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What is Head in Git?

Sometimes, you see the Git documentation referring to something called HEAD. For example, The branch should be completely integrated in HEAD. But what exactly is Git HEAD? In this article, we’ll get to know more about Git HEAD but before that let’s just summarize what Git is and what its used for. Git is a tool for distributed control not only used by product managers and developers but also data scientists to manage the source code development of the program and its history.

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HEAD Pointer in Git

Git maintains a variable for referencing, called HEAD to the latest commit in the recent checkout branch. You can imagine HEAD as the “current committed branch”. And we can think of as a pointer, as the purpose of this variable is to point to or act as a reference to a particular commit in the repository. Say, we make a new commit in the repo then the pointer or HEAD is going to move or change its position to point to a new commit.

HEAD points to the starting point of the present branch in the repository at all times. It can be thought of as the last state or the last checked out point in a repository. In other words, the HEAD is a pointer to the next commits’ parent or where the next commit is going to happen as that’s where the repo left off.

A good analogy would be a record player and the playback and record keys on it as the HEAD. As the audio starts recording, the tape moves ahead moving past the head by recording onto it. Stop button stops the recording while still pointing to the point it last recorded and the point that record head stopped is where it will continue to record again when Record is pressed again. If we move around, the head pointer moves to different places, however, when Record is pressed again starts recording from the point the head was pointing to when Record was pressed.

In Git, you can use the command below to see what the HEAD pointer points.

cat .git/HEAD

It shows the contents of .git/HEAD like shown below

It is basically a symbolic reference to the latest committed branch that you checked out and effectively points to the commit at the beginning of the current branch.

Whenever we make a new commit like shown below, it gets added before the current HEAD which makes Git automatically points the HEAD to the new commit.

git diff HEAD..HEAD~3

More precisely, HEAD is a moving pointer that could refer to the current branch, or it couldn’t but it always refers to the “current commit”. It (current commit) is the commit “git commit” is build on top of, and are often compared against “git diff –cached” and “git status”.

git log @

Typing ‘HEAD’ is time taking, especially when there is a shortcut, ‘@’ instead. The symbol ‘@’ is chosen because it naturally follows the [email protected] syntax (e.g. [email protected]{u}), but other than that there’s no reference or operation, and when there isn’t any of those, ‘HEAD’ can be assumed in place of @.

1. Detached HEAD

It is plausible for HEAD to point to a specific change that has not been linked to a branch name yet. This is the situation which is called a detached HEAD and it happens when someone checks out something other than a (local) branch, say a specific commit, a remote branch, or a tag. Detached HEAD, therefore, can be used to checkout a commit that isn’t pointing to the starting point of any existing branch, or to create a brand new commit which isn’t necessarily referenced by a known branch.

Let’s take an example where we checkout commit b in one or the other way

git checkout master^^


git checkout v3.1

Note: that no matter whichever checkout command is used, HEAD will now refer to commit b. This status of b is called as detached HEAD state.

git checkout -b foo

First a new branch named foo is created, which is referred to commit f which in turn updates the HEAD to point to branch foo. This means that it will not be in a detached HEAD state any longer.

git branch foo

This creates a new branch named foo, that is referred to commit f, but the HEAD is left detached.

git tag foo

This too creates a new tag named foo, which is referred to commit f, but the HEAD is left detached.

Suppose, you changed to a position other than commit f, then the object name must be recovered first (typically done by using the git reflog command), and after that, a reference is created to it.

To find out the last two commits HEAD referred to, use either of the below commands:

git log -g -2 HEAD git reflog -2 HEAD 2. ORIG_HEAD

There is one more kind of HEAD that you need to know about. The commands “merge” or “pull” always left the original tip of the current branch in something called ORIG_HEAD. It can be used using the following commands:

git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD

Using this, reset hard brings the index file along with the working tree back to its original state, while resetting the tip of the branch to that commit, but it discards the local changes.

git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD

But what if you want to keep the local changes, in that you can use the above command to keep the local changes.n addition, merge always sets ‘.git/ORIG_HEAD’ to the original state of HEAD so a problematic merge can be removed by using ‘git reset ORIG_HEAD’. In addition to this, merge sets ‘.git/ORIG_HEAD’ to the original state of HEAD at all times so as to remove a problematic merge by using ‘git reset ORIG_HEAD’.

