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Companies must survive and thrive in the “red ocean” market. The red ocean signifies the cutthroat marketing environment that we are in. For companies to thrive, they must ensure that they are marketing their products to consumers and society as a whole. Marketing, in simple terms, means selling products that satisfy consumers. The five different concepts in marketing are

Production Concept

Product Concept

Selling Concept

The holistic concept or the societal concept

Marketing concept

These concepts help us a lot in understanding how the firm operates and what they are targeting.

Societal Concept of Marketing Management

Firms primarily operate to earn revenue. This single-minded approach was not enough for their success, so they diluted their focus on both profits and customer satisfaction. Soon enough, they realized that even this approach was not enough for them to beat their competitors and ensure a loyal customer base. It was the time when they came across the societal concept of marketing management. The societal concept is also known as the human concept or the intelligent consumption concept. This concept focuses on

Revenue for the firm.

Customer satisfaction through the company’s products.

Sustainability for the ecology and the environment.

Birth of a Societal Concept

In the 1960s and 1970s, a lot of firms were found to be abusing ecology and the environment for their success. We saw a lot of companies −

Dumping hazardous waste materials in the nearby lakes and rivers without thinking about the pollution and the effect that it might cause on the community residing beside the riverbed. There were enormous deaths and illnesses because of the unavailability of clean drinking water.

Releasing toxins and harmful gasses in the air without worrying about air pollution, climate change, and the melting of glaciers. This release of toxins led to respiratory diseases in the community living in the nearest proximity and deaths. There were breathing and visual problems around the clock.

Companies also abused their workers to ensure maximum profits. Poor working conditions, underpayment of wages, unpaid overtime, and mental and emotional abuse were common among the factories.

Land dumps by the companies without giving any consideration to the ill effects it might cause to the farming community, the people residing on the land, and others.

These abuses were now no more tolerated by the community. Consumers were members of the community, and it became difficult for them to consume the products or services produced by the company without feeling guilty. Hence the boycott of the company and its products started. This boycott led to the birth of the societal concept of marketing for companies.

A company can easily implement the societal concept of marketing management by producing goods that satisfy the wants of the consumer, are sustainable for the environment, and ensure certain revenue for the company. The company just has to ensure that −

For all the toxins and harmful substances, it is releasing into the environment, there are positive actions taken by the company for the environment. for example, planting and maintaining trees. This will ensure sustainability.

It is helping the community grow through its products and actions. For example, many companies have their own free teaching and skill development programs for youth and children.

It is ensuring that they are limiting the usage of plastic and other harmful materials in the making of the product and others.

Benefits of the Societal Concept of Marketing

It enhances the public image of the company.

It helps the company develop a loyal customer base.

It helps the employees of the company fulfill their social responsibility and helps the company increase employee engagement. This also ensures employee satisfaction.

It gives the company an edge over its competitors and its products.

It increases the community’s preference for the company’s product.

It helps the company in creating products that will solve the issues faced by the people, in short, more relevant and sought-after products.

It impacts both the bottom line and the top line of the company. Communities will prefer companies that are ecologically responsible.

It helps the company survive in the short term by ensuring regular sales.

It helps the company with its future or long-term diversification and expansion plans.

It improves the standard of living in the community.

Trending Examples of Societal Marketing

Toms − Working for the underprivileged. Realization about the fact that not everyone can afford to buy shoes was disturbing for the owner of Tom. He started the societal marketing strategy by saying that the company would give a pair of shoes to the underprivileged for every pair of shoes bought by its customers. The “buy one, give one” marketing strategy was a total hit. Here, the company understood that not everyone has the time to help the underprivileged, irrespective of their willingness to do the same, and targeted them accordingly.

Woodchuck USA, Tentree, Wewood, Enties, Good Seeds apparel, Wave Tribe, Trinity Oaks, Pacific shaving company, prestige decanters, and Baron Fig −all these companies have incorporated sustainability into their selling proposition. These companies plant a tree for every purchase that a customer makes from their shop. This is an amazing proposition for sustainability and helps the company’s marketing as well as its public image.

