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Tense communicates an event’s location in time. The different tenses are identified by their associated verb forms. There are three main verb tenses: past, present, and future.

In English, each of these tenses can take four main aspects: simple, perfect, continuous (also known as progressive), and perfect continuous. The perfect aspect is formed using the verb to have, while the continuous aspect is formed using the verb to be.

In academic writing, the most commonly used tenses are the present simple, the past simple, and the present perfect.

Tenses and their functions

The table below gives an overview of some of the basic functions of tenses and aspects. Tenses locate an event in time, while aspects communicate durations and relationships between events that happen at different times.

Tense Function Example

Present simple used for facts, generalizations, and truths that are not affected by the passage of time “She writes a lot of papers for her classes.”

Past simple used for events completed in the past “She wrote the papers for all of her classes last month.”

Future simple used for events to be completed in the future “She will write papers for her classes next semester.”

Present perfect used to describe events that began in the past and are expected to continue, or to emphasize the relevance of past events to the present moment “She has written papers for most of her classes, but she still has some papers left to write.”

Past perfect used to describe events that happened prior to other events in the past “She had written several papers for her classes before she switched universities.”

Future perfect used to describe events that will be completed between now and a specific point in the future “She will have written many papers for her classes by the end of the semester.”

Present continuous used to describe currently ongoing (usually temporary) actions “She is writing a paper for her class.”

Past continuous used to describe ongoing past events, often in relation to the occurrence of another event “She was writing a paper for her class when her pencil broke.”

Future continuous used to describe future events that are expected to continue over a period of time “She will be writing a lot of papers for her classes next year.”

Present perfect continuous used to describe events that started in the past and continue into the present or were recently completed, emphasizing their relevance to the present moment “She has been writing a paper all night, and now she needs to get some sleep.”

Past perfect continuous used to describe events that began, continued, and ended in the past, emphasizing their relevance to a past moment “She had been writing a paper all night, and she needed to get some sleep.”

Future perfect continuous used to describe events that will continue up until a point in the future, emphasizing their expected duration “She will have been writing this paper for three months when she hands it in.”

It can be difficult to pick the right verb tenses and use them consistently. If you struggle with verb tenses in your thesis or dissertation, you could consider using a thesis proofreading service.

When to use the present simple

The present simple is the most commonly used tense in academic writing, so if in doubt, this should be your default choice of tense. There are two main situations where you always need to use the present tense.

Describing facts, generalizations, and explanations

Facts that are always true do not need to be located in a specific time, so they are stated in the present simple. You might state these types of facts when giving background information in your introduction.

The Eiffel tower is in Paris.

Light travels faster than sound.

Similarly, theories and generalizations based on facts are expressed in the present simple.

Average income differs by race and gender.

Older people express less concern about the environment than younger people.

Explanations of terms, theories, and ideas should also be written in the present simple.

Photosynthesis refers to the process by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy.

According to Piketty (2013), inequality grows over time in capitalist economies.

Describing the content of a text

Things that happen within the space of a text should be treated similarly to facts and generalizations.

This applies to fictional narratives in books, films, plays, etc. Use the present simple to describe the events or actions that are your main focus; other tenses can be used to mark different times within the text itself.

In the first novel, Harry learns he is a wizard and travels to Hogwarts for the first time, finally escaping the constraints of the family that raised him.

The events in the first part of the sentence are the writer’s main focus, so they are described in the present tense. The second part uses the past tense to add extra information about something that happened prior to those events within the book.

When discussing and analyzing nonfiction, similarly, use the present simple to describe what the author does within the pages of the text (argues, explains, demonstrates, etc).

In The History of Sexuality, Foucault asserts that sexual identity is a modern invention.

Paglia (1993) critiques Foucault’s theory.

This rule also applies when you are describing what you do in your own text. When summarizing the research in your abstract, describing your objectives, or giving an overview of the dissertation structure in your introduction, the present simple is the best choice of tense.

This research aims to synthesize the two theories.

Chapter 3 explains the methodology and discusses ethical issues.

The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

When to use the past simple

The past simple should be used to describe completed actions and events, including steps in the research process and historical background information.

Reporting research steps

Whether you are referring to your own research or someone else’s, use the past simple to report specific steps in the research process that have been completed.

Olden (2023) recruited 17 participants for the study.

We transcribed and coded the interviews before analyzing the results.

The past simple is also the most appropriate choice for reporting the results of your research.

