as such. Renaming column variables will use the datas like NHANES, but the code of the data registration is not correctly called for the column names. This is nearly impossible for the recoding data columns. It decodes the datas by using the more straightforward format that assists and is associated with the sequence number of the SAS issues and the spaces between the original data content and duplicate contents.

    We can enclose the text from the data label using the single and double quotation Rename option, which tells SAS to change the name of the two variables from within the parentheses as long as the space separates each pair of the old and new variables.

    How to Use Variables SAS Rename?

    We can use the rename function with the SAS dataset for the column variables from the NHANES data, but the data code is registered incorrectly. The specified column names are so long, and it’s nearly impossible to recode the data from one format to another more straightforward format. Respondent and correct sequence numbers to the ID with SAS having issues on the spaces from the original name to the duplicate name with exact sequence steps.

    Steps to create the variable SAS rename:

    1. Navigate to the below link.

    3. After successfully logging in, type the below code for creating the data set and Proc SQL.

    4. data First;

    5. input emp_id $ emp_name $ emp_dob $;

    6. datalines;

    7. 1234 Raman 10051989

    8. 5 Srew 1234521

    9. 6 rtw 10454

    10. ;


    12. proc sql;

    13. insert into First

    14. set emp_id=1234,

    15. emp_namename=’Raman’,

    16. emp_dob=10051989

    18. the title “Welcome To My Domain”;

    19. select emp_name format=$20.,

    20. emp_id format=$15.,

    21. emp_dob format=comma15.0

    22. from First;


    It helps create the dataset along with PROC SQL with the variable declaration.

    Then by using the below code to change the variable or column name like emp_name, it is changed to name by using the below code.


    data First; set First; rename emp_name = Name; run;


    The name is successfully changed and displayed on the output tab.

    SAS Rename Statement

    The SAS rename statement is specified with the new names for the required variables in the output console for SAS data sets; it is valid in the DATA step. The statement category is the CAS, denoted by the data and information, and it’s declared using the Declarative type. Rename parameters like old and new names with the specified arguments and enable the name change for one or more variables on the list that will combine the variables and variable lists. The new variable name is declared by the user end. Then, it will be executed and written into the output directory dataset by using the old variable names in programming statements for the current data step. Rename the values and apply them to all the output data sets.

    Generally, the Rename statement, which affects the datasets, is already opened in the output mode, which must continue to rename the old variable names in the programming statements for the current DATA step. After the output data is created, the SET statement’s new variable names rename the input data set variables. We can set and use the new names in the programming statements of the current data step of renaming the variables, which helps to write the datas in the file management task. Using the datasets procedure or accessing the variables through the SAS windowing interface for the method is more straightforward and does not require data step processing. Using the change statement, we can call the datasets procedure for renaming the variables for setting the same library in the SAS.

    Example of SAS Rename

    Given below is the example of SAS Rename:


    DATA Second; INPUT Rollno $ ID $ Name $; DATALINES; 001 9184321123 Siva 002 9212434 Raman 003 9351251 Sivaraman ; RUN; PROC SQL; CREATE TABLE bckup AS SELECT * FROM Second; QUIT; PROC PRINT vars = bckup; RUN;



    data Second; set Second; rename ID = MobileNumber; run;


    The above codes are the primary example for renaming the variables, columns, and data types.

    Here the Rename option uses the dataset option to pass the input dataset along with the variable SET statement and the output dataset.

    Create a table on the proc sql using the rename keyword; we can rename the old value to a new value.


    The SAS Rename is the type of option that can be used in the dataset option for both the input dataset, which passed the SET statement, and the output dataset. The Rename option will follow the keep and drop options using the existing variable name.

    Recommended Articles

    This is a guide to SAS Rename. Here we discuss the introduction, how to use variables SAS rename? And examples, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

    Biggest Cybersecurity Stories Of 2023

    Biggest Cybersecurity Stories of 2023 Cybersecurity Threats of 2023

    After peaking in 2023 Ransomware saw a downturn and was replaced by serious threats in 2023. Here we list various big frights of this year. These cybersecurity threats created a shift in the way world handles data, vulnerabilities, and cryptocurrency.

    Vulnerabilities that changed processor design

    This hardware flaw was called catastrophic as it affected all processors and brought a change in the way chips are designed.


    Who can forget about the most talked data scandal in March that rocked Facebook. At that time reports about how political data firm named Cambridge Analytica collected user’s personal data was floating. Data of 87 million users was compromised due to which Facebook was condemned and had to face scrutiny. This was just the tip of iceberg as after this other online service were also under scrutiny including Google.

    Another biggest cybersecurity threat that made news headlines was VPN Filter a router malware that infected 500,00 devices in more than 50 countries. This malware targets small offices and range of routers to steal personal credentials and knock off infected machine by making them unusable. Moreover, VPN Filter has the potential of cutting off Internet connectivity. Not only this VPN Filter has wide range of capabilities from spying on traffic to overwriting device’s firmware. Unlike other threats VPN Filter targets device using default credentials or those with known exploits.

    Another dangerous cybersecurity threat that appeared in 2023 was cryptocurrency mining. With the progress of digital currency in late 2023 hackers too became interested in it. As they got attracted to the mantra get-rich-quickly with digital currency. Malware actors tried to develop new ways to mine cryptocurrency for which they even abused Internet of things, used malicious add-ons and other things. But the only way that turned out fruitful was crypto-mining. This means threat actors used CPU power to mine cryptocurrency especially Monero for their financial gain.

    Besides these direct threats there were other indirect threats that were seen in 2023. This consisted of data breaches, introduction of GDPR in Europe that forced companies to change their privacy policy. If they were found handling users data incorrectly they had to bear a fine of millions in Euros or 2% – 4% of their annual turnover. Other prominent cybersecurity risk contained shutting down of Google Plus due to security flaws that affected 52 million users, unpredicted Chinese visitors at Marriott hotel chain this means Chinese hackers accessed information of up to 500 million guests including their phone number, passport number, email address and other personal data. This was said to be Chinese espionage operation.

    Also Read: Why Do Cyber Criminals Want To Hack Your Phone?

    This was just a glimpse of what 2023 had for us but looking at this we can surely say 2023 is not going to be easy. There’s much in the Pandora’s box for us. With the beginning of 2023 an increase in cyberwar arms race is expected. Traditional Trojans, Worms will remain a threat along with the new emerging ones that will penetrate software and lead to more dangerous attacks. Furthermore, we can see live hacking, use of AI by attackers and much more that still can’t be predicted.

    In next article we will talk about cybersecurity risk of 2023.

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