Sustainability, or the societal concept of marketing, is no longer a luxury that a brand can avoid. It is a way of living. Companies have to think about their survival and long-term success. The societal concept of marketing management is going to ensure the same for them. The societal concept of marketing helps firms earn profit and also helps in societal development and human welfare.

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What Are The 4 A’S Of Marketing Management?

Customers are no longer just a part of the business; they are the king. The business revolves around satisfying the consumers, and hence it is very important for firms to look at the 4As of marketing instead of the 4Ps of marketing. The 4 Ps of marketing help the firm and producer understand what goods they should produce to get the maximum profits. The 4 P’s of marketing are what firms are focused on−

Product – producing high-quality goods that are supposed to be better than the competitors’

Price – determining the price of the goods to maximize profits for the firm while keeping it lower than competitors’ prices

Place – This is to ensure that the high-quality goods produced by the producers are more readily available to the consumers. Firms aim to make their distribution channels stronger than their competitors.

The four A’s of marketing revolve entirely around the business and the producer; in order to satisfy the consumer, businesses must ensure the four P’s of marketing.

The Concept of the “4 A’s” of Marketing

The 4 A’s of marketing are a consumer-oriented approach that helps producers and firms understand the parameters of production from the customers’ perspective. At the end of the day, customers are the ones who use the product, and they only make the purchase, selection, promotion, and distribution decisions.

The 4 A’s of Marketing are −





Acceptability of the Product

A product can always be categorized into three types −

The product is below the expectations of the consumer − This results in dissatisfied consumers. The consumer will never purchase the product, may write bad reviews, lodge complaints, and lead to negative publicity for the product.

The product is just meeting the expectations of the consumer − This results in satisfied consumers. The customer may purchase the product again and will definitely switch in the case of other options. will not speak positively and confidently about the product.

The product exceeds the expectations of the consumer − This results in a delightful customer experience. The consumer is hoping to purchase the product again and is even going to spread positive word of mouth.

Product or service acceptability can be divided into two parts −

Functional acceptability of the product − This factor deals with the features of the product, the benefits of the product, and the product facts. Here, changes are made to the core product to make it more acceptable and desirable for the consumer. For example, when a customer books a hotel room, he is looking for a clean room, a proper hotel bed, and hygienic bathroom facilities. Anything extra than these is considered the additional functional benefits offered by the hotels, and it could be wifi facilities, paid spa facilities, complimentary breakfast, and others. These functional benefits give the company an edge over its competitors. 

Psychological acceptability of the product − This deals with the hedonistic benefits of the product. A product may be excellent in terms of features but provide no hedonic or emotional satisfaction. This generally comes in handy in the case of luxurious brands. For example, in the case of vehicles, an ordinary Tata motor will provide the same benefit to the consumers, but they may choose it over a Rolls-Royce or BMW because of the social status of the brand. Brands here charge consumers for their emotions.

Affordability of the Product or Service

This factor of the marketing mix deals with both the consumer’s ability to pay for the product and their willingness to do so. It can be again divided into two types.

Economical affordability − A consumer may want to purchase everything under the sun, but are they financially sound enough to do so? When targeting or selecting a target market segment, businesses must consider their customers’ economic situation.

Psychological affordability − A consumer will be willing to pay 3–5 times the price of the product if they feel that the product is going to add to their social status or if it is a matter of pride for them. This factor deals with the willingness of the consumer, irrespective of their ability to pay for the product. Again, it is applicable mostly for comfort and luxurious goods.

Accessibility for Consumers

This factor deals with the distribution channel of the company. All the firm’s efforts may go in vain if the products are not accessible to the consumer. Accessibility can be further divided into two parameters−

Customer Convenience − Is the product easily available to the consumer when they are making the purchase decision? This simply means that the product is available where the consumer might look for it, such as the nearest retail store, e-commerce websites, or large supermarkets. A consumer may go through the effort of finding the store for the product only if it is extremely valuable in terms of price or emotional need. Otherwise, they switch without even thinking twice.