All of the focus group participants agreed that the new version was an improvement.

We found a positive correlation between the variables, but it was not as strong as we hypothesized.

Describing historical events

Background information about events that took place in the past should also be described in the past simple tense.

James Joyce pioneered the modernist use of stream of consciousness.

When to use the present perfect

The present perfect is used mainly to describe past research that took place over an unspecified time period. You can also use it to create a connection between the findings of past research and your own work.

Summarizing previous work

When summarizing a whole body of research or describing the history of an ongoing debate, use the present perfect.

Many researchers have investigated the effects of poverty on health.

Studies have shown a link between cancer and red meat consumption.

Identity politics has been a topic of heated debate since the 1960s.

The problem of free will has vexed philosophers for centuries.

Similarly, when mentioning research that took place over an unspecified time period in the past (as opposed to a specific step or outcome of that research), use the present perfect instead of the past tense.

Green et al. have conducted extensive research on the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction.

Emphasizing the present relevance of previous work

When describing the outcomes of past research with verbs like find, discover or demonstrate, you can use either the past simple or the present perfect.

The present perfect is a good choice to emphasize the continuing relevance of a piece of research and its consequences for your own work. It implies that the current research will build on, follow from, or respond to what previous researchers have done.

Smith (2023) has found that younger drivers are involved in more traffic accidents than older drivers, but more research is required to make effective policy recommendations.

As Monbiot (2013) has shown, ecological change is closely linked to social and political processes.

Note, however, that the facts and generalizations that emerge from past research are reported in the present simple.

When to use other tenses

While the above are the most commonly used tenses in academic writing, there are many cases where you’ll use other tenses to make distinctions between times.

Future simple

The future simple is used for making predictions or stating intentions. You can use it in a research proposal to describe what you intend to do.

It is also sometimes used for making predictions and stating hypotheses. Take care, though, to avoid making statements about the future that imply a high level of certainty. It’s often a better choice to use other verbs like expect, predict, and assume to make more cautious statements.

There will be a strong positive correlation.

We expect

 to find a strong positive correlation.

H1 predicts

a strong positive correlation.

Similarly, when discussing the future implications of your research, rather than making statements with will, try to use other verbs or modal verbs that imply possibility (can, could, may, might).

These findings will influence future approaches to the topic.

These findings could influence future approaches to the topic.

Present, past, and future continuous

The continuous aspect is not commonly used in academic writing. It tends to convey an informal tone, and in most cases, the present simple or present perfect is a better choice.

Some scholars are suggesting that mainstream economic paradigms are no longer adequate.

Some scholars suggest 

that mainstream economic paradigms are no longer adequate.

Some scholars have suggested 

that mainstream economic paradigms are no longer adequate.

However, in certain types of academic writing, such as literary and historical studies, the continuous aspect might be used in narrative descriptions or accounts of past events. It is often useful for positioning events in relation to one another.

While Harry is traveling to Hogwarts for the first time, he meets many of the characters who will become central to the narrative.

The country was still recovering from the recession when Donald Trump was elected.

Past perfect

Similarly, the past perfect is not commonly used, except in disciplines that require making fine distinctions between different points in the past or different points in a narrative’s plot.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Bryson, S. Retrieved July 14, 2023,

Cite this article


Aarts, B. (2011). Oxford modern English grammar. Oxford University Press.

Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2023). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Show all sources (3)

Garner, B. A. (2023). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

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Combining Academic Rigor And Student Self

Balancing rigorous academic study with joy in learning, particularly when it comes to project-based learning, may seem impossible. However, in my ninth-grade English class, we manage to do just that.

Teachers often define academic rigor in English as the study of challenging works of literature accompanied by in-depth literary analysis in writing. But what about projects that allow students to delve into who they are and what they are passionate about? Is there space for these projects in academic classrooms? Can we ensure that students learn concrete skills and are challenged academically while also providing them with opportunities for self-discovery and joy?

The Muse Project

At Pacific Ridge School, where I’ve taught for the past four years, all ninth-grade students complete the Muse Project in English class. Through this project, students explore what myth is and how it connects to identity. We begin by looking at various definitions of myths, including the stories people have told to explain natural phenomena (for instance, Greek and Norse mythology), widely held untrue beliefs, and exaggerated and idealized truths.