If you face any problem with multiple commits, ORIG_HEAD is set to the starting point of the current branch before applying any patches as an error in the commits can be more easily fixed this way.

Advantages of Git HEAD

It is used to point to the recently committed branch.

It can be used to make changes from the last visited point.

It can also be used to move to different points in history and work from there.

Keeps the repository & process clean and readable.


Git has many uses and is extensively used by developers, product managers, and data scientists. Its commands are very effective and can be very useful. HEAD is a reference to the last commit in the currently checked-out branch.

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Understanding The Concept Of Git Index

Introduction to Git Index

GIT is one of the most commonly used distributed version controller DVCS among the programmers because of its dynamic nature and vast tool availability to handle the versions. It is known to be the first-ever feature to be added to Git. Index as the name suggests, like any contents of a book, it also maintains the staged changes or we can say indexes the changes that are sent to stage using git add.

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In git DVCS we have the source code on the server which acts as a central repository but along with that, we have it as a local copy or we can call as a local repository on working machines. So even if there is a failure at the server level we can mirror back the local working copy to the server when it is restored. So basically when we work on a branch, commit our changes, it will send the changes to the local repo. We need to use PUSH to send the changes to the server repo. GIT Index is something that comes in between local repo and working directory and it is the one that decides what needs to be sent to the local repo and in fact, it decides what needs to be sent to the central repo.

Detailed Explanation of GIT Index

Please refer below pic to get a more detailed idea.

Here repository in the sense local repo or local copy. From the above pic below are the inferences:

when we start working on an existing file or create and add a new file and save them then git tracks them and mark them as untracked files. We can clearly see them in the below screenshot. I have totally four files in test_git_tools branch and if I give git status the I can see all the files have been modified state.

If you observe the above screenshot it presents us with two options as shown So, in fact, our git is suggesting that it had tracked the changes in the working directory but it is up to us whether we want to strongly track it by sending it to the staging area by using “git add -u” or discard the changes and leave the tracking by using “git checkout”.

Once we add the file to the staging area than when we apply to commit then the changes that are staged will only go to the local repo. Unstaged changes remain.

Once we have added the content to local repo then we can PUSH to submit the changes to server repo.

Above the sample screenshot which shows that there were two files that were indexed and they were committed. Remaining two files were tracked but unstaged so did not commit. But why do we require staging or indexing? Cant, we just directly send the unstaged changes to local repo?

Yes, we can bypass staging and directly commit our unstaged files to repo but doing like this will actually distort the purpose of a version control system. This may be feasible in small projects or enhancing projects but in a fresh project doing like this can cause cumbersome.

Indexing is one of the most critical stages in the development of a project. When we try to develop a project we basically prepare an algorithm on the coding module and prepare a draft code where we are uncertain about some aspects and needs further evaluation. Also, you may decide to add some extra features, or we may add certain optimizations, etc. In these cases, we don’t want to completely discard the thing we developed. By indexing the developed code we can always track the difference between staged file and unstaged same file and clearly get more ideas on different versions. Let us look at this in the below screenshots. From the above screenshot, we can see all the red marked files are untracked. I will add the file to staging which turns the color indicator to green as shown below.

Now i will add one movie name to the staged file forien_movie_list file and perform git status. It looks like as below:

we can see that we have twp versions of the file orien_movie_list one indexed and other untacked. We have a very useful indexing tool called difftool with which we can track the changes to both versions of the file by configuring it with your git.

Now lets the programmers decided that he does not want to keep the new change and doesn’t want it to be staged. Then instead of git add command he can use checkout to discard the unstaged change.

You can clearly see from above the red modified file has been discarded. This you can validate by looking at the content of the file as well.