Product or Service Availability − This refers to the inventory or stock of the product. Again, consumers would not go through the waiting period unless it was extremely expensive in terms of money or emotions. Otherwise, the customer would grab the most similar product from a different brand.

Awareness about the Product and the Brand

Current customer of the product.

Potential customer of the product.

Awareness Might be Created in Terms of

The features of the product

The benefits derived from the product or service both in terms of objective traits and subjective traits like emotions.

The comparison between the company’s product and the competitor’s product

knowledge about the brand.

Benefits of the 4 A’s of Marketing

Provides the company with a broader approach to marketing.

It helps the company with better resource allocation as they now perfectly understand the consumer and their various purchase factors.

Gives the company a higher return on investment (ROI), as the company is now producing what the market wants and is not just confused with its product love affair or production ego.

It makes the consumer more loyal to the brand as they are fully satisfied and feel valued by the company and its efforts.

It helps the company gain an edge over its competitors as now it is able to deliver more acceptable, affordable, aware, and accessible products to the consumer.

The 4 A’s of marketing are the new marketing approach being followed by the company to sustain itself in the cutthroat marketing environment. This method helps the consumer turn their “red ocean” into a “blue ocean.” After all, the only growth that really matters is growth with others.

What Are The Channels Of Digital Marketing?

With digital marketing becoming crucial for entrepreneurs and companies across all industries, there is never a better time than now for businesses to learn how it works and start rolling out their own programs!

Importance of Channels in Digital Media

In today’s digital world, traditional methods of marketing are becoming outdated and a larger focus is put on the use of modern digital platforms. Digital channels offer improved analytics compared to their offline counterparts, giving marketers the ability to track and measure results in real time. This data can help identify trends in consumer behavior and help target campaigns more effectively.

Digital channels also offer unique value not found with other types of marketing strategies – including SEO (Search Engine Optimization) strategies that drive higher organic traffic, Social Media engagement which increases brand awareness across multiple platforms as well as email campaigns that further engage customers who have already opted into a company’s mailing list.

Efficient Digital Marketing Channels Social Media Marketing

Social media platforms offer businesses the chance to connect with customers in new and innovative ways, allowing users to interact directly with companies, create user reviews and participate in surveys that enable companies to understand their customers’ needs better.

Through content sharing, SEO optimization, and running strategies based on data gathered from analytics tools provided by these networks, marketers can also identify which strategies are working best for them as well as learn about emerging trends among target markets so they can stay ahead of the competition.

All in all, when considering both direct response goals such as conversion rate or return on investment (ROI) along with long-term reputation-building techniques for brand awareness it is easy to see why organizations have increased their budget allotted for either individual or combined campaigns centered around social media marketing activities over other options relying solely upon traditional means of communication.


Additionally, staying active and engaging on social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter could further enhance organic visibility as millions of users access every day looking for relevant information related to products/services they might need. SEO goes hand in hand with digital marketing since optimizing each channel takes expertise – that’s where companies often turn to ask for help from professional agencies like ours specializing in this field.

Email Marketing

Implementing automated emails is also simple, allowing customers to receive content when it’s relevant devouring businesses’ time and resources by sending out mass emails one by one. Reporting capabilities allow marketers to see what’s working and where they can improve their campaigns so they know the most successful strategies for their business in order to maximize their efforts while keeping time frames on point!

PPC Advertising Affiliate Marketing

With effective optimization of your campaigns and ongoing tweaking of targeting options in order for them to reach a large audience interested in what you’re offering. Affiliate marketing gives companies the opportunity for their products or services by providing remuneration for those who refer interested consumers – rewarding those who put in effort without having any financial risk themselves only furthers its success!


Choosing the right digital marketing channel for your needs can be a daunting process. With so many options available – from paid search to website optimization, and beyond – it’s easy to get overwhelmed by all the different tactics out there.