Next we turn to our central text, Celeste Ng’s Everything I Never Told You. Previously, we used Homer’s The Odyssey, which may seem like a more natural fit given that it is, itself, a myth. While myth may not be the most obvious theme in Ng’s novel, by digging deeper, students find it is central to the Lee family’s story as they consider the myths the characters have about themselves, the myths other people have about them, and the myths people more generally have about different facets of identity, including race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation.

For instance, through James, a Chinese American history professor who specializes in American cowboys, students contend with the notion of what it means to be American, to look American, and to be viewed as qualified to teach about America. Through Marilyn, a stay-at-home wife and mother who once dreamed of becoming a doctor, students consider gender-based expectations that, for centuries, excluded women from many spaces, particularly STEM fields.

While I have found that Ng’s novel pairs beautifully with the Muse Project, any number of texts can work, so long as they provide students with the opportunity to consider the myths we as a society have about different identities.

Using this analysis of Ng’s novel as a starting point, we launch into the two-month Muse Project, which asks students to consider the role of myth in their own lives. Students subsequently create an original myth about themselves and bring this to life through an artistic creation of their own design. As students brainstorm ideas for their projects, they consider their own identities, including who they are and who they want to be in our school community. Through their projects, students seek to answer this essential question: Who am I? By answering this question, students are able to share pieces of themselves with our school community, all while having fun, developing their creativity, learning new skills, leaning into discomfort, and taking risks.

I have seen weather balloons, laser-cut planes, stunningly shot music videos, larger-than-life fantasy maps, and digital art made from math equations. Students are encouraged to utilize various teachers, resources, and technology both on and off campus, and every year, they step out of their comfort zones to try new things and create unbelievable works of art. While the projects are impressive, what is most amazing is seeing students share their passions, interests, and who they are at the MUSEum Showcase, an annual event that celebrates their work.

Students also do a significant amount of writing as part of the Muse Project. In a literary analysis assignment, students examine a specific myth about the identities of one of the characters in Everything I Never Told You. Additionally, in a personal statement, they reflect on the myth they created about themselves, how the medium they chose for their artistic creation serves as a form of mythmaking, and the connection between their work and Ng’s text. In this way, the Muse Project provides a blending of academic rigor and joy in learning, providing students with opportunities to hone their analytical, reflective, and personal narrative writing skills while also exploring their artistry and creativity.

Students Need Moments of Joy

During the 2023–21 school year, in the midst of the pandemic and hybrid learning, one of my administrators suggested cutting the Muse Project so we could focus on more academic work. I understood that there was pressure for teachers to mitigate potential learning loss, but I remained adamant that we keep the project—it’s an immense source of joy for students, and I didn’t want to give up a project that allowed them to explore who they are and the limits of their imaginations in the pursuit of purely academic work.

Ultimately, we kept the Muse Project, and seeing what students created absolutely blew me away. Despite the restrictions and obstacles they faced, including fewer resources and limited access to technology and help on campus, students rose to the challenge, using materials and guidance they could get at home to create artistic projects that left our community in awe.

As an English teacher, of course I want my students to learn how to write effectively and persuasively, to grow confident in discussing and analyzing literature, and to master grammatical concepts. But I also want them to cultivate their interests, explore aspects of their identities, and learn that they can achieve greatness even when faced with immense challenges, all while finding joy and having fun.

Writely Ai Review: Ai Writing App

If you’re looking for a no-nonsense and dead simple way to create better content for your business or at work, look no further than this Writely AI review.

There’s tons of AI writing tools out there, so we took a look at what makes Writely AI stand out.

Not to be confused with Writerly AI, Writely AI is a web-based platform that uses AI to help you beat writer’s block.

In this review, we will look at some of the features, benefits, and drawbacks of Writely AI, and help you decide if it is right for you.

Writely AI



Writely AI is an online tool that uses natural language generation to help you produce content for a variety of purposes.

Writely AI start page

For example, you can use Writely AI to write blog posts, social media captions, product descriptions, landing pages, headlines, and the list goes on and on.

Because the app is connected to a GPT API, it is essentially a version of ChatGPT with a cleaner interface and the ability to save projects in a more comprehensive manner.

Additionally, you can leverage Writely AI to generate ideas, outlines, summaries, and keywords for your content.

When it comes to things like fiction writing or drafting business emails, a simple interface goes a long way.

We have found that many of the popular and expensive AI writing tools on the market are often riddled with unnecessary features and crowded workspaces.

Writely AI uses OpenAI’s GPT API to generate relevant text based on your input.

