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Multiple Sclerosis is a highly debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., the brain and spinal cord.
By affecting how the brain and spinal cord function, it also impacts the ability of the central nervous system to send and receive information from different parts of the body.
This can, therefore, present as a range of consequences in various parts of the body. But since the brain is the focal target of the illness it is important to know how exactly, multiple sclerosis impacts the brain and how this impact looks in the brain as well.Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis
As previously stated, multiple sclerosis first targets the central nervous system which in turn causes a malfunction in various parts of the body. The characteristic symptoms include −
Tingling/pins-and-needles sensations in the body
Numbness or a prickling sensation, particularly in the extremities
Loss of balance
Difficulty in coordination
Brain fog or confusion
Speech problems i.e., aphasia
Difficulty swallowing or dysphagia
Bladder and bowel problems, for example, incontinenceWhat does Multiple Sclerosis Do to the Brain?
Multiple sclerosis causes lesions in the brain and along the spinal cord (what these lesions are exactly, and how they are formed will be explored in the next section).
Lesion formation takes place over a while, as the illness aggravates and declines in phases. New lesions are formed from time to time. However, just the formation of lesions doesn’t necessarily mean that the symptoms will manifest in the patient either.
Research shows that anywhere between 6% to 82% of people diagnosed with MS may have brain lesions that are identified through brain scans or MRIs. Of the people who have brain lesions or spinal cord lesions, only 1/10th of these lesions will actually precipitate a symptom.
However, because these lesions can spread, regular MRI scans are crucial to track their development, and also so the neurologist can later customize your disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) accordingly.
DMTs can be in the form of oral pills, injectables, or infusions – there are about a dozen of these medications. So, while MS can’t be cured, it can be managed by slowing the growth of lesions.Where do Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Occur in the Brain?
Cerebral lesions occur most commonly in diagnosed patients, but they cause the least symptoms, especially during the early phases of the disease. These lesions could be on the frontal, parietal (middle), occipital (back), or temporal (lower) lobes of the cerebrum i.e., the outer part of the cerebrum that forms the grey matter or the cortex.
Usually, these are not large enough to affect the eloquent regions of the brain i.e., the regions associated with speech, vision, language, and motor function; or more normally they don’t occur in these areas.
When the cortical lesions are large, they spread out over different parts of the cerebrum resulting in clinically visible symptoms such as cognitive impairment, mood disorders like bipolar, schizoaffective, and depressive disorders, and aphasia – a problem of jumbled speech, difficulty articulating, drawing and writing.
The problem is that the prevalence of these symptoms across many other illnesses makes them hard to pin down as being a consequence of just MS.
Brain lesions can also occur on the brainstem, which controls motor function and sensory abilities. When the lesions affect the brainstem and the white matter therein, it also affects other parts of the brain and the spinal cord as many nerve pathways that connect different components are located in this region.
In particular brain stem lesions can damage the cranial nerves resulting in different symptoms from MS lesions in other parts of the brain.
These could include facial pain, facial muscle weakness, ear problems like tinnitus or reduced sound tolerance, difficulty sleeping, reduced ability to taste, double visions, spasmodic eye movements, and very rarely, fluctuation in blood pressure and breathing trouble.How are Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Formed in the Brain?
Lesions are a characteristic symptom and indicator of MS, which is first triggered by an outbreak of white blood cells that turn on the body’s own central nervous system and attack nerves.
It could be mediated by a glitch in the immune system or due to a viral infection. Once set off, the white blood cells cause inflammation which gradually erodes the protective myelin sheath of your nerve fibers i.e., axons causing difficulties in transmitting the information.
The damage to the axons presents as the fibers becoming rigid scar tissue which blocks the flow of information between nerves, muscles, and the brain. This stiff scar tissue is called a lesion or plaque, and the formation of many of these is what becomes known as multiple scars i.e., multiple sclerosis.
In addition to destroying myelin, the inflammation also destroys the glial cells that help to insulate nerve cells and repair and restore myelin when it is damaged. Hence, the destruction of glial cells prevents the reconstruction of new myelin and makes the damage worse.
It is only during periods of remission, that the nerve cells have the opportunity to rebuild themselves, but for people with frequent relapses, the scope of restoration is very low.
The most worrying consequence of the destruction of nerve cells and associated grey and white matter is that the brain atrophies or decreases in volume, much faster than the rate associated with normal aging and thus has very serious repercussions for cognitions and other key functions.Conclusion
Living with multiple sclerosis or caring for a family member with this illness can be extremely difficult both physically and mentally. It is important to get pain management, physical therapy, moderate exercise, and time in the sun to reduce stiffness and motor difficulties.