The key is to identify which channel will give you the best return on investment (ROI) while also keeping true to your overall marketing goals. The first step in making an informed decision about which channels are best suited for you is research – gathering as much information as possible on all of them before making any commitments or spending any money.

Understanding The Concept Of Git Index

Introduction to Git Index

GIT is one of the most commonly used distributed version controller DVCS among the programmers because of its dynamic nature and vast tool availability to handle the versions. It is known to be the first-ever feature to be added to Git. Index as the name suggests, like any contents of a book, it also maintains the staged changes or we can say indexes the changes that are sent to stage using git add.

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In git DVCS we have the source code on the server which acts as a central repository but along with that, we have it as a local copy or we can call as a local repository on working machines. So even if there is a failure at the server level we can mirror back the local working copy to the server when it is restored. So basically when we work on a branch, commit our changes, it will send the changes to the local repo. We need to use PUSH to send the changes to the server repo. GIT Index is something that comes in between local repo and working directory and it is the one that decides what needs to be sent to the local repo and in fact, it decides what needs to be sent to the central repo.

Detailed Explanation of GIT Index

Please refer below pic to get a more detailed idea.

Here repository in the sense local repo or local copy. From the above pic below are the inferences:

when we start working on an existing file or create and add a new file and save them then git tracks them and mark them as untracked files. We can clearly see them in the below screenshot. I have totally four files in test_git_tools branch and if I give git status the I can see all the files have been modified state.

If you observe the above screenshot it presents us with two options as shown So, in fact, our git is suggesting that it had tracked the changes in the working directory but it is up to us whether we want to strongly track it by sending it to the staging area by using “git add -u” or discard the changes and leave the tracking by using “git checkout”.

Once we add the file to the staging area than when we apply to commit then the changes that are staged will only go to the local repo. Unstaged changes remain.

Once we have added the content to local repo then we can PUSH to submit the changes to server repo.

Above the sample screenshot which shows that there were two files that were indexed and they were committed. Remaining two files were tracked but unstaged so did not commit. But why do we require staging or indexing? Cant, we just directly send the unstaged changes to local repo?

Yes, we can bypass staging and directly commit our unstaged files to repo but doing like this will actually distort the purpose of a version control system. This may be feasible in small projects or enhancing projects but in a fresh project doing like this can cause cumbersome.

Indexing is one of the most critical stages in the development of a project. When we try to develop a project we basically prepare an algorithm on the coding module and prepare a draft code where we are uncertain about some aspects and needs further evaluation. Also, you may decide to add some extra features, or we may add certain optimizations, etc. In these cases, we don’t want to completely discard the thing we developed. By indexing the developed code we can always track the difference between staged file and unstaged same file and clearly get more ideas on different versions. Let us look at this in the below screenshots. From the above screenshot, we can see all the red marked files are untracked. I will add the file to staging which turns the color indicator to green as shown below.

Now i will add one movie name to the staged file forien_movie_list file and perform git status. It looks like as below:

we can see that we have twp versions of the file orien_movie_list one indexed and other untacked. We have a very useful indexing tool called difftool with which we can track the changes to both versions of the file by configuring it with your git.

Now lets the programmers decided that he does not want to keep the new change and doesn’t want it to be staged. Then instead of git add command he can use checkout to discard the unstaged change.

You can clearly see from above the red modified file has been discarded. This you can validate by looking at the content of the file as well.

You can see from above that the files we indexed (in green) have been added again to the unstaged area. Here I have used HEAD with reset the command which says that the latest content that was added to the staging area to be reset (here I have used four files earlier to index, so they were unchanged (red)).

There is also an ls-files option available with git which will list the files in the index. In index basically, full tree and blob information will be available. So when you add something to the stage then it starts closely monitoring that file. We can see this with –debug command along with ls-files. In the below screenshot, we can see that we have two files in the staging area and two files as unstaged. Now when I gave git ls-files -s it will give all the available blob (four files) inside the tree as shown below. But we have added only two files to the staging area and two can use –debug to validate this.

we can see from the below screenshot which files have been staged by the value of ctime,mtime, dev, etc.