The tool works by asking for an initial sentence and then the app provides a recommended completion.

Writely AI text generation example

The user interface is super clean and the minimalist writing space offers three simple commands to finetune your text.

You’re probably used to generative AI tools spitting out enormous blocks of text, and this feature is a great way to cut back on wordiness.

Writely AI functions

Also, the rephrase feature is great for tweaking small parts of a paragraph or sentence to suit your needs.

A nice additional option is the ability to activate team mode.

This enables workspaces where multiple users can collaborate on the same writing project, so you’re not the only one staring at a wall of text.

Writely AI offers a very limited free trial that only allows you to run the tool three times.

We feel this isn’t the best way to get a feel for a new tool. But you can always create a couple of trial accounts to sample the app before investing any money.

The good news is that Writely AI is on the more affordable side compared to most AI writing tools.

Pricing for membership is $29/mo for the monthly plan or $25/mo for the annual plan.

Writely AI pricing

Once you sign up for a trial or paid account, you can immediately access the dashboard where you can create new projects or edit existing ones.

Writely AI is great for users who want to better organize their AI-generated content. 

The tool can certainly create content that is on par with ChatGPT and more expensive services like Jasper. 

However, it is not a magic bullet.

You still need to have a clear goal, strategy, and vision for your content.

And you must also review and edit any generated content to ensure it is not plagiarized and meets your quality standard.

If you’re interested in trying out Writely AI, you can check out their free trial.

5 Tips For Writing Your Self

4. Track your accomplishments

Providing hard data to show what you’ve done throughout the year is highly beneficial. Employees and managers may roughly understand how you have performed but having concrete numbers to back up any assertion strengthens the validity of your self-assessment.

“If employees … spend 10 seconds a day writing down their one biggest accomplishment, success, metric hit, feedback received for that day, they’d have 10 times more data than they’d ever need for self-assessment,” said Mike Mannon, president of WD Communications.

Hank Yuloff, the owner of Yuloff Creative Marketing Solutions, said continuous evaluation of your performance can make it much easier to ground your self-assessment in facts and measurable data.

“We teach our clients to keep a list of daily and weekly accomplishments so that when it is time for the self-assessment, there is very little guesswork as to how valuable they are to the company,” Yuloff said.

5. Be professional

You should always be professional when writing self-assessments. This means not bashing the boss for poor leadership or criticizing co-workers for making your life more difficult. It also means not gushing over a co-worker or manager you like. Whether you are providing critical or positive feedback, professionalism is important.

Being professional means giving the appraisal its due attention, like any other important project that crosses your desk. Dominique Jones, chief people officer at BusPatrol, recommends treating your self-evaluation like a work of art that builds over time. She said you’ll be much happier with the result if you give yourself time to reflect and carefully support your self-assessment.

“Use examples to support your assertions and … make sure that you spell- and grammar-check your documents,” Jones wrote in a blog post. “These are all signs of how seriously you take the process and its importance to you.”

Self evaluation example statements

Keeping things simple and using short, declarative bullet points are key to writing an effective self-assessment. While the exact nature of your self-assessment might depend on your industry or your job description, this basic model can help guide you in writing a self-evaluation.


I am a dedicated employee who understands my role and responsibilities, as well as the larger mission of our business. I strive to both do my job and make this company successful.

I am a good communicator who stays on task and helps rally the team when cooperation is needed to meet a deadline or solve a problem.

I am a creative thinker who can develop novel solutions and improve conventional ways of doing things.


I am somewhat disorganized, which often impacts my productivity. I have learned how to manage my time better and intentionally direct my efforts. While it remains a challenge, I have seen some progress and look forward to continually improving.

Sometimes, I do not ask for help when I could benefit from assistance. I am always willing to help my teammates, and I know they feel the same way, so I will try to be more vocal about when I need a helping hand moving forward.

Core values

I believe in teamwork and cooperation to overcome any obstacle.

I value respect and transparency between employees and managers.

I value friendship and building warm relationships within the workplace.

I strive to be a welcoming and helpful presence to my co-workers.


I never missed a deadline in the past year and often submitted my work early.

I’ve gone beyond my job description to ensure our team operates optimally, staying late and helping others whenever it could contribute to our collective goal.

I created and delivered a presentation, stepping outside my comfort zone to do so. It was well received and bolstered my confidence regarding public speaking.