Rehabilitation for speech and writing, adapting your house fixtures for safety and better mobility, and taking medications for depression or muscle relaxants are key to reclaiming different aspects of your life. So is attending a support group or meeting a counselor for emotional help, getting good sleep, keeping your body cool, and eating a balanced diet.
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So you’d like to launch a paid search marketing program.
Or maybe you’ve launched one already, but you’re not sure what elements you might have overlooked.
After all, when people think of paid search, they tend to think of Google Search Ads.
But a comprehensive paid search program will go far beyond that.
In this article, I’ll review the main parts of a complete paid search program, so you can decide what elements you still need to test – and possibly include – in yours.Search Ads
More recently, targeting can include a combination of keywords and other parameters, such as customer match, remarketing, detailed demographics, in-market audiences, and customized audiences.Display Ads
Here’s an example from the Search Engine Journal site:
The GDN consists of more than two million websites, videos, and apps, so it’s too important to ignore when developing your paid search program.YouTube Advertising Discovery Ads Shopping Ads
In our experience, smart shopping campaigns generally perform better than standard shopping campaigns, but this is something you will want to test for yourself.Analytics and Reporting
Let’s not forget that any comprehensive paid search program must also include analytics and reporting. Otherwise, you’re essentially taking a wild guess with every new ad campaign.
You need good metrics to know what’s working — and what’s not — to guide your decision-making.
Fortunately, much of that valuable data is built into Google Ads and Google Analytics (as long as you’ve set up website tracking).
Still, none of that data will do you any good if you don’t use it to optimize and improve your program.
Data Studio is a great tool for creating easy-to-understand graphics if you need to share your metrics and analysis with others.
Other tools that are designed for competitive analysis, such as Semrush and Google Insights, are also very useful.Landing Pages
That journey should include landing pages with targeted content, a strong call to action, relevant images and/or video, and trust signals.Don’t Put Artificial Limits on Your Paid Search Program
Of course, you don’t have to implement all of these elements in your paid search program.
Some simply might not be a good fit for your goals or business – at least for now.
Still, it’s good to be aware of all the possibilities and periodically test them out.
Paid search marketing is dynamic, and things change all the time. Something that didn’t work last month or year might generate great results for you today.
So while search campaigns can be an excellent start to your paid search program, they shouldn’t mark the end of it.
There’s no doubt that Google’s Gmail has established itself as one of the best services for managing emails. The team behind this success has worked day and night to ensure that users have a clean, robust, intuitive and secure platform from which they can easily manage all their virtual correspondence. Recently, according to some newly-leaked info, the app is set for a significant overhaul that will see it incorporate a completely new, modern design.
If you’re a long-time Gmail user as many of us here at MTE are, you’ll know that Gmail’s developers have ensured that their mobile as well as web services are up to scratch. While the mobile apps have been the main focus for the past couple of years, the web service, too, has been modernized to a degree, but apparently, there’s still a lot more to come.
Leaked screenshots and information show how Google may be planning to introduce a new smooth modern approach, removing its current boring tab bar on the left side on the window and replacing it with a drop-down menu. Kind of similar to what Microsoft did with the Windows 8 menus. This feature should help keep menus hidden when not in use and giving an overall feeling of minimalism.
The right-hand side will feature a Hangouts pane, which can also be collapsed/expanded at user convenience. And as far as full-screen is concerned, this look would definitely suit it, and it would be a lot easier for a user to scan over their emails at a glance.
It’s not uncommon for some folks to receive over hundreds of emails daily. Managing them can be a real issue. If left unchecked, they can build up to unmanageable levels. If Google indeed does place this new and improved system in place, which also includes a pin system to replace the current “starring” of important emails, some of these features could make the task of emailing a whole lot less cumbersome.
Shujaa Imran is MakeTechEasier’s resident Mac tutorial writer. He’s currently training to follow his other passion become a commercial pilot. You can check his content out on Youtube
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A molecular imaging study has pinpointed a set of biological markers that could help diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder more accurately, and might even lead to a pharmacological treatment in the future.
The research, published online today in Molecular Psychiatry found that people with PTSD have a greater number of CB1 receptors, cannabinoid protein receptors, and a lower concentration of one of the neurotransmitters that binds to them, anandamide. This provides empirical evidence for the theory that marijuana, which also binds to the cannabinoid system, can help alleviate some of the symptoms of PTSD, although the paper doesn’t recommend it as a treatment option.