You can see from above that the files we indexed (in green) have been added again to the unstaged area. Here I have used HEAD with reset the command which says that the latest content that was added to the staging area to be reset (here I have used four files earlier to index, so they were unchanged (red)).

There is also an ls-files option available with git which will list the files in the index. In index basically, full tree and blob information will be available. So when you add something to the stage then it starts closely monitoring that file. We can see this with –debug command along with ls-files. In the below screenshot, we can see that we have two files in the staging area and two files as unstaged. Now when I gave git ls-files -s it will give all the available blob (four files) inside the tree as shown below. But we have added only two files to the staging area and two can use –debug to validate this.

we can see from the below screenshot which files have been staged by the value of ctime,mtime, dev, etc.

Git Index is the most important area when we deal with Git DVCS. There are plenty of commands and tools available of which I have used some in this article to play with indexing and for a serious developer this nothing short of the boom.

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What Is Product Roadmap In Agile?

A product roadmap is critical for interacting with how simple efforts coincide with future objectives. Knowing the significance of a roadmap and how and where to build an excellent one is vital for trying to keep everybody in your team on track.

Before we get into the “why” of the agile product roadmap, let’s start with the “what.”

What is Product Roadmap in Agile?

A product roadmap is a strategy that describes how well a product will continue to develop. Product managers use roadmaps to highlight new product features in the future and when additional features will be published.

When agile development uses a roadmap, it offers critical circumstances for the team’s daily work while being responsive to developments in the marketplace. An individual product roadmap may be used by several agile teams.

Also, a product roadmap is a common source of data that details a product’s viewpoint, direction, preferences, and development over time. Also, this is a strategic plan that lines up the company around the product’s or project’s both immediate and future objectives and how they’ll be met. Let’s discuss how it is different from the traditional product roadmap.

Traditional Product Roadmap VS Agile Product Roadmap −

An agile product roadmap resembles a traditional product roadmap in that it is normally arranged by topics, key targets and goals, and additional features.

A traditional product roadmap is a deterministic, serial graphical portrayal that outlines brief input data that would lead to a long-term outcome and interacts with each task step.

An Agile product roadmap, on the other hand, is not stationary, but rather offers an adaptive way to monitor tasks and interact regarding strategic plans, instead of the practical steps or outcomes involved with the strategy.

For Whom are Roadmaps Intended?

Roadmaps are available in a variety of styles and deliver to a wide range of Customers. There are mainly two types of roadmaps used for product development.

One is an internal roadmap, and another is an external roadmap, and these are specially designed for various teams like development teams, sales teams, etc.

Internal Roadmap

Development Team − It depends on how your team wants to work, such roadmaps could be developed in a variety of ways. The most common variations include emphasizing consumer satisfaction as well as goal product releases and deadlines. Because many software developers use agile techniques, these roadmaps reflect changes made by training runs and depict specific work tasks and trouble spots on a timetable.

Executive Team − These internal strategies focus on how good teamwork contributes to overall organization objectives and performance. These are frequently organized by period or month to illustrate progress towards these achievements over time, and they normally contain very little information concerning comprehensive development articles and activities.

External Roadmap

Before consumers can arrive, the external roadmap must pique their interest. Keep in mind that they’re eye-catching and simple to grasp. Those who should offer a larger, simplified vision of innovative features and emphasize trouble spots to pique consumers’ desire to participate in the product’s future path.

How to Build an Agile Product Roadmap?

Clarify your point of view before beginning to build an Agile product roadmap with a long-term view of your project. What worth would be given to clients, and what are the primary goals, targets, and important goals for the project? Set project key performance indicators by identifying key performance measures and achievements.

If it’s viable, customize your Agile product roadmap to a target market. The roadmap you introduce to the development team would most probably need further details compared to the one you introduce to other relevant parties who simply want to grasp the project’s greater technique, targets, and overall timelines.


From the above discussion, you have some clear ideas about the product roadmap in agile product development. It’s a straightforward and essential aspect of the Agile framework. Make accurate, up-to-date, and productive guidelines that convey your product strategy to your team as well as customers.

What Is Google Safe Browsing In Chrome?

Google Safe Browsing is a service that allows developers and browsers to check if a URL contains malware or phishing content. The service relies on a list of URLs that are regularly updated based on data collected from users.

The list of browsers that rely on the Google Safe Browsing service includes Chrome, Safari, Vivaldi, Firefox, and GNOME Web. As you can see, Google Chrome is not the only browser using the service.

How Does Google Safe Browsing Work?

To use Safe Browsing, Chrome saves a series of mandatory cookies on your machine. Every time you visit a website, Save Browsing compares that URL against the list of URLs from its database. If any matches are found, you’ll get an alert. The type of alert you receive depends on the threat detected: malware, potentially unsafe scripts, phishing scripts, and other threats.

How to Enable Safe Browsing in Chrome

On Android and iOS

Launch Chrome and tap More (the three dots).

Then select Settings → Privacy and security.

Tap Safe Browsing and enable the option.


Then go to Settings.

Select Privacy and security, and then Security.

After that, select the Safe Browsing protection level you want to use.

Refresh the browser to apply the changes.

There are three protection levels available. Each level brings its own specific security features. Of course, if you don’t want to take any risks, enable Enhanced Protection.

Safe Browsing Enhanced Protection

This level offers proactive protection against malicious websites. In other words, Chrome will nip threats in the bud. Or as Google says:

Predicts and warns you about dangerous events before they happen.

You’ll receive alerts about potentially unsafe webpages, download files, and extensions. You’ll also get alerts about password breaches.

If you enable this option, keep in mind that Chrome will send your browsing data to Google. As Google explains:

If you want to learn more about Enhanced Safe Browsing Protection in Chrome, check out this blog post from Google.

Safe Browsing Standard Protection

URLs are analyzed and compared against the most recent copy of the Safe Browsing list stored locally on your system. So, there’s no direct connection to Safe Browsing’s servers for now. But if a website is trying to inject malware into your computer or steal your credentials, Chrome will send that URL to Safe Browsing’s servers.

You can enable a series of additional options, including alerts about password breaches.

No Protection

By checking this option, you basically turn off Safe Browsing. Your computer won’t be protected against malicious websites. And Chrome won’t alert you about any cyber-threats.

We don’t recommend disabling Safe Browsing. If you’re worried about your browsing data being sent to Google, you can enable Standard Protection.

Safe Browsing Lookup API

Google also maintains the Safe Browsing Lookup API. Developers can use this security protocol to check URLs against Google’s lists of unsafe webpages. If an URL has been flagged as a phishing and deceptive website or as a webpage hosting malware, the API will return an Unsafe result.

Many users expressed their privacy concerns in regards to the Lookup API. This is because the protocol does not hash the URLs to be analyzed. As a result, the server knows what URLs API users have analyzed.

Safe Browsing Update API

Furthermore, when Chrome sends a verification request to Google, it sends only the first 32 bits of an SHA-256 hash of that URL. Google cannot determine the complete URL based only on a partial URL fingerprint.

If you want to learn more about the Safe Browsing API, check out this support page from Google Developers.

⇒ Fun Facts:

Did you know that Google updates the Safe Browsing list every 30 minutes?

Google Safe Browsing protects over four billion devices every single day. Thanks, Google!

What Is A Backlink In Digital Marketing?

Backlinks are crucial for search engine optimization (SEO) since browsers utilize them to determine the validity and significance of a webpage. Whenever one webpage connects to the other, it is effectively acknowledging the value and accuracy of the material on the web address.

Remember that not every one of the backlinks is considered equal. Overall, backlinks from authoritative websites are worth far beyond links from fraudulent or poor websites. As an illustration of a web page strategy, connections to external resources are useful. As well as being applied to an image, backlinks may be included as well in the format of anchor text or webpage URLs.

In order to be valuable to consumers and well-received by web pages, backlinks should also be applicable to the information on the website to which they are connected.

Working of Backlinks

Search engines utilize backlinks to evaluate a webpage’s popularity and significance, making them a crucial component of search engine optimization (SEO).

By linking to the next website, one website is effectively approving the accuracy and value of the material on the connected website. Backlinks are seen by search engines as a “Vote of trust” in the website that is being linked to. A web page is more probable to appear first on search engine results pages (SERPs) for appropriate web searches if it has a greater number of high-quality and applicable backlinks.

It’s not like all backlinks are built the same way, it is crucial to remember this. In theory, backlinks from authoritative websites seem to be more beneficial than those from fraudulent or poor domains. In order to benefit consumers and be well-received by search engines, backlinks should also be applicable to the information on the connected website.

Backlinks function by sending a message to search results about the desirability and significance of a website or blog, which could also assist to raise the webpage exposure and search engine ranks.

Why High Search Engine Rankings Are Crucial in Digital Marketing?

Reliability and honesty − Consumers tend to place greater faith in web pages that appear higher in search engine results than it does in the ones that don’t. Having your web page appear at the top of search results may assist with positioning it as a reliable and knowledgeable reference in your sector.

Benefit in the marketplace − If a company webpage is ranked higher than those of your competition in search engine results, you may have an edge. This can assist you to draw in more clients and boost your revenue just because more consumers will view your webpage before they do so for your competition.

In general, obtaining excellent search engine results may assist you in achieving your company objectives, irrespective of whether they involve boosting sales, customer acquisition, or enhancing brand recognition.

What Advantages Do Backlinks Offer?

Better search engine index ranks − Backlinks play a big part in how your business is ranked by search engines. The greater backlinks your business has, the higher it will rank in the search engine outcomes pages since search engines view backlinks as search engine results.

Enhanced number of visitors − Backlinks from trusted websites can promote page views. Your business may receive more visits if a popular website connects to it.

More reputation and authority − Backlinks from reputable sources may boost the reputation and authority of your page in your business or specialty. Search engines and people are informed that your page is a trustworthy resource for data when they see links to it from domains with high authority.

Improved crawling − Backlinks can make it easier for search engines to identify and index the pages located on your website. Links from other websites to your domain can direct search engine crawlers to different pages and information on your domain.

Enhanced brand recognition − Backlinks may also aid in enhancing the brand of your page or company. Even if other web pages link to your website, this could promote recognition of your company and boost interest in your products or offerings.

Is It Considered a Backlink if We Connect to Another Page on a Webpage?

It is incorrect to assume that connecting to a different page within your own webpage counts as a backlink. Links pointing to your page from other web pages are referred to as backlinks.

Nevertheless, internal links are those that go to a webpage on your own domain. Internal links are essential for website navigation and can aid search terms in analyzing the layout and information of your webpage.

Internal links can assist search engines to identify the significance and significance of various sections of your website, even though they aren’t counted as backlinks. Visitors can traverse your webpage and locate the data they need more quickly and simply with the assistance of internal links.

From Where Do We Get Backlink?

You may obtain backlinks to your webpage in a number of ways −

Provide rich sources − One of the greatest strategies to get backlinks is to produce useful, educational, and interesting material. Other web pages are far more likely to connect to the information you create that benefits your intended audience.

Guest publishing − You may get in touch with other blogs in a similar area of expertise and propose to produce a blog article for them. In return, you can add a backlink to your webpage either in the text itself or in the contributor profile.

Broken link − Generating broken links involves identifying broken links on some of the other web pages and offering to rebuild those with connections that connect them to yours.

Establish connections − Connecting with other online marketers and influential people in your segment can help you gain backlinks. Connect out to each other and suggest working together on research work or otherwise contributing.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that obtaining high-quality backlinks requires considerable time and effort which makes it no simple task. The long-term SEO of your webpage might be harmed by fraudulent back linking techniques, thus it’s crucial to prioritize the importance of quality over quantity.

What Is Test Scenario In Software Testing (Examples)

What is a Test Scenario?

A Test Scenario is defined as any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility. As a tester, you should put yourself in the end user’s shoes and figure out the real-world scenarios and use cases of the Application Under Test.

Scenario Testing

Scenario Testing in software testing is a method in which actual scenarios are used for testing the software application instead of test cases. The purpose of scenario testing is to test end to end scenarios for a specific complex problem of the software. Scenarios help in an easier way to test and evaluate end to end complicated problems.

Let’s study this with the help of the video below –

Why create Test Scenarios?

Test Scenarios are created for the following reasons,

Creating Test Scenarios ensures complete Test Coverage

Test Scenarios can be approved by various stakeholders like Business Analyst, Developers, Customers to ensure the Application Under Test is thoroughly tested. It ensures that the software is working for the most common use cases.

They serve as a quick tool to determine the testing work effort and accordingly create a proposal for the client or organize the workforce.

They help determine the most important end-to-end transactions or the real use of the software applications.

For studying the end-to-end functioning of the program, Test Scenario is critical.

When not create Test Scenario?

Test Scenarios may not be created when

The Application Under Test is complicated, unstable and there is a time crunch in the project.

Projects that follow Agile Methodology like Scrum, Kanban may not create Test Scenarios.

Test Scenario may not be created for a new bug fix or Regression Testing. In such cases, Test Scenarios must be already heavily documented in the previous test cycles. This is especially true for Maintenance projects.

How to Write Test Scenarios

As a tester, you can follow these five steps to create Test Scenarios-

Step 1: Read the Requirement Documents like BRS, SRS, FRS, of the System Under Test (SUT).  You could also refer uses cases, books, manuals, etc. of the application to be tested.

Step 2: For each requirement, figure out possible users actions and objectives. Determine the technical aspects of the requirement. Ascertain possible scenarios of system abuse and evaluate users with hacker’s mindset.

Step 3: After reading the Requirements Document and doing your due Analysis, list out different test scenarios that verify each feature of the software.

Step 4: Once you have listed all possible Test Scenarios, a Traceability Matrix is created to verify that each & every requirement has a corresponding Test Scenario

Step 5: The scenarios created are reviewed by your supervisor. Later, they are also reviewed by other Stakeholders in the project.

Tips to Create Test Scenarios

Each Test Scenario should be tied to a minimum of one Requirement or User Story as per the Project Methodology.

Before creating a Test Scenario that verifies multiple Requirements at once, ensure you have a Test Scenario that checks that requirement in isolation.

Avoid creating overly complicated Test Scenarios spanning multiple Requirements.

The number of scenarios may be large, and it is expensive to run them all. Based on customer priorities only run selected Test Scenarios

Example 1: Test Scenario for eCommerce Application

For an eCommerce Application, a few test scenarios would be

Test Scenario 1: Check the Login Functionality

In order to help you understand the difference Test Scenario and Test Cases, specific test cases for this Test Scenario would be

Check system behavior when valid email id and password is entered.

Check system behavior when invalid email id and valid password is entered.

Check system behavior when valid email id and invalid password is entered.

Check system behavior when invalid email id and invalid password is entered.

Check system behavior when email id and password are left blank and Sign in entered.

Check Forgot your password is working as expected

Check system behavior when valid/invalid phone number and password is entered.

Check system behavior when “Keep me signed” is checked

Test Scenario 2: Check the Search Functionality

Check the Search Functionality

Test Scenario 3: Check the Product Description Page

Test Scenario 4: Check the Payments Functionality

Test Scenario 5: Check the Order History

Apart from these 5 scenarios here is the list of all other scenarios

Check Home Page behavior for returning customers

Check Category/Product Pages

Check Customer Service/Contact Pages

Check Daily Deals pages

Example 2:  Test Scenarios for a Banking Site

Test Scenario 1: Check the Login and Authentication Functionality

Test Scenario 2: Check Money Transfer can be done

Test Scenario 3: Check Account Statement can be viewed

Test Scenario 4: Check Fixed Deposit/Recurring Deposit can be created

And so on…

Test Scenario Template

Download Test Scenario Template Excel(.xlsx)

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