I want to continue developing my presentation and public speaking skills. As a weakness that I listed on previous self-assessments, it is gratifying to see that I have made some progress on this skill set, and I would like to double down on the growth.

I aspire to enter a managerial role. I enjoy working closely with my teammates and considering the bigger picture, and I often efficiently help direct resources. I could see myself as a manager who helps facilitate teamwork and encourages workers to do their best.


My manager is pleasant and transparent, and they always set clear expectations. I never have to guess where I stand. I appreciate the openness and direct communication.

I want to be more involved in decision-making at the team level. I believe each team member has unique insights that supervisors cannot fully understand since their perspective is different. I believe involving staff members in strategic planning could greatly improve results.

Did You Know?

You should keep your self-assessment short and simple by using bullet points.

Elephas App: An Ai Writing Assistant For Mac

Elephas AI writing assistant offers almost everyone one can wish for a writing assistant. While there are some cons, the features and pros easily outweigh them, making it a great choice for writers.


Works with almost every app

Copy to clipboard function 

Shortcuts integration

Minimal UI


Installation process could be improved

Rating: 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌜

Price: Monthly subscription starts at $4.99

Try free trial

AI has finally taken over the field of writing. Yes, that happened! Enter Elephas, a personal AI writing assistant for Mac. In this detailed review, I have tried to discern whether this app can be your assistant the next time you want to write creatively.

What is Elephas?

AI tools can inspire writers to improve their copywriting and content writing. Elephas is an AI writing assistant tool that helps you with all your content needs. It assists in writing emails, blogs, articles, or even for marketing copies.

Features offered by the Elephas app

To save hours on tedious writing tasks, the Elephas smart AI assistant offers a lot of features:

Rewrite: Modify the writing style of the sentence as per your need. You can choose from professional, friendly, Zinsser, Viral, or persuasive modes.

Continue writing: Having writer’s block? Then the Continue Writer is what you need. It will help to take the content ahead, depending on what you have written so far.

Fix grammar: Check if the sentence is grammatically correct and rewrite accordingly.

Smart Write: Elephas’ Smart Write feature can be utilized to compose emails. If you are confused about what to write, this option can help you with that.

Preset: Don’t know what format should be followed for an email or any other form of writing? Here’s the Preset option for you. You can use this along with Smart Write to get your desired content.

Content: It is mainly helpful for those who want to create a blog, email, summarise, reply to an email, or even make a counterargument.

Utils: This option contains all the important utility tools you need for writing.

Translate: This option exactly does what you imagine it to do. Translate the selected text to the language of your choice.

How to install Elephas writing assistant on your Mac?

How hard can installing an app on Mac be, right? I had the same thoughts until I tried installing the Elephas app on my Mac. The process was difficult, and I can claim it’s as tough as capturing an elephant from the forest (Just to be clear, I don’t promote this activity).

Once you get the app from Gumroad, you will get an email with a license key. All you have to do is enter that in the app, right? Wrong!

You are also required to get an OpenAI key. The tech expert in me didn’t know how! It’s because I didn’t read the instructions email or the dedicated help page linked with the installation of the app.

There is a dedicated support page from Elephas on how you can generate OpenAI keys to activate the personal writing assistant. However, I must say that despite the instructions, you are bound to be confused.

Thankfully, the bitterness is only limited to the installation process. Once the app is set up, you’ll be welcomed to a wonderful experience.

Use Elephas to improve your writing on Mac

Elephas brings many features to the table to improve the quality of your writing. Truth be told, Elephas surprised me when I started experiencing the app. Since explaining all of the features will take an eternity, I’ll tell you the simplest way of using the app.

While testing all of the app’s features, I tried it once on Twitter.

I typed a sentence, selected it, and chose the writing options available in the tool. Surprisingly, the result was great, and no one doubted that AI wrote it.

Would you rather know what the future holds or take life as it comes? 🤔 It’s a tough decision, but which would you choose?

— Anoop Varghese (@imbibingnoob) December 2, 2023

Besides creating viral content, you can create business emails, follow-up emails, or even counter emails. For those who want to write blogs, Elephas offers an option. I was surprised by how well it created a title outline and entire content from just the key information I provided.

Sure it is not supposed to replace the writers, as Elephas is a writing assistant where it can give you writing ideas on various topics.

My experience with the app

The implementation of AI reminds me of the time when computers were first introduced. Many were scared because they feared computers and machinery would take over their job. While that was true, it was done for the greater good.