Animals studies have found that chronic stress decreases the concentration of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter nicknamed “the bliss molecule” that has a very similar chemical structure to THC. Recent research has suggested that the endocannabinoid system might play a part in working through traumatic memories.
Endocannabinoids bind to two types of receptors throughout the central nervous system. Cannabinoid type 1 receptors, or CB1 receptors, help mediate various processes including mood, appetite and memory. People with PTSD had significantly more of these receptors in their brain compared to the study’s control group, including those who had been exposed to trauma but didn’t develop PTSD.
When the brain identifies too-low levels of anandamide, it increases the number of CB1 receptors in response to ensure that it can grab them all. It’s unclear whether a greater availability of CB1 receptors puts people at risk for PTSD, or if it’s a result of the condition, according to lead author Alexander Neumeister, a professor of psychiatry and radiology at the New York University School of Medicine.
Using brain scans that illuminated CB1 receptors, the study looked at the brains of 60 volunteers, some with PTSD, some with a history of trauma and some with neither. Women had higher levels of CB1 receptors in brain regions associated with fear and anxiety, consistent with the fact that women are much more likely to develop PTSD than men. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’ National Center for PTSD, 10 percent of women develop PTSD, compared to 5 percent of men. Scientists can’t really explain why yet. Neumeister says it could be a biological phenomenon that women have higher levels of CB1 receptors and are therefore at greater risk, but it’s most likely a consequence of trauma.
In general, scientists aren’t sure why some people develop PTSD in response to traumatic events, while others do not, and so it remains a difficult condition to diagnose. “In most cases [experiencing trauma] does not change the life of people in a fundamental way, but there’s an important sub-group out there that when they experience trauma, it changes their life,” Neumeister explains.
Ideally, treatment should begin as soon as possible after a traumatic event. With an objective biological marker, the condition could be more rapidly diagnosed, so that patients could begin receiving treatment sooner. By looking at CB1 receptors, anandamide and cortisol levels, Neumeister and his team were able to correctly classify 85 percent of PTSD cases.
This could also lead to a pharmaceutical treatment for PTSD. “What we have currently doesn’t work. That’s the sad truth,” Neumeister says.
“There’s a consensus among clinicians that existing pharmaceutical treatments such as antidepressant simple do not work,” he said in a press statement. “In fact, we know very well that people with PTSD who use marijuana — a potent cannabinoid — often experience more relief from their symptoms than they do from antidepressants and other psychiatric medications.”
Instead, he’s focusing on developing a medication that could block the degradation of anandamide, balancing the endocannabinoid abnormality in the brains of people with PTSD. He’s still waiting on funding to start clinical trials, although he has completed several animal studies. He says this study shows that the animal models can easily be extended to humans, which isn’t always the case. “The beauty of these results is we could replicate something in living people with PTSD.”
His research has piqued the interest of the Department of Defense, a potential funder with a huge stake in finding effective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, between 7 and 8 percent of the U.S. population will have PTSD at some point in their lives, and as many of 20 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan deal with it.
If Galaxy S9 Active looks like this, it’ll be a YES from me
Your flat Galaxy S9 is nearly here – or is almost certainly about to be. This is the Samsung Galaxy S9 Active, and it was pretty much inevitable. Samsung hasn’t yet officially unveiled this device officially, but we’ve got enough details gathered up in our sack-of-tidbits that we’re ready to roll on a rundown.
The Galaxy S9 Active will probably be a neat little device. It’ll be just what the doctor ordered for a rather specific cross-section of users. That’d be those that didn’t quite want a Galaxy S9, or Galaxy S9 Plus, but did like the idea of a slightly more hearty model of the smaller of the two. It’s the next in a line of Galaxy S Active devices that’ve been released alongside or nearby the standard Galaxy S line for a half decade.
SEE TOO: A slightly better Galaxy S9 that you can’t buy
The first Active device in this line was the Samsung Galaxy S4 Active. That version of the device was made to go underwater. That might not seem like a big deal to us here in 2023 where Galaxy S9, 8, 7 and etcetera already go under water – but it was rather unique back in 2013.
The Galaxy S9 Active was leaked in parts several times over the past few weeks. The image you see above is a composite of elements from the Galaxy S8 Active and the Galaxy S9 – it’s not a leak so much as it is a mockup of what’s likely. Today we’ve got a decent idea of what it’ll come with and what it’ll sport. There aren’t a lot of surprises here – and there shouldn’t be, if this Active is a lot like Active models of the past.