Git Index is the most important area when we deal with Git DVCS. There are plenty of commands and tools available of which I have used some in this article to play with indexing and for a serious developer this nothing short of the boom.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Git Index. Here we discuss the basic concept and detailed explanation of the GIT Index with the help of respective screenshots. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

What Is Project Management Software? What Are Its Benefits?

blog / Project Management What is the Best Project Management Software and What are Their Benefits?

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Project management can be difficult in today’s fast-paced business environment, especially if you’re still relying on manual methods and outdated tools. Fortunately, many project management software solutions are available to help you streamline your workflow, improve collaboration, and increase project efficiency. We look at the best project management software solutions on the market, their key features, and their benefits, and pick the best one for your needs—whether you’re a small business owner, a project manager, or a team leader.

What is Project Management Software?

ALSO READ: What is Project Management and How to Become a Successful PM

Benefits of Project Management Software

Improved efficiency:

Project management software simplifies project planning and execution, making it easier to track progress, identify potential issues, and make necessary changes.

Enhanced collaboration:

It improves team collaboration and productivity by centralizing project information and allowing team members to communicate and collaborate in real time.

Improved time management:

Scheduling and time management can be improved by providing tools for managing tasks, deadlines, and resources.

Improved accountability:

Team members can be held accountable for their assigned tasks and deadlines, making it easier to identify areas for improvement and ensure project completion on time.

Increased transparency: T

eam members, stakeholders, and clients can have more transparency and trust as they have access to project status updates and progress reports.

Cost savings:

It also helps reduce project costs and increases profitability by improving project efficiency and minimizing potential risks.

The 5 Best Project Management Software Solutions

Here are five popular project management software solutions that industry experts and users frequently recommend:


Unique feature: The timeline view in Asana project management software is a unique feature that provides a visual representation of a project’s tasks and their timing. Users can see their project plan at a glance, adjust task timing using the drag-and-drop feature, set milestones to mark key points, and add dependencies between tasks using this feature. As a result, Asana’s Timeline view can assist users in better understanding their project schedule, identifying potential issues, and communicating the project plan to stakeholders; it is a powerful and intuitive way to manage project timelines and ensure project success compared to other project management software.

Trello Basecamp

Basecamp is a web-based project management software that offers tools for task management, project management, and team communication. In essence, it includes features like to-do lists, calendars, and file storage. Basecamp also offers message boards, chat rooms, and direct messages for team collaboration and communication. With a 30-day free trial, Basecamp’s flat pricing model is based on the number of projects and team members using it.

Unique feature: Basecamp project management software is distinguished by its all-in-one approach to project management, which includes a wide range of features and tools in a single platform. In fact, it combines project management tools such as to-do lists, schedules, group chat, document storage, and automated check-ins into a single platform, making it a comprehensive project collaboration tool.


Project management software is a must-have for any organization looking to streamline its project management processes, improve collaboration, and boost project efficiency. Thus, when choosing a project management software, keep in mind your organization’s specific needs and requirements, and the features and pricing plans provided by each software solution. To learn more about project management, you can check out Emeritus’  project management courses in collaboration with the best universities around the globe. 

By Siddhesh Shinde

Write to us at [email protected] 

What Is A Backlink In Digital Marketing?

Backlinks are crucial for search engine optimization (SEO) since browsers utilize them to determine the validity and significance of a webpage. Whenever one webpage connects to the other, it is effectively acknowledging the value and accuracy of the material on the web address.

Remember that not every one of the backlinks is considered equal. Overall, backlinks from authoritative websites are worth far beyond links from fraudulent or poor websites. As an illustration of a web page strategy, connections to external resources are useful. As well as being applied to an image, backlinks may be included as well in the format of anchor text or webpage URLs.

In order to be valuable to consumers and well-received by web pages, backlinks should also be applicable to the information on the website to which they are connected.

Working of Backlinks

Search engines utilize backlinks to evaluate a webpage’s popularity and significance, making them a crucial component of search engine optimization (SEO).

By linking to the next website, one website is effectively approving the accuracy and value of the material on the connected website. Backlinks are seen by search engines as a “Vote of trust” in the website that is being linked to. A web page is more probable to appear first on search engine results pages (SERPs) for appropriate web searches if it has a greater number of high-quality and applicable backlinks.

It’s not like all backlinks are built the same way, it is crucial to remember this. In theory, backlinks from authoritative websites seem to be more beneficial than those from fraudulent or poor domains. In order to benefit consumers and be well-received by search engines, backlinks should also be applicable to the information on the connected website.

Backlinks function by sending a message to search results about the desirability and significance of a website or blog, which could also assist to raise the webpage exposure and search engine ranks.

Why High Search Engine Rankings Are Crucial in Digital Marketing?

Reliability and honesty − Consumers tend to place greater faith in web pages that appear higher in search engine results than it does in the ones that don’t. Having your web page appear at the top of search results may assist with positioning it as a reliable and knowledgeable reference in your sector.

Benefit in the marketplace − If a company webpage is ranked higher than those of your competition in search engine results, you may have an edge. This can assist you to draw in more clients and boost your revenue just because more consumers will view your webpage before they do so for your competition.

In general, obtaining excellent search engine results may assist you in achieving your company objectives, irrespective of whether they involve boosting sales, customer acquisition, or enhancing brand recognition.

What Advantages Do Backlinks Offer?

Better search engine index ranks − Backlinks play a big part in how your business is ranked by search engines. The greater backlinks your business has, the higher it will rank in the search engine outcomes pages since search engines view backlinks as search engine results.

Enhanced number of visitors − Backlinks from trusted websites can promote page views. Your business may receive more visits if a popular website connects to it.

More reputation and authority − Backlinks from reputable sources may boost the reputation and authority of your page in your business or specialty. Search engines and people are informed that your page is a trustworthy resource for data when they see links to it from domains with high authority.

Improved crawling − Backlinks can make it easier for search engines to identify and index the pages located on your website. Links from other websites to your domain can direct search engine crawlers to different pages and information on your domain.

Enhanced brand recognition − Backlinks may also aid in enhancing the brand of your page or company. Even if other web pages link to your website, this could promote recognition of your company and boost interest in your products or offerings.

Is It Considered a Backlink if We Connect to Another Page on a Webpage?

It is incorrect to assume that connecting to a different page within your own webpage counts as a backlink. Links pointing to your page from other web pages are referred to as backlinks.

Nevertheless, internal links are those that go to a webpage on your own domain. Internal links are essential for website navigation and can aid search terms in analyzing the layout and information of your webpage.

Internal links can assist search engines to identify the significance and significance of various sections of your website, even though they aren’t counted as backlinks. Visitors can traverse your webpage and locate the data they need more quickly and simply with the assistance of internal links.

From Where Do We Get Backlink?

You may obtain backlinks to your webpage in a number of ways −

Provide rich sources − One of the greatest strategies to get backlinks is to produce useful, educational, and interesting material. Other web pages are far more likely to connect to the information you create that benefits your intended audience.

Guest publishing − You may get in touch with other blogs in a similar area of expertise and propose to produce a blog article for them. In return, you can add a backlink to your webpage either in the text itself or in the contributor profile.

Broken link − Generating broken links involves identifying broken links on some of the other web pages and offering to rebuild those with connections that connect them to yours.

Establish connections − Connecting with other online marketers and influential people in your segment can help you gain backlinks. Connect out to each other and suggest working together on research work or otherwise contributing.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that obtaining high-quality backlinks requires considerable time and effort which makes it no simple task. The long-term SEO of your webpage might be harmed by fraudulent back linking techniques, thus it’s crucial to prioritize the importance of quality over quantity.

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