As I write this review, I can sympathize with the feeling of those people who lost their jobs because of modern technology. The implementation of AI was inevitable, but I wasn’t expecting these tools to develop this fast and provide amazing results. Here are some of my major takeaways:

It provides so many features without taking up much of the real estate! I was pleasantly surprised by how much space the app takes compared to the other tools I have tested.

Elephas works with almost every app where you can type.

For places where it is not working, Elephas provides you with results in a dedicated page and an option to copy-paste it.

Considering the fact that a very small team has developed the app, the results are astonishing!

Reviewing this app makes me feel like I’m writing my eulogy. Yet, I must say that I’m happy with how things are going and looking forward to seeing more developments in this field.

Area of improvement

While the app experience has been great so far, some things can not be left unmentioned.

First of all, it’s the installation process. While part of it was my mistake of not getting deep into the ‘manual,’ it would have been better if there was a video process of installing Elephas on your Mac.


User interface


Features and facilities




Value for money


Despite having a simple UI, it still needs some refinements. I would appreciate it if Elephas could take some inspiration from the competitors; usually, a small toggle appears next to where we write to carry out grammar corrections.

But considering how enthusiastic the team is, I’m pretty sure all of these issues will be addressed in the upcoming updates, to which I’ll look forward.

Try free trial


Elephas AI writing assistant for Mac: Should you consider?

Elephas AI writing assistant for Mac: Should you consider?





The answer will be an easy yes. With the number of pros to go along with the features the app offers, the cons are easily outweighed.

The answer will be an easy yes. With the number of pros to go along with the features the app offers, the cons are easily outweighed.




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Anoop loves to find solutions for all your doubts on Tech. When he’s not on his quest, you can find him on Twitter talking about what’s in his mind.

Resume Writing Tips: Make Your Resume Stand Out

7. Think beyond your job duties.

Hiring managers don’t want to read a list of your job duties. They want concrete examples of your accomplishments in previous positions that show how you can make a difference in this new position.

Rangel said that specific merits are more engaging to read than just your experiences. For example, “I reduced operating expenses by 23% in six months” is far more interesting to an employer than “I have 30 years of sales experience.”

When deciding what information to keep or cut out of your resume, focus on striking abstract traits and qualifications in favor of concrete, quantifiable results.

“The best resumes highlight a job candidate’s actions and results,” said Bob Myhal, director of digital marketing at CBC Automotive Marketing. “Employers want employees who get things done and who take great joy and pride in what they do. Rather than a laundry list of your qualifications, your resume should reflect your accomplishments and enthusiasm for your career.”

You shouldn’t ignore your skills section either. Sade reminded job seekers to list any industry-relevant apps or programs they’re familiar with and to find ways to incorporate examples of their emotional intelligence (e.g., self-awareness, empathy) and soft skills (e.g., work ethic, reliability) into their job descriptions.

8. Use the right language to stand out.

Trite, lackluster descriptions of your job duties and accomplishments won’t do you any favors. Make sure you’re using strong action words, such as “achieved,” “designed,” “improved” and “established,” to describe your roles and projects, said Sade. This will make you sound confident while imparting vital information. But be cautious about depending on action verbs – make sure to include details about how you improved a process or achieved a goal.

“Words such as ‘professional,’ ‘results-driven’ and ‘detail-oriented’ provide very little helpful information,” Sade said. “It’s better to use actual job titles than these words.”

Did You Know?

You can use a combination of action words to highlight your experience and make your resume easier to read.

10. Check for errors.

Triple-check your own work, and then have someone else look over your resume to ensure it’s 100% clean. There is no room for sloppiness on your resume.

Spelling, grammar and punctuation: A hiring manager will likely automatically dismiss your application if they spot a typo or grammatical error. “Make sure it’s error-free and easy to read,” Obeid said. “HR reps equate typos and errors with laziness. Use good English – the written word has a huge impact on the employer.”

Formatting: “Review formatting very closely, including font, alignment and spacing,” Bissot said. “Related issues can often be perceived as a sign of lacking technical skills and/or attention to detail.”

Headings: Yao said that candidates often submit applications addressed to the wrong employer or outline experience that’s irrelevant to the role. “Receiving a resume that’s crafted and addressed to someone else – or worse, a competitor – can be a huge turnoff and will set a negative tone even if they do choose to continue reading your application.”

Skye Schooley, Sammi Caramela, Adryan Corcione and Nicole Fallon contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.

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