Differences: Galaxy S9 / S9 Active
• Battery: 3000 mah / 4000 mah
• Display: 5.8-inch curved edges / 5.8-inch flat
• Internal Storage: 64GB or 128GB / 64GB
The display on the Galaxy S9 is already pretty easily one of the best displays we’ve experience on any device, ever. Have a peek at our Galaxy S9 Review to read all about it. The only thing I’m not a big fan of is the lack of flatness the Galaxy S9 employs – and the fragility of the device as a result. It’s not that the Galaxy S9 is so breakable that I’d never consider using it, it’s that I don’t need the curved edges, so I don’t really find any added fragility worth the risk.
So it’d be great if Samsung could, you know, go ahead and make another flat-screened Active device with the same greatness instilled in the Galaxy S9. That’d be great.
The Galaxy S9 (not Plus) has a 12-megapixel camera with a dual-aperture setup. It’s able to switch between f1.5 and f2.4 dependent on the sort of photo you’d like to take. The exact same camera setup will almost certainly be present on the Galaxy S9 Active – frontside camera, too.
These devices likely have the same RAM, same processor, and same connectivity, too. That means NFC, Bluetooth 5.0 with A2DP, LE, aptX, GPS, FM radio, USB 3.1 (USB-C). You’ll also find the iris scanner, fingerprint scanner (on the back), accelerometer, gyro, proximity, compass, barometer, heart rate, and SpO2 (heart pulse).
We do not know when this device will be released, but I wouldn’t be surprised to find it popping up at AT&T and T-Mobile within the month of May. Springtime means time to dunk a new Galaxy S9 Active in the drink. This is just a little later than last year, where the Galaxy S8 Active launched on April 11th. That’ll leave plenty of time before the Galaxy Note 9 rolls around.
Introduction Using rm Command in Linux
The rm command is used to delete files in Bash. To delete a single file, you can use the$ rm myfile1.temp
This will delete the file myfile1.temp.
To specifically delete multiple files at once using the rm command followed by the names of the files you want to delete, separated by spaces.$ rm chúng tôi myfile2.temp myfile3.temp
This will delete the files myfile1.temp, myfile2.temp, and myfile3.temp.Wildcards
In addition to specifying the names of the files you want to delete, you can also use wildcards to delete multiple files at once. Wildcards are special characters that match one or more characters in a file name.
The most commonly used wildcard is the * character, which matches zero or more characters in a file name. For example, to delete all .zip files in the current directory, you can use the following command −$ rm *.zip
This will delete all files in the current directory that end in .zip.
You can also use the ? wildcard, which matches any single character. For example, to delete all files in the current or working directory that have a single-digit numeric name, you can use the following command −$ rm ?
This will delete all files in the current or working directory that have a single-digit numeric name, such as 1, 2, 3, etc.Advanced rm Options The -i Flag
By default, the rm command will delete files without prompting for confirmation. However, you can use the -i flag to make rm prompt you for confirmation before deleting each file.$ rm -i chúng tôi myfile2.temp myfile3.temp
This will display a prompt for each file, asking you to confirm that you want to delete it.The -f Flag
Sometimes, you may want to delete a file that is write-protected or otherwise cannot be deleted normally. In these cases, you can use the -f flag to force rm to delete the file.$ rm -f chúng tôi myfile2.temp myfile3.temp
This will delete the files myfile1.temp, myfile1.temp, and myfile1.temp, even if they are write-protected.The -r Flag
The -r flag can be used to delete directories and their contents, recursively. This is useful when you want to delete a directory and all of its subdirectories and files.$ rm -r directory
This will delete the directory directory, as well as all of its subdirectories and files.Be Careful with wildcards
It is important to be careful when using wildcards to delete multiple files, as it is easy to accidentally delete more files than you intended. For example, the command below will delete all visible files in the current directory, regardless of their extension −$ rm *
To avoid accidentally deleting important files, it is a good idea to use the -i flag when using wildcards to delete multiple files. This will prompt you for confirmation before deleting each file, giving you a chance to cancel the operation if necessary.
In some cases, you may need to delete a file that is owned by the root user or that has permissions that prevent you from deleting it as a regular user. In these cases, you can use the sudo command to execute the rm command as the root user.Conclusion
In this article, we have looked at how to delete multiple files at once in Bash on a Linux system. We have seen how to use the rm command with wildcards and the -i, -f, and -r flags to delete multiple files and force the deletion of write-protected files and directories. With these tools at your disposal, you should be able to easily delete multiple files in Bash on your Linux system, while still being careful to avoid deleting important files by accident. So, it is always good to be careful while deleting multiple files at once in Bash on a Linux